Gene Symbol: Ins1
Description: insulin 1
Alias: insulin-1
Species: rat
Products:     Ins1

Top Publications

  1. Soscia S, Tong M, Xu X, Cohen A, Chu J, Wands J, et al. Chronic gestational exposure to ethanol causes insulin and IGF resistance and impairs acetylcholine homeostasis in the brain. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63:2039-56 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, cerebellar hypoplasia in FAS is mediated by insulin/IGF resistance with attendant impairments in energy production and ACh homeostasis. ..
  2. Ivarsson R, Jing X, Waselle L, Regazzi R, Renstrom E. Myosin 5a controls insulin granule recruitment during late-phase secretion. Traffic. 2005;6:1027-35 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we propose a model where insulin granules are transported through the actin network via both myosin 5a-mediated transport and via passive diffusion, with the former playing the major role during stimulatory conditions. ..
  3. Rucinski M, Nowak K, Chmielewska J, Ziolkowska A, Malendowicz L. Neuropeptide W exerts a potent suppressive effect on blood leptin and insulin concentrations in the rat. Int J Mol Med. 2007;19:401-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, the results suggest that NPW but not NPB exerts a potent suppressive effect on blood leptin concentrations in the rat, and this mechanism may be involved in NPW regulation of energy homeostasis. ..
  4. Kemp D, Habener J. Synergistic effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-stimulated insulin secretion and gene transcription in INS-1 cells: characterization and implications. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002;64:689-97 pubmed
    ..Rat insulin 1 (rINS1) promoter activity appeared to be augmented in a cAMP-response element (CRE)-dependent manner as the ..
  5. Le Stunff C, Fallin D, Schork N, Bougneres P. The insulin gene VNTR is associated with fasting insulin levels and development of juvenile obesity. Nat Genet. 2000;26:444-6 pubmed
    ..Young obese patients homozygous for class I VNTR alleles secrete more insulin than those with other genotypes. ..
  6. Kong Y, Shen Y, Ni J, Shao D, Miao N, Xu J, et al. Insulin deficiency induces rat renal mesangial cell dysfunction via activation of IGF-1/IGF-1R pathway. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2016;37:217-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Insulin deficiency increases the expression of IGF-1 and IGF-1R in renal MCs and the kidney of diabetic rats, which contributes to the development of diabetic nephropathy. ..
  7. Grunblatt E, Salkovic Petrisic M, Osmanovic J, Riederer P, Hoyer S. Brain insulin system dysfunction in streptozotocin intracerebroventricularly treated rats generates hyperphosphorylated tau protein. J Neurochem. 2007;101:757-70 pubmed
    ..Brain insulin system dysfunction is discussed as possible pathological core in the generation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein as a morphological marker of sporadic Alzheimer's disease. ..
  8. Patarrão R, Lautt W, Macedo M. Acute glucagon induces postprandial peripheral insulin resistance. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0127221 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the glucagon-cAMP-GSH axis is a potential therapeutic target to address insulin resistance in pathological conditions. ..
  9. Hah J, Ryu J, Lee W, Kim B, Lachaal M, Spangler R, et al. Transient changes in four GLUT4 compartments in rat adipocytes during the transition, insulin-stimulated to basal: implications for the GLUT4 trafficking pathway. Biochemistry. 2002;41:14364-71 pubmed
    ..Okadaic acid-induced GLUT4 recruitment is accompanied by modulation of the rate coefficients linking individual endosomal GLUT4 compartments, further demonstrating a significant role of the endosomal pathways in GLUT4 exocytosis. ..

More Information


  1. Arias A, Vélez Granell C, Mayer G, Bendayan M. Colocalization of chaperone Cpn60, proinsulin and convertase PC1 within immature secretory granules of insulin-secreting cells suggests a role for Cpn60 in insulin processing. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 11):2075-83 pubmed
  2. Damdindorj B, Dezaki K, Kurashina T, Sone H, Rita R, Kakei M, et al. Exogenous and endogenous ghrelin counteracts GLP-1 action to stimulate cAMP signaling and insulin secretion in islet ?-cells. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:2555-62 pubmed publisher
  3. Lu C, Zhu W, Shen C, Gao W. Green tea polyphenols reduce body weight in rats by modulating obesity-related genes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38332 pubmed publisher
    ..changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1); 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1?, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort); and 2 genes that relate to energy expenditure (Adcyap1r1 and Adrb1)...
  4. Torok D, Patel N, Jebailey L, Thong F, Randhawa V, Klip A, et al. Insulin but not PDGF relies on actin remodeling and on VAMP2 for GLUT4 translocation in myoblasts. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:5447-55 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that insulin and PDGF rely differently on the actin cytoskeleton and on tetanus-toxin-sensitive VAMPs for mobilizing GLUT4. ..
  5. Romeo R, Karatsoreos I, Ali F, McEwen B. The effects of acute stress and pubertal development on metabolic hormones in the rat. Stress. 2007;10:101-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, though stage of development significantly affects the levels of peripheral metabolic hormones such as insulin, T4 and T3, acute stress does not appreciably influence their secretion before or after puberty. ..
  6. Cordell B, Bell G, Tischer E, DeNoto F, Ullrich A, Pictet R, et al. Isolation and characterization of a cloned rat insulin gene. Cell. 1979;18:533-43 pubmed
  7. Youngren J. Regulation of insulin receptor function. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007;64:873-91 pubmed
    ..The impact of these processes on the conformational changes and phosphorylation events required for full signaling activity, as well as the role of these mechanisms in human disease, is reviewed in this article. ..
  8. Denko C, Boja B, Moskowitz R. Growth promoting peptides in osteoarthritis: insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth hormone. J Rheumatol. 1990;17:1217-21 pubmed
    ..Our findings support a role for these peptides in the pathophysiology of OA. ..
  9. Semplici F, Vaxillaire M, Fogarty S, Semache M, Bonnefond A, Fontes G, et al. Human mutation within Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain-containing protein kinase (PASK) causes basal insulin hypersecretion. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:44005-14 pubmed publisher
    ..5-fold increase in insulin release at low glucose. In summary, we have characterized a rare mutation (p.G1117E) in the PASK gene from a young-onset diabetes family, which modulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. ..
  10. Lippl F, Kircher F, Erdmann J, Allescher H, Schusdziarra V. Effect of GIP, GLP-1, insulin and gastrin on ghrelin release in the isolated rat stomach. Regul Pept. 2004;119:93-8 pubmed
    ..Because protein-rich meals do not effectively stimulate GIP release, other as yet unknown intestinal factors must be responsible for protein-induced stimulation of ghrelin release. ..
  11. Caporarello N, Salmeri M, Scalia M, Motta C, Parrino C, Frittitta L, et al. Role of cytosolic and calcium independent phospholipases A(2) in insulin secretion impairment of INS-1E cells infected by S. aureus. FEBS Lett. 2015;589:3969-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, insulin secretion in infected cells could be restored using specific siRNAs against iPLA2 isoform and specific COX-2 inhibitor. ..
  12. Wicksteed B, Alarcon C, Briaud I, Lingohr M, Rhodes C. Glucose-induced translational control of proinsulin biosynthesis is proportional to preproinsulin mRNA levels in islet beta-cells but not regulated via a positive feedback of secreted insulin. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:42080-90 pubmed
  13. Majumdar S, Genders A, Inyard A, Frison V, Barrett E. Insulin entry into muscle involves a saturable process in the vascular endothelium. Diabetologia. 2012;55:450-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Current findings, together with other recent reports, suggest that trans-endothelial insulin transport may be an important site at which muscle insulin action is modulated in clinical and pathological settings. ..
  14. Alkhateeb H, Chabowski A, Glatz J, Luiken J, Bonen A. Two phases of palmitate-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle: impaired GLUT4 translocation is followed by a reduced GLUT4 intrinsic activity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293:E783-93 pubmed
  15. Guest P, Abdel Halim S, Gross D, Clark A, Poitout V, Amaria R, et al. Proinsulin processing in the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rat. J Endocrinol. 2002;175:637-47 pubmed
    ..Circulating insulin immunoreactivity in both Wistar and GK rats was predominantly insulin 1 and 2 in the expected ratios with no (pro)insulin evident...
  16. Naslund E, Skogar S, Efendic S, Hellstrom P. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue LY315902: effect on intestinal motility and release of insulin and somatostatin. Regul Pept. 2002;106:89-95 pubmed
    ..The effect of LY315902 on motor control is mediated through the GLP-1 receptor and seems partly dependent on the L-arginine/NO pathway. ..
  17. Irani B, Dunn Meynell A, Levin B. Altered hypothalamic leptin, insulin, and melanocortin binding associated with moderate-fat diet and predisposition to obesity. Endocrinology. 2007;148:310-6 pubmed
    ..These results corroborate our previous findings demonstrating a preexisting decrease in DIO hypothalamic leptin and insulin signaling and demonstrate that HE diet intake reduces hypothalamic melanocortin and hippocampal insulin binding. ..
  18. Sun J, Jin T. Both Wnt and mTOR signaling pathways are involved in insulin-stimulated proto-oncogene expression in intestinal cells. Cell Signal. 2008;20:219-29 pubmed
    ..Our observations support the existence of crosstalk between insulin and Wnt signaling pathways, and suggest that the crosstalk involves a PKB-independent mechanism. ..
  19. Arden C, Hampson L, Huang G, Shaw J, Aldibbiat A, Holliman G, et al. A role for PFK-2/FBPase-2, as distinct from fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, in regulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. Biochem J. 2008;411:41-51 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that PFK-2/FBPase-2 protein rather than its product fructose 2,6-P(2) is the over-riding determinant of glucose-induced insulin secretion through regulation of glucokinase activity or subcellular targeting. ..
  20. Ribaux P, Gjinovci A, Sadowski H, Iynedjian P. Discrimination between signaling pathways in regulation of specific gene expression by insulin and growth hormone in hepatocytes. Endocrinology. 2002;143:3766-72 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the current results show that signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 activation is neither necessary nor sufficient for the insulin-dependent induction of hepatic glucokinase. ..
  21. Nozaki T, Ohura K. Regulation of miRNA during direct reprogramming of dental pulp cells to insulin-producing cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;444:195-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This potential ability for direct reprogramming of dental pulp cells shows promise for clinically relevant tissue engineering materials. ..
  22. Canabal D, Song Z, Potian J, Beuve A, McArdle J, Routh V. Glucose, insulin, and leptin signaling pathways modulate nitric oxide synthesis in glucose-inhibited neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R1418-28 pubmed
    ..Finally, VMH neurons express soluble guanylyl cyclase, a downstream mediator of NO signaling. Thus NO may mediate, in part, glucose, leptin, and insulin signaling in VMH glucose-sensing neurons. ..
  23. Rebolledo A, Milesi V, Raingo J, Gomez Alvis A, Rinaldi G, Grassi de Gende A. Insulin preincubation effects on rat vessel contractile responses: role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Endothelium. 2001;8:277-82 pubmed
    ..Since 30 microM cheleritrine abolished insulin-induced acceleration of ET1 contractions, we propose that the hormone might enhance a signal pathway related to PKC in order to produce a faster Ca2+ release from the SR. ..
  24. Rebolledo A, Rinaldi G, Milesi V, Gomez Alvis A, Grassi de Gende A. Insulin preincubation effects on rat vessel contractile responses: role of the endothelium. Endothelium. 2001;8:269-76 pubmed
    ..In summary, the present results suggest that endothelial factors are involved in both the vasoconstrictor and vasodilator effects of insulin on rat vessels. ..
  25. Erion D, Yonemitsu S, Nie Y, Nagai Y, Gillum M, Hsiao J, et al. SirT1 knockdown in liver decreases basal hepatic glucose production and increases hepatic insulin responsiveness in diabetic rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11288-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that inhibition of hepatic SirT1 may be an attractive approach for treatment of T2DM. ..
  26. Chatani E, Imamura H, Yamamoto N, Kato M. Stepwise organization of the ?-structure identifies key regions essential for the propagation and cytotoxicity of insulin amyloid fibrils. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:10399-410 pubmed publisher
  27. Davidowa H, Ziska T, Plagemann A. GABAA receptor antagonists prevent abnormalities in leptin, insulin and amylin actions on paraventricular hypothalamic neurons of overweight rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:1248-54 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, changes in neuronal wiring with GABAergic interneurons seem to contribute to a persistently reduced negative feedback of adiposity signals in early postnatally overfed rats. ..
  28. Lomedico P, Rosenthal N, Kolodner R, Efstratiadis A, Gilbert W. The structure of rat preproinsulin genes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1980;343:425-32 pubmed
    ..We have identified nuclear RNA molecules larger than preproinsulin mRNA which contain the transcribed intronic sequences. These molecules represent a new precursor in insulin biosynthesis. ..
  29. Reynolds T, Bodine S, Lawrence J. Control of Ser2448 phosphorylation in the mammalian target of rapamycin by insulin and skeletal muscle load. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:17657-62 pubmed
  30. Markussen J, Sundby F. Rat-proinsulin C-peptides. Amino-acid sequences. Eur J Biochem. 1972;25:153-62 pubmed
  31. Pagano C, Dorigo A, Nisoli E, Tonello C, Calcagno A, Tami V, et al. Role of insulin and free fatty acids in the regulation of ob gene expression and plasma leptin in normal rats. Obes Res. 2004;12:2062-9 pubmed
    ..These data confirm a major role for insulin in the regulation of leptin secretion from rat adipose tissue and support the hypothesis that leptin secretion is coupled to net triglyceride synthesis in adipose tissue. ..
  32. Kelpe C, Moore P, Parazzoli S, Wicksteed B, Rhodes C, Poitout V. Palmitate inhibition of insulin gene expression is mediated at the transcriptional level via ceramide synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:30015-21 pubmed
    ..We conclude that prolonged exposure to elevated levels of palmitate affects glucose-stimulated insulin gene expression via transcriptional mechanisms and ceramide synthesis. ..
  33. Reinehr R, Sommerfeld A, Haussinger D. Insulin induces swelling-dependent activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in rat liver. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:25904-12 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that insulin- or hypoosmolarity-induced hepatocyte swelling triggers an integrin- and c-Src kinase-dependent EGFR activation, which may explain the proliferative effects of insulin. ..
  34. Leyendecker M, Korsten P, Reinehr R, Speckmann B, Schmoll D, Scherbaum W, et al. Ceruloplasmin expression in rat liver cells is attenuated by insulin: role of FoxO transcription factors. Horm Metab Res. 2011;43:268-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In line with its insulin-mimetic effects on cultured cells, Cu (2+) imitated the effect of insulin on CP expression and caused a downregulation of CP mRNA levels in rat hepatoma cells. ..
  35. Kim D, Kim J, Koh M, Kim Y, Lee J, Chanda D, et al. Estrogen-related receptor ? (ERR?) is a novel transcriptional regulator of phosphatidic acid phosphatase, LIPIN1, and inhibits hepatic insulin signaling. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:38035-42 pubmed publisher
  36. Azar A, Brooks V. Impaired baroreflex gain during pregnancy in conscious rats: role of brain insulin. Hypertension. 2011;57:283-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). These data support the hypothesis that brain insulin is required to support optimal baroreflex function and that a decrease in brain insulin contributes to the fall in baroreflex gain during pregnancy. ..
  37. Weksler Zangen S, Aharon Hananel G, Mantzur C, Aouizerat T, Gurgul Convey E, Raz I, et al. IL-1? hampers glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in Cohen diabetic rat islets through mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase inhibition by nitric oxide. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;306:E648-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that islet COX activity must be maintained above a critical threshold to sustain adequate GSIS with exposure to low-copper HSD. ..
  38. Ishihara K, Haywood S, Daphna Iken D, Puente E, Fisher S. Brain insulin infusion does not augment the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia or glucoprivation. Metabolism. 2009;58:812-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it is proposed that the previously noted acute actions of insulin to augment the sympathoadrenal response to hypoglycemia are likely mediated via mechanisms exterior to the central nervous system. ..
  39. Li G, Ali I, Currie R. Insulin-induced myocardial protection in isolated ischemic rat hearts requires p38 MAPK phosphorylation of Hsp27. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294:H74-87 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, insulin induces an apparent rapid phosphorylation of Hsp27 that is associated with improved functional recovery after ischemia-reperfusion injury. ..
  40. Hegarty B, Bobard A, Hainault I, Ferre P, Bossard P, Foufelle F. Distinct roles of insulin and liver X receptor in the induction and cleavage of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:791-6 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show through experiments in suckling mice that this acute action of insulin to stimulate the proteolytic processing of SREBP-1c is functional in vivo. ..
  41. Hajduch E, Litherland G, Turban S, Brot Laroche E, Hundal H. Insulin regulates the expression of the GLUT5 transporter in L6 skeletal muscle cells. FEBS Lett. 2003;549:77-82 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that insulin is capable of increasing the abundance and functional activity of GLUT5 in skeletal muscle cells and that this is most likely mediated via activation of the GLUT5 promoter. ..
  42. Harmancey R, Senard J, Rouet P, Pathak A, Smih F. Adrenomedullin inhibits adipogenesis under transcriptional control of insulin. Diabetes. 2007;56:553-63 pubmed
    ..These findings provide new insight into fat mass development and the relationship between obesity and elevated circulating adrenomedullin levels in diabetic patients. ..
  43. Schattenberg J, Wang Y, Singh R, Rigoli R, Czaja M. Hepatocyte CYP2E1 overexpression and steatohepatitis lead to impaired hepatic insulin signaling. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9887-94 pubmed
  44. Egido E, Rodriguez Gallardo J, Silvestre R, Marco J. Inhibitory effect of ghrelin on insulin and pancreatic somatostatin secretion. Eur J Endocrinol. 2002;146:241-4 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, the inhibition of pancreatic somatostatin release by ghrelin suggests a blocking effect of this hormone on the widely distributed D-cell population. ..
  45. Tager H, Steiner D. Primary structures of the proinsulin connecting peptides of the rat and the horse. J Biol Chem. 1972;247:7936-40 pubmed
  46. Zhang L, Nosak C, Sollazzo P, Odisho T, Volchuk A. IRE1 inhibition perturbs the unfolded protein response in a pancreatic ?-cell line expressing mutant proinsulin, but does not sensitize the cells to apoptosis. BMC Cell Biol. 2014;15:29 pubmed publisher
    ..Although maximal induction of most UPR genes requires IRE1, inhibition of IRE1 does not affect ERAD of misfolded proinsulin or predispose pancreatic ?-cells expressing misfolded proinsulin to chronic ER stress-induced apoptosis. ..
  47. Zhang F, Zhang Q, Tengholm A, Sjoholm A. Involvement of JAK2 and Src kinase tyrosine phosphorylation in human growth hormone-stimulated increases in cytosolic free Ca2+ and insulin secretion. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;291:C466-75 pubmed
    ..Our study indicates that hGH stimulates rise in [Ca(2+)](i) and insulin secretion mainly through activation of the prolactin receptor and JAK2 and Src kinases in rat insulin-secreting cells. ..
  48. Panguluri S, Kuwabara N, Kang Y, Cooper N, Lundy R. Conditioned taste aversion dependent regulation of amygdala gene expression. Physiol Behav. 2012;105:996-1006 pubmed publisher
    ..We were able to demonstrate directionally consistent changes in protein level for 3 of these genes; insulin 1, oxytocin, and major histocompatibility complex class I-C...
  49. Ullrich A, Shine J, Chirgwin J, Pictet R, Tischer E, Rutter W, et al. Rat insulin genes: construction of plasmids containing the coding sequences. Science. 1977;196:1313-9 pubmed
    ..A fourth plasmid contains sequences derived from the A chain region of rat preproinsulin II. ..
  50. Spaczynski R, Tilly J, Mansour A, Duleba A. Insulin and insulin-like growth factors inhibit and luteinizing hormone augments ovarian theca-interstitial cell apoptosis. Mol Hum Reprod. 2005;11:319-24 pubmed
    ..Moreover, excessive levels of insulin and free IGFs may lead to T-I cell hyperplasia characteristic of conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome. ..
  51. Huang H, Lu P, Lo W, Lin C, Hsiao M, Tseng C. In situ Akt phosphorylation in the nucleus tractus solitarii is involved in central control of blood pressure and heart rate. Circulation. 2004;110:2476-83 pubmed
    ..Take together, these results suggest that the insulin-PI3K-Akt-NOS signaling pathway may play a significant role in central cardiovascular regulation. ..
  52. Saengsirisuwan V, Perez F, Sloniger J, Maier T, Henriksen E. Interactions of exercise training and alpha-lipoic acid on insulin signaling in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287:E529-36 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the improvements of insulin action in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle after R-ALA or ET, alone and in combination, were associated with increases in IRS-1 protein expression and IRS-1 associated with p85. ..
  53. Villa Komaroff L, Efstratiadis A, Broome S, Lomedico P, Tizard R, Naber S, et al. A bacterial clone synthesizing proinsulin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978;75:3727-31 pubmed
    ..The DNA sequence of this plasmid shows that the insulin region is read in phase; a stretch of six glycine residues connects the alanine at position 182 of penicillinase to the fourth amino acid, glutamine, of rat proinsulin. ..