Gene Symbol: Inhba
Description: inhibin beta A subunit
Alias: inhibin beta A chain, activin A, activin beta-A chain, inhibin beta-A
Species: rat
Products:     Inhba

Top Publications

  1. Becker J, Hertel M, Markmann A, Shahin M, Werner S, Domschke W, et al. Dynamics and localization of activin A expression in rat gastric ulcers. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2003;38:260-7 pubmed
    b>Activin A, the homodimer of the activin/inhibin betaA subunit, has been shown to participate in cutaneous wound healing. In this study we intended to determine its part in gastric ulceration...
  2. Ciarmela P, Wiater E, Vale W. Activin-A in myometrium: characterization of the actions on myometrial cells. Endocrinology. 2008;149:2506-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, myometrial cells are activin sensitive, and activin-A can regulate myometrial cell functions. ..
  3. Yeh J, Kim B. Increasing blunting of inhibin responses to dynamic ovarian challenge is associated with reproductive aging in the rat. Reprod Sci. 2007;14:10-9 pubmed
    ..ovarian lysates were consistent with the serum inhibin level results and revealed that ovarian inhibin alpha, inhibin beta A, and inhibin beta B subunit levels in adult ovaries were elevated after ovarian stimulation but not in the ..
  4. Maeshima A, Mishima K, Yamashita S, Nakasatomi M, Miya M, Sakurai N, et al. Follistatin, an activin antagonist, ameliorates renal interstitial fibrosis in a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:376191 pubmed publisher
    Activin, a member of the TGF-? superfamily, regulates cell growth and differentiation in various cell types. Activin A acts as a negative regulator of renal development as well as tubular regeneration after renal injury...
  5. Gaedeke J, Boehler T, Budde K, Neumayer H, Peters H. Glomerular activin A overexpression is linked to fibrosis in anti-Thy1 glomerulonephritis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005;20:319-28 pubmed
    b>Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of proteins, shares many biological features with the pro-fibrotic cytokine TGF-beta1, which is primarily responsible for the accumulation of extracellular ..
  6. Hashimoto O, Yamato K, Koseki T, Ohguchi M, Ishisaki A, Shoji H, et al. The role of activin type I receptors in activin A-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in mouse B-cell hybridoma cells. Cell Signal. 1998;10:743-9 pubmed
    ..Over-expression of ActRI suppressed activin A-induced cell-cycle arrest in the G1 phase caused by inhibition of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation through ..
  7. Foster J, Puchowicz M, McIntyre D, Herkenham M. Activin mRNA induced during amygdala kindling shows a spatiotemporal progression that tracks the spread of seizures. J Comp Neurol. 2004;476:91-102 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that activin and BDNF transcriptional activities accurately mark excitatory neurons participating in seizure-induced synaptic alterations and may contribute to the enduring changes that underlie the kindled state. ..
  8. Brown C, Li L, Houston Hawkins D, Matzuk M. Activins are critical modulators of growth and survival. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:2404-17 pubmed
    Activins betaA and betaB (encoded by Inhba and Inhbb genes, respectively) are related members of the TGF-beta superfamily...
  9. Hockl P, Sorianello E, Chamson Reig A, Ballerini G, Campo S, Groome N, et al. Gonadotropins and inhibins along the development of a luteinized rat ovarian tumor. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2003;203:137-46 pubmed

More Information


  1. Zheng W, Jimenez Linan M, Rubin B, Halvorson L. Anterior pituitary gene expression with reproductive aging in the female rat. Biol Reprod. 2007;76:1091-102 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, steroid-induced regulation of these genes was lost in the MA animals. Regulation of the Nr5a2, Inhba, and Inhbb transcripts was also limited to the young animals...
  2. Brown C, Houston Hawkins D, Woodruff T, Matzuk M. Insertion of Inhbb into the Inhba locus rescues the Inhba-null phenotype and reveals new activin functions. Nat Genet. 2000;25:453-7 pubmed
    The activins (dimers of betaA or betaB subunits, encoded by the genes Inhba and Inhbb, respectively) are TGF-beta superfamily members that have roles in reproduction and development...
  3. Ferreira M, Cavallo I, Florio P, Petraglia F, Reis F. Activin betaA subunit, follistatin and follistatin-like 3 are expressed in the endometrium of ovariectomized rats and regulated by estrogen replacement. J Mol Histol. 2008;39:535-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Activin A is a growth factor expressed in the endometrium, where it modulates tissue remodeling and enhances decidualization...
  4. Mathews L, Vale W. Expression cloning of an activin receptor, a predicted transmembrane serine kinase. Cell. 1991;65:973-82 pubmed
    ..were cloned from AtT20 mouse corticotropic cells by screening COS cell transfectants for binding of 125I-activin A. The cDNAs code for a protein of 494 amino acids comprising a ligand-binding extracellular domain, a single ..
  5. Pawlowski J, Taylor D, Valentine M, Hail M, Ferrer P, Kowala M, et al. Stimulation of activin A expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells by thrombin and angiotensin II correlates with neointimal formation in vivo. J Clin Invest. 1997;100:639-48 pubmed
    ..After purification from RASM cell-conditioned medium, amino acid sequence analysis identified the protein as activin A, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily...
  6. Nicholls P, Harrison C, Rainczuk K, Wayne Vogl A, Stanton P. Retinoic acid promotes Sertoli cell differentiation and antagonises activin-induced proliferation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;377:33-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This study implicates retinoid signalling in the differentiation of both somatic and germ cells in the testis at puberty. ..
  7. Imai M, Yamoto M, Otani H, Nakano R. Cytokine modulation of inhibin secretion in cultured rat granulosa cells. J Endocrinol. 1996;151:449-57 pubmed
    ..The present observations suggest that TNF alpha and IL-1 beta inhibit gonadotrophin-stimulated inhibin production by cultured rat granulosa cells. ..
  8. Vänttinen T, Kuulasmaa T, Liu J, Voutilainen R. Expression of activin/inhibin receptor and binding protein genes and regulation of activin/inhibin peptide secretion in human adrenocortical cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:4257-63 pubmed
    ..Cultured cells secreted activin A and inhibin A/B as determined by specific ELISAs. ACTH stimulated inhibin A/B secretion in fetal (1.8- and 1...
  9. Andreone L, Velásquez E, Abramovich D, Ambao V, Loreti N, Croxatto H, et al. Regulation of inhibin/activin expression in rat early antral follicles. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;309:48-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of steroidogenic substrates and FSH on steroid, inhibin A and B, Pro-alphaC and activin A production was evaluated. Androsterone was the predominant steroid produced by EAF...
  10. Mylonas I, Makovitzky J, Hoeing A, Richter D, Vogl J, Schulze S, et al. Inhibin/activin subunits beta-A (-betaA) and beta-B (-betaB) are differentially localised in normal, hyperplastic and malignant human endometrial tissue. Acta Histochem. 2006;108:1-11 pubmed
    ..Hyperplastic tissue labelled more intensely than EC for the presence of INH-betaA and -betaB, suggesting a substantial function in endometrial pathogenesis and an important role in endometrial carcinogenesis. ..
  11. Grusch M, Drucker C, Peter Vörösmarty B, Erlach N, Lackner A, Losert A, et al. Deregulation of the activin/follistatin system in hepatocarcinogenesis. J Hepatol. 2006;45:673-80 pubmed
    ..In addition, the effects of follistatin and activin A on DNA synthesis of normal as well as preneoplastic hepatocytes and hepatoma cells were analysed...
  12. Winnall W, Okuma Y, Saito K, Muir J, Hedger M. Regulation of interleukin 1alpha, activin and inhibin by lipopolysaccharide in Sertoli cells from prepubertal rats. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;307:169-75 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide increased the production of interleukin 1alpha and activin A, and reduced production of inhibin B, in Sertoli cells from immature male rats measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
  13. Cossigny D, Findlay J, Drummond A. The effects of FSH and activin A on follicle development in vitro. Reproduction. 2012;143:221-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Ovarian follicular growth was investigated in 10-day cultures of day 4 postnatal whole ovaries treated with activin A (ActA; 50?ng/ml), with or without FSH (100?ng/ml) in vitro...
  14. Pangas S, Jorgez C, Tran M, Agno J, Li X, Brown C, et al. Intraovarian activins are required for female fertility. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:2458-71 pubmed
    ..Thus, in contrast to the known tumor suppressor role of activins in some tissues, our data indicate that activin betaA and betaB function redundantly in a growth stimulatory pathway in the mammalian ovary. ..
  15. Paulusma C, Van der Kruijssen C, van den Eijnden van Raaij A. Localization of activin subunits in early murine development determined by subunit-specific antibodies. J Immunol Methods. 1994;169:143-52 pubmed
    ..Both antibodies recognized specifically activin A and activin B in different immunological assays including ELISA and immunoblotting...
  16. Yndestad A, Ueland T, Øie E, Florholmen G, Halvorsen B, Attramadal H, et al. Elevated levels of activin A in heart failure: potential role in myocardial remodeling. Circulation. 2004;109:1379-85 pubmed
    ..cDNA array study examining peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HF patients, we hypothesized a role for activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily, in the pathogenesis of HF...
  17. Buzzard J, Loveland K, O Bryan M, O Connor A, Bakker M, Hayashi T, et al. Changes in circulating and testicular levels of inhibin A and B and activin A during postnatal development in the rat. Endocrinology. 2004;145:3532-41 pubmed
    ..subunits by Northern analysis and in situ hybridization and serum and testicular levels of inhibins A and B and activin A by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) during postnatal development in the rat...
  18. Banz C, Münchow B, Diedrich K. Bridge-1 is expressed in human granulosa cells and is involved in the activin A signaling cascade. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:1349-52 pubmed publisher
    The present study investigates the expression of the coactivator Bridge-1 in the human ovary and its role in activin A signaling in the human granulosa cell line HGL-5...
  19. Thompson T, Lerch T, Cook R, Woodruff T, Jardetzky T. The structure of the follistatin:activin complex reveals antagonism of both type I and type II receptor binding. Dev Cell. 2005;9:535-43 pubmed
    ..Here we report the structure of activin A, a TGF-beta ligand, bound to the high-affinity antagonist follistatin...
  20. Petraglia F, De Vita D, Gallinelli A, Aguzzoli L, Genazzani A, Romero R, et al. Abnormal concentration of maternal serum activin-A in gestational diseases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995;80:558-61 pubmed
    ..Hypersecretion of activin-A is also shown in same patients with gestation diabetes; this reverts to normal after insulin treatment. ..
  21. Tul N, Pusenjak S, Osredkar J, Spencer K, Novak Antolic Z. Predicting complications of pregnancy with first-trimester maternal serum free-betahCG, PAPP-A and inhibin-A. Prenat Diagn. 2003;23:990-6 pubmed
    ..High inhibin-A is associated with preterm delivery before 34 weeks. Feto-placental products in the first trimester do not prove to be useful as a screening tool for predicting pregnancy complications. ..
  22. Kon N, Hirota T, Kawamoto T, Kato Y, Tsubota T, Fukada Y. Activation of TGF-beta/activin signalling resets the circadian clock through rapid induction of Dec1 transcripts. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:1463-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that ALK-SMAD3-Dec1 signalling provides an input pathway in the mammalian molecular clock. ..
  23. Woodruff T, Meunier H, Jones P, Hsueh A, Mayo K. Rat inhibin: molecular cloning of alpha- and beta-subunit complementary deoxyribonucleic acids and expression in the ovary. Mol Endocrinol. 1987;1:561-8 pubmed
    ..Hybridization in situ to rat ovarian tissue demonstrates that both the alpha-inhibin and beta A-inhibin mRNAs are specifically expressed in granulosa cells of the developing follicles. ..
  24. Yoon S, Wills A, Chuong E, Gupta R, Baker J. HEB and E2A function as SMAD/FOXH1 cofactors. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1654-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, E proteins are novel Nodal signaling cofactors that associate with SMAD2/3 and FOXH1 and are necessary for mesendoderm differentiation. ..
  25. Kupershmidt L, Amit T, Bar Am O, Youdim M, Blumenfeld Z. The neuroprotective effect of Activin A and B: implication for neurodegenerative diseases. J Neurochem. 2007;103:962-71 pubmed
    ..This study examined the neuroprotective effect of both Activin A and B in serum withdrawal and oxidative stress apoptotic cellular models and investigated the expression of pro- ..
  26. Menthena A, Koehler C, Sandhu J, Yovchev M, Hurston E, Shafritz D, et al. Activin A, p15INK4b signaling, and cell competition promote stem/progenitor cell repopulation of livers in aging rats. Gastroenterology. 2011;140:1009-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of p15INK4b in cultured hepatocytes was up-regulated by activin A, which increased in liver during aging...
  27. Nishihara T, Okahashi N, Ueda N. Activin A induces apoptotic cell death. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;197:985-91 pubmed
    ..We found a novel effect of activin A on hybridoma and myeloma cell lines...
  28. Maguer Satta V, Rimokh R. FLRG, member of the follistatin family, a new player in hematopoiesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2004;225:109-18 pubmed
    ..For this purpose, we have for the first time, compared the role of Activin A, BMP2 and BMP4 during erythropoiesis, in primary human cells...
  29. Ren X, Guan G, Liu G, Zhang T, Liu G. Effect of activin A on tubulointerstitial fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy. Nephrology (Carlton). 2009;14:311-20 pubmed publisher
    The effect of activin A on tubulointerstitial fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy (DN) using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and high glucose-cultured HK-2 cells was investigated...
  30. Funaba M, Ikeda T, Ogawa K, Abe M. Calcium-regulated expression of activin A in RBL-2H3 mast cells. Cell Signal. 2003;15:605-13 pubmed
    The present study examined the regulatory expression of activin A, a potent growth and differentiation factor, in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) mast cells...
  31. Bartholin L, Maguer Satta V, Hayette S, Martel S, Gadoux M, Corbo L, et al. Transcription activation of FLRG and follistatin by activin A, through Smad proteins, participates in a negative feedback loop to modulate activin A function. Oncogene. 2002;21:2227-35 pubmed
    ..Follistatin binds to activin A with high affinity, and prevents activin binding to its own receptors, thereby blocking its signaling...
  32. Gold E, Zhang X, Wheatley A, Mellor S, Cranfield M, Risbridger G, et al. betaA- and betaC-activin, follistatin, activin receptor mRNA and betaC-activin peptide expression during rat liver regeneration. J Mol Endocrinol. 2005;34:505-15 pubmed
    ..We conclude that betaA- and betaC-activin subunit proteins are autocrine growth regulators in regenerating liver and when expressed independently lead to hepatocyte apoptosis or mitosis in a subset of hepatocytes. ..
  33. Fukamachi H, Kato S, Asashima M, Ichinose M, Yuasa Y. Activin A regulates growth of gastro-intestinal epithelial cells by mediating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. Dev Growth Differ. 2013;55:786-91 pubmed publisher
    ..present study, we examined expression of activins in developing rat GI tract, and found that inhibin bA encoding activin A was specifically expressed by GI mesenchymes, while inhibin bB encoding activin B was expressed by both ..
  34. Wang Q, Yin J, Wang S, Cui D, Lin H, Ge M, et al. Effects of activin A and its downstream ERK1/2 in oxygen and glucose deprivation after isoflurane-induced postconditioning. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;84:535-543 pubmed publisher
    ..Numerous studies have reported that activin A can protect rat's brain from cell injury...
  35. Verschueren K, Dewulf N, Goumans M, Lonnoy O, Feijen A, Grimsby S, et al. Expression of type I and type IB receptors for activin in midgestation mouse embryos suggests distinct functions in organogenesis. Mech Dev. 1995;52:109-23 pubmed
  36. Johansson B, Wiles M. Evidence for involvement of activin A and bone morphogenetic protein 4 in mammalian mesoderm and hematopoietic development. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:141-51 pubmed
    ..In CDM, this differentiation is responsive to TGF-beta family members in a concentration-dependent manner, with activin A mediating the formation of dorsoanterior-like mesoderm and bone morphogenetic protein 4 mediating the formation ..
  37. Romero D, Terzic A, Conley B, Craft C, Jovanovic B, Bergan R, et al. Endoglin phosphorylation by ALK2 contributes to the regulation of prostate cancer cell migration. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31:359-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate for the first time that TGF-beta receptor-mediated phosphorylation of endoglin is a Smad-independent mechanism involved in the regulation of prostate cancer cell migration. ..
  38. Lacerte A, Lee E, Reynaud R, Canaff L, de Guise C, Devost D, et al. Activin inhibits pituitary prolactin expression and cell growth through Smads, Pit-1 and menin. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:1558-69 pubmed
  39. Choi Y, Kim S, Han J, Nam D, Park K, Kim S, et al. CHOP deficiency inhibits methylglyoxal-induced endothelial dysfunction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;480:362-368 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate that MGO specifically induces endothelial dysfunction in a CHOP-dependent manner, suggesting the therapeutic potential of CHOP inhibition in diabetic cardiovascular complications. ..
  40. Zhang L, Huang H, Pan P, Liu X, Wu W, Fu H. [Study on the expression of activin-A in myocardial ischemia postconditioning]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2009;40:97-9 pubmed
    ..The result indicated that activin-A was involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, and down-regulation of activin-A might be one of the cardioprotective mechanisms of postconditioning. ..
  41. Xu J, McKeehan K, Matsuzaki K, McKeehan W. Inhibin antagonizes inhibition of liver cell growth by activin by a dominant-negative mechanism. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:6308-13 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that inhibin may be a natural antagonist of assembly of the heterodimeric activin receptor complex through a dominant-negative mechanism. ..
  42. Maeshima A, Maeshima K, Nojima Y, Kojima I. Involvement of Pax-2 in the action of activin A on tubular cell regeneration. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002;13:2850-9 pubmed
    It has been recently shown that in ischemic rat kidneys activin A is induced in tubular cells and inhibits their regeneration...
  43. Hong S, Oh H, Valera V, Stull J, Ngo D, Baba M, et al. Tumor suppressor FLCN inhibits tumorigenesis of a FLCN-null renal cancer cell line and regulates expression of key molecules in TGF-beta signaling. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:160 pubmed publisher
    ..or without wild-type FLCN, many of which are involved in TGF-beta signaling, including TGF-beta2 (TGFB2), inhibin beta A chain (INHBA), thrombospondin 1 (THBS1), gremlin (GREM1), and SMAD3...
  44. Wang J, Liang W, Cui Y, He J, Liu H, Wang Y, et al. Noncanonical Activin A Signaling in PC12 Cells: A Self-Limiting Feedback Loop. Neurochem Res. 2016;41:1073-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Activin A (Act A), a member of transforming growth factor-β superfamily, plays a neuroprotective role in multiple neurological diseases through Act A/Smads signal activation...
  45. Arber C, Precious S, Cambray S, Risner Janiczek J, Kelly C, Noakes Z, et al. Activin A directs striatal projection neuron differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. Development. 2015;142:1375-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that activin A induces lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) characteristics in nascent neural progenitors derived from hESCs and ..
  46. Drews C, Senkel S, Ryffel G. The nephrogenic potential of the transcription factors osr1, osr2, hnf1b, lhx1 and pax8 assessed in Xenopus animal caps. BMC Dev Biol. 2011;11:5 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of the undifferentiated animal pole explant (animal cap) of Xenopus with activin A and retinoic acid induces pronephros formation providing a powerful tool to analyze key molecular events in ..
  47. Hollnagel A, Oehlmann V, Heymer J, Ruther U, Nordheim A. Id genes are direct targets of bone morphogenetic protein induction in embryonic stem cells. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:19838-45 pubmed
    ..CDM-cultured ES cells responded very selectively to stimulation by various mesoderm inducers (BMP2/4, activin A, and basic fibroblast growth factor)...
  48. Farnworth P, Stanton P, Wang Y, Escalona R, Findlay J, Ooi G. Inhibins differentially antagonize activin and bone morphogenetic protein action in a mouse adrenocortical cell line. Endocrinology. 2006;147:3462-71 pubmed
    ..Inhibin A provided more potent and effective antagonism of both activins than did inhibin B, and activin A was less subject to antagonism by either inhibin than was activin B...
  49. Chen V, Peng C, Leung P. Activin-A up-regulates type I activin receptor mRNA levels in human immortalized extravillous trophoblast cells. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2003;1:29 pubmed
    ..In addition, inhibin-A inhibited basal, as well as activin-A-induced ActRI mRNA levels. These findings provide evidence, for the first time, that activin-A modulates ActRI mRNA levels in human trophoblast cells. ..
  50. Maeshima A, Yamashita S, Maeshima K, Kojima I, Nojima Y. Activin a produced by ureteric bud is a differentiation factor for metanephric mesenchyme. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003;14:1523-34 pubmed
    ..Organ culture system and cultured metanephric mesenchymal cells were used to address this issue. Activin A was localized in ureteric bud...
  51. Mason A, Berkemeier L, Schmelzer C, Schwall R. Activin B: precursor sequences, genomic structure and in vitro activities. Mol Endocrinol. 1989;3:1352-8 pubmed
    ..The potency of activin B in both of these assays (ED50 approximately 2 ng/ml) was indistinguishable from that observed for activin A.
  52. Kazutaka S, Winnall W, Muir J, Hedger M. Regulation of Sertoli cell activin A and inhibin B by tumour necrosis factor ? and interleukin 1?: interaction with follicle-stimulating hormone/adenosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate signalling. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;335:195-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Regulation of activin A and inhibin B production by the inflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) and interleukin 1? (IL1?)..
  53. Bagdatoglu O, Polat G, Bagdatoglu C, Atik U. Effects of peripheral nerve ischemia-reperfusion model on serum cytokine levels. Turk Neurosurg. 2008;18:149-56 pubmed
    ..b>Activin A, TGF Beta1 and TGF, Beta2 levels were measured in serum samples...
  54. Mang J, Mei C, Wang J, Li Z, Chu T, He J, et al. Endogenous protection derived from activin A/Smads transduction loop stimulated via ischemic injury in PC12 cells. Molecules. 2013;18:12977-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Activin A (ActA), a member of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-b) super- family, affects many cellular processes, including ischemic stroke...
  55. Blumensatt M, Greulich S, Herzfeld de Wiza D, Mueller H, Maxhera B, Rabelink M, et al. Activin A impairs insulin action in cardiomyocytes via up-regulation of miR-143. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;100:201-10 pubmed publisher
    Enhanced activin A release from epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been linked to the development of cardiac dysfunction in type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
  56. Lebrun J, Vale W. Activin and inhibin have antagonistic effects on ligand-dependent heteromerization of the type I and type II activin receptors and human erythroid differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:1682-91 pubmed
  57. Shao L, Frigon N, Young A, Yu A, Mathews L, Vaughan J, et al. Effect of activin A on globin gene expression in purified human erythroid progenitors. Blood. 1992;79:773-81 pubmed
    The regulatory control of human erythropoiesis through a purified protein, activin A, was examined...