Il6r

Summary

Gene Symbol: Il6r
Description: interleukin 6 receptor
Alias: IL6R1, Il6ra, interleukin-6 receptor subunit alpha, IL-6 receptor subunit alpha, IL-6R 1, IL-6R subunit alpha, IL-6R-alpha, IL-6RA, interleukin 6 receptor, alpha
Species: rat
Products:     Il6r

Top Publications

  1. Wilder R, Griffiths M, Remmers E, Cannon G, Caspi R, Kawahito Y, et al. Localization in rats of genetic loci regulating susceptibility to experimental erosive arthritis and related autoimmune diseases. Transplant Proc. 1999;31:1585-8 pubmed
  2. Esteve E, Villuendas G, Mallolas J, Vendrell J, Lopez Bermejo A, Rodríguez M, et al. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-6 receptor gene are associated with body mass index and with characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006;65:88-91 pubmed
    ..The Asp358Ala and CA-repeat polymorphisms in the IL-6R gene are associated with obesity and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in our population of Mediterranean subjects. ..
  3. Lara Ramírez R, Segura Anaya E, Martínez Gómez A, Dent M. Expression of interleukin-6 receptor alpha in normal and injured rat sciatic nerve. Neuroscience. 2008;152:601-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of IL6-Ralpha continues during the period of remyelination, suggesting that IL6-Ralpha might be involved in both Schwann cell proliferation and remyelination of the rat sciatic nerve. ..
  4. Rantala A, Lajunen T, Juvonen R, Silvennoinen Kassinen S, Peitso A, Vainio O, et al. Association of IL-6 and IL-6R gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to respiratory tract infections in young Finnish men. Hum Immunol. 2011;72:63-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the association between 2 IL-6 (IL6A and IL6B) and 5 IL-6R gene polymorphisms (IL6R1 to IL6R5) and respiratory infections in 511 Finnish military recruits whose respiratory infectious episodes were ..
  5. Dubovy P, Klusáková I, Svízenská I, Brazda V. Satellite glial cells express IL-6 and corresponding signal-transducing receptors in the dorsal root ganglia of rat neuropathic pain model. Neuron Glia Biol. 2010;6:73-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The results may suggest that unilateral CCI of the sciatic nerve induces bilateral activation of SGC in L4-L5 DRG to transduce IL-6 signalling during neuroinflammation...
  6. Schuster B, Kovaleva M, Sun Y, Regenhard P, Matthews V, Grötzinger J, et al. Signaling of human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) revisited. The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for CTNF. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:9528-35 pubmed
    ..Engineering a CNTFR-specific human CNTF variant may therefore be a prerequisite to improving the safety profile of CNTF. ..
  7. Alvarez P, Green P, Levine J. Stress in the adult rat exacerbates muscle pain induced by early-life stress. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;74:688-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This probably depends on an interaction between adrenal catecholamines and proinflammatory cytokines acting at muscle nociceptor level. ..
  8. Zhang L, Hu L, Chen M, Yu B. Exogenous interleukin-6 facilitated the contraction of the colon in a depression rat model. Dig Dis Sci. 2013;58:2187-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that IL-6-induced the contraction of the colonic strip by acting on the gut's nervous system and acting directly on the smooth muscle in rats with depression. ..
  9. Yokota S, Imagawa T, Mori M, Miyamae T, Aihara Y, Takei S, et al. Efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in patients with systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, withdrawal phase III trial. Lancet. 2008;371:998-1006 pubmed publisher
    ..Tocilizumab is effective in children with systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis. It might therefore be a suitable treatment in the control of this disorder, which has so far been difficult to manage. ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Mitnick M, Grey A, Masiukiewicz U, Bartkiewicz M, Rios Velez L, Friedman S, et al. Parathyroid hormone induces hepatic production of bioactive interleukin-6 and its soluble receptor. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001;280:E405-12 pubmed
  2. Zorina Y, Iyengar R, Bromberg K. Cannabinoid 1 receptor and interleukin-6 receptor together induce integration of protein kinase and transcription factor signaling to trigger neurite outgrowth. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:1358-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a mechanism where multiple protein kinases and transcription factors interact to integrate signals from G protein-coupled and cytokine receptor to evoke neurite outgrowth in Neuro2A cells. ..
  3. Baumann M, Baumann H, Fey G. Molecular cloning, characterization and functional expression of the rat liver interleukin 6 receptor. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:19853-62 pubmed
    ..Therefore, both IL6-R mRNA species code for functionally active receptor, depending on the target cell, but only the longer mRNA species coded for significant receptor levels in human hepatoma cell lines. ..
  4. Schuster B, Meinert W, Rose John S, Kallen K. The human interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor exists as a preformed dimer in the plasma membrane. FEBS Lett. 2003;538:113-6 pubmed
    ..When lysates of COS-7 cells expressing only one of the IL-6R variants are mixed, spontaneous dimerization occurs. Thus, the IL-6R dimer observed in the crystal structure represents a physiologically occurring phenomenon. ..
  5. Kawashima M, Shoji J, Nakajima M, Kamura Y, Sato Y. Soluble IL-6 receptor in vitreous fluid of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2007;51:100-4 pubmed
    ..34, P < 0.05). We conclude that the level of sIL-6R in vitreous fluid can be considered as a biomarker of PDR. ..
  6. Abbatecola A, Ferrucci L, Grella R, Bandinelli S, Bonafe M, Barbieri M, et al. Diverse effect of inflammatory markers on insulin resistance and insulin-resistance syndrome in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52:399-404 pubmed
    ..448; P=.015) were associated with IRS, and higher sIL-6R plasma levels continued to correlate negatively with IRS. Different inflammatory markers are associated with a diverse effect on IR and IRS in elderly nondiabetic subjects. ..
  7. Boulanger M, Chow D, Brevnova E, Garcia K. Hexameric structure and assembly of the interleukin-6/IL-6 alpha-receptor/gp130 complex. Science. 2003;300:2101-4 pubmed
    ..The quaternary structures of other IL-6/IL-12 family signaling complexes are likely constructed by means of a similar topological blueprint. ..
  8. Watanabe D, Yoshimura R, Khalil M, Yoshida K, Kishimoto T, Taga T, et al. Characteristic localization of gp130 (the signal-transducing receptor component used in common for IL-6/IL-11/CNTF/LIF/OSM) in the rat brain. Eur J Neurosci. 1996;8:1630-40 pubmed
  9. Yamashita S, Kato R, Kobayashi K, Hisasue S, Arai Y, Tsukamoto T. Inhibition of interleukin-6 attenuates erectile dysfunction in a rat model of nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. J Sex Med. 2011;8:1957-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of IL-6 bioactivity attenuated ED following CN dissection. Thus, the suppression of excess inflammatory responses in the acute phase may lead to improvements in ED occurring after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. ..
  10. Chen L, QIAN Y, Cai M, LI Z, BAI H, SHI B. [Role of the activation of interleukin-6/STAT3 in cholangiocyte proliferation induced by cold ischemia reperfusion and injury]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2009;47:863-7 pubmed
    ..IL-6/STAT3 pathway might participate to initiate cholangiocytes regeneration after cold ischemia and preservation injury, which might benefit biliary recovery after liver transplantation. ..
  11. Lehtimäki K, Peltola J, Koskikallio E, Keranen T, Honkaniemi J. Expression of cytokines and cytokine receptors in the rat brain after kainic acid-induced seizures. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;110:253-60 pubmed
    ..In addition, the activity of IL-6 and LIF signaling pathways may be influenced by increased expression of their receptors after seizures. ..
  12. Jones S, Scheller J, Rose John S. Therapeutic strategies for the clinical blockade of IL-6/gp130 signaling. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:3375-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Attention will be given to the role of the soluble IL-6R, and we will provide a perspective into the clinical blockade of IL-6 activity in autoimmunity, inflammation, and cancer. ..
  13. Cui W, Zhang H, Liu Z. Interleukin-6 receptor blockade suppresses subretinal fibrosis in a mouse model. Int J Ophthalmol. 2014;7:194-7 pubmed publisher
  14. Cui X, Rouhani F, Hawari F, Levine S. An aminopeptidase, ARTS-1, is required for interleukin-6 receptor shedding. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:28677-85 pubmed
    ..We propose that ARTS-1 is a multifunctional aminopeptidase that may modulate inflammatory events by promoting IL-6Ralpha and TNFR1 shedding. ..
  15. Hibi M, Murakami M, Saito M, Hirano T, Taga T, Kishimoto T. Molecular cloning and expression of an IL-6 signal transducer, gp130. Cell. 1990;63:1149-57 pubmed
    ..A cloned gp130 could associate with a complex of IL-6 and soluble IL-6-R and transduce the growth signal when expressed in a murine IL-3-dependent cell line. ..
  16. Wang M, Song H, Jia J. Interleukin-6 receptor gene polymorphisms were associated with sporadic Alzheimer's disease in Chinese Han. Brain Res. 2010;1327:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..None of the associations appeared to be modified by APOE epsilon4. We conclude that the -530T allele located in a putative regulatory region and the +48867C allele at the splice site may elevate the risk of SAD among the Han Chinese. ..
  17. Bustamante M, Nogues X, Mellibovsky L, Agueda L, Jurado S, Caceres E, et al. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-6 receptor gene are associated with bone mineral density and body mass index in Spanish postmenopausal women. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007;157:677-84 pubmed
    ..BMD) and body mass index (BMI) linkage studies identified a locus at 1q21-23, where the interleukin-6 receptor (IL6R) gene is located. The IL6R and the gp130 receptors are the mediators of IL6 action...
  18. Fiorillo M, Toniatti C, Van Snick J, Ciliberto G. Expression of the murine interleukin 6 receptor in hepatoma cells: the intracytoplasmic domain is not required for interleukin 6 signal transduction. Eur J Immunol. 1992;22:799-804 pubmed
    ..e. CRP promoter activation), but that the last 40 amino acids contribute to maximal IL6 response in these cells. ..
  19. Asimaki A, Tandri H, Duffy E, Winterfield J, Mackey Bojack S, Picken M, et al. Altered desmosomal proteins in granulomatous myocarditis and potential pathogenic links to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2011;4:743-52 pubmed publisher
  20. Mehra R, Storfer Isser A, Kirchner H, Johnson N, Jenny N, Tracy R, et al. Soluble interleukin 6 receptor: A novel marker of moderate to severe sleep-related breathing disorder. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:1725-31 pubmed
    ..Further investigation of this biomarker may provide insight into SRBD-related inflammation. ..
  21. Chang X, Qin Y, Jin Z, Xi T, Yang X, Lu Z, et al. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated the increased contraction of distal colon in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats via IL-6 receptor pathway. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8:4514-24 pubmed
    ..The expression of IL-6 α-receptor increased in diabetes rats. These results indicate that diabetes rats show an increase in the contractions of distal colon partly via the IL-6-IL-6 receptor pathway. ..
  22. Hoffmann R, Henninger H, Schulze Specking A, Decker K. Regulation of interleukin-6 receptor expression in rat Kupffer cells: modulation by cytokines, dexamethasone and prostaglandin E2. J Hepatol. 1994;21:543-50 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the existence of control mechanisms involving several soluble mediators that help balance the level of interleukin-6-R mRNA in rat liver macrophages. ..
  23. Inomata Y, Hirata A, Yonemura N, Koga T, Kido N, Tanihara H. Neuroprotective effects of interleukin-6 on NMDA-induced rat retinal damage. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;302:226-32 pubmed
    ..Western blotting studies demonstrated upregulation of gp130 expression in the NMDA-injected retina. Present studies suggest that IL-6 combined with sIL-6R provides a neuroprotective effect on NMDA-induced retinal damage. ..
  24. Wang T, Wang B, Zhao H, Kuang F, Fan J, Duan X, et al. Lipopolysaccharide up-regulates IL-6R alpha expression in cultured leptomeningeal cells via activation of ERK1/2 pathway. Neurochem Res. 2008;33:1901-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, ERK1/2 pathway seems to be involved in the process of LPS-induced IL-6R alpha up-regulation in leptomeningeal cells. ..
  25. Chen X, Zhang M, Liao M, Graner M, Wu C, Yang Q, et al. Reduced Th17 response in patients with tuberculosis correlates with IL-6R expression on CD4+ T Cells. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;181:734-42 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis infection. Suppression of Th17 response through down-regulation of IL-6R expression may be an important mechanism in the development of active TB. ..
  26. Vermes C, Jacobs J, Zhang J, Firneisz G, Roebuck K, Glant T. Shedding of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor (gp80) determines the ability of IL-6 to induce gp130 phosphorylation in human osteoblasts. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:16879-87 pubmed
    ..This unique mechanism provides the flexibility for osteoblasts to control their own responsiveness to IL-6 via the activation of an IL-6R sheddase, resulting in an immediate production of functionally active osteoblast-derived sIL-6R. ..
  27. Helwig B, Musch T, Craig R, Kenney M. Increased interleukin-6 receptor expression in the paraventricular nucleus of rats with heart failure. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R1165-73 pubmed
    ..Rather the increased IL-6 levels characteristic of HF may alter PVN-mediated physiological responses via enhanced expression of the IL-6R. ..
  28. Szabo Fresnais N, Lefebvre F, Germain A, Fischmeister R, Pomerance M. A new regulation of IL-6 production in adult cardiomyocytes by beta-adrenergic and IL-1 beta receptors and induction of cellular hypertrophy by IL-6 trans-signalling. Cell Signal. 2010;22:1143-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The IL-6 soluble receptor may thus serve as a switch for IL-6 to activate STAT3 phosphorylation and hypertrophy. ..
  29. Bagli M, Papassotiropoulos A, Hampel H, Becker K, Jessen F, Burger K, et al. Polymorphisms of the gene encoding the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 determine the magnitude of the increase in soluble interleukin-6 receptor levels in Alzheimer's disease. Results of a pilot study. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2003;253:44-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that plasma and CSF levels of sIL-6R are significantly increased in AD patients and that the magnitude of increase is determined by the IL-6 genotype. ..
  30. Ellingsgaard H, Ehses J, Hammar E, Van Lommel L, Quintens R, Martens G, et al. Interleukin-6 regulates pancreatic alpha-cell mass expansion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:13163-8 pubmed publisher
  31. Mihara M, Hashizume M, Yoshida H, Suzuki M, Shiina M. IL-6/IL-6 receptor system and its role in physiological and pathological conditions. Clin Sci (Lond). 2012;122:143-59 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present review, we first summarize the IL-6/IL-6R system and IL-6 signal transduction, and then go on to discuss the physiological and pathological roles of IL-6. ..
  32. Matsushita K, Iwanaga S, Oda T, Kimura K, Shimada M, Sano M, et al. Interleukin-6/soluble interleukin-6 receptor complex reduces infarct size via inhibiting myocardial apoptosis. Lab Invest. 2005;85:1210-23 pubmed
    ..The IL-6/soluble IL-6 receptor complex inhibits cardiomyocyte apoptosis in reperfused acute myocardial infarction. It possibly reduces irreversible reperfusion injury. ..
  33. Gomez M, Sokol S, Muir A, Soong G, Bastien J, Prince A. Bacterial induction of TNF-alpha converting enzyme expression and IL-6 receptor alpha shedding regulates airway inflammatory signaling. J Immunol. 2005;175:1930-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, bacteria are physiological activators of TACE expression, which provides a mechanism to regulate inflammatory signaling that is initiated by airway epithelial cells. ..
  34. Bensadoun J, de Almeida L, Dreano M, Aebischer P, Deglon N. Neuroprotective effect of interleukin-6 and IL6/IL6R chimera in the quinolinic acid rat model of Huntington's syndrome. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;14:1753-61 pubmed
    ..Interleukin-6, another member of the cytokine family, and the chimeric molecule (IL6/IL6R) in which interleukin-6 and its soluble receptor are fused, have been shown to exert trophic action on various ..
  35. Legendre F, Dudhia J, Pujol J, Bogdanowicz P. JAK/STAT but not ERK1/ERK2 pathway mediates interleukin (IL)-6/soluble IL-6R down-regulation of Type II collagen, aggrecan core, and link protein transcription in articular chondrocytes. Association with a down-regulation of SOX9 expression. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:2903-12 pubmed
    ..These IL-6 effects might contribute to the phenotype loss of chondrocytes in joint diseases and the alteration of articular cartilage associated with this pathology. ..
  36. Zhang J, Gao Y, Shen Y, Li K. Asymmetrical release of interleukin-6 by cultured cerebral cortical astrocytes treated with lipopolysaccharide. Indian J Med Res. 2009;129:164-9 pubmed
    ..05). The results showed asymmetrical release of brain IL-6 by cerebral cortical astrocytes to the inflammatory insults both in protein and mRNA levels. ..
  37. Malavazos A, Corsi M, Ermetici F, Coman C, Sardanelli F, Rossi A, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines and cardiac abnormalities in uncomplicated obesity: relationship with abdominal fat deposition. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2007;17:294-302 pubmed
  38. Finotto S, Eigenbrod T, Karwot R, Boross I, Doganci A, Ito H, et al. Local blockade of IL-6R signaling induces lung CD4+ T cell apoptosis in a murine model of asthma via regulatory T cells. Int Immunol. 2007;19:685-93 pubmed
    ..Local targeting of IL-6R signaling could be a novel approach for inducing Th2 T cell death in allergic airways via regulatory T cells. ..
  39. Li Y, Wang Y, Qi L. [Determination of serum soluble interleukin-6 receptor and soluble gp130 levels in patient with pregnancy induced hypertension and its significance]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2001;36:18-9 pubmed
    ..There was significant difference (P < 0.01). There was no difference in sIL-6R and sgp130 levels between control groups (P > 0.05). Serum sIL-6R and sgp130 levels are related to the development of pregnancy induced hypertension. ..
  40. Griffiths M, Encinas J, Remmers E, Kuchroo V, Wilder R. Mapping autoimmunity genes. Curr Opin Immunol. 1999;11:689-700 pubmed
    ..Candidate genes are being identified. Polymorphic alleles associated with these chromosomal segments may represent predisposing genetic elements common to a number of human diseases with very different clinical presentations. ..
  41. Zvibel I, Brill S, Kariv R, Traister A, Golan T, Chebath J, et al. Chimeric molecule IL-6/soluble IL-6 receptor is a potent mitogen for fetal hepatocytes. J Cell Physiol. 2004;200:245-52 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, IL-6c stimulated proliferation and affected gene expression in fetal hepatocytes in culture. ..
  42. Marta R, Goette N, Lev P, Chazarreta C, Pirola C, Molinas F. Normal platelets possess the soluble form of IL-6 receptor. Cytokine. 2005;29:13-7 pubmed
    ..Besides, since we could not find IL-6R on platelet membrane, the potentiating effect of IL-6 on platelet function could be explained through binding of IL-6sR/IL-6 complex to platelet membrane gp130. ..
  43. Escobar Morreale H, Calvo R, Villuendas G, Sancho J, San Millan J. Association of polymorphisms in the interleukin 6 receptor complex with obesity and hyperandrogenism. Obes Res. 2003;11:987-96 pubmed
    ..through a heterodimeric receptor consisting of two membrane-bound glycoproteins: an 80-kDa IL-6 binding unit (IL6R-alpha) and a 130-kDa IL-6 signal transducer (gp130)...
  44. Gallucci R, Sloan D, O Dell S, Reinke L. Differential expression of liver interleukin-6 receptor-alpha in female versus male ethanol-consuming rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004;28:365-73 pubmed
    ..Given the association of inflammation with ethanol-induced liver damage, these data may offer insight into a possible mechanism by which females develop more severe ALD than males. ..
  45. Linard C, Marquette C, Mathieu J, Pennequin A, Clarençon D, Mathe D. Acute induction of inflammatory cytokine expression after gamma-irradiation in the rat: effect of an NF-kappaB inhibitor. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;58:427-34 pubmed
    ..In vivo, irradiation induced a cascade of inflammatory responses that involved the transcription factor NF-kappaB; this inflammation was reduced by CAPE treatment. ..
  46. Petrinović Doresić J, Mazuran R, Henc Petrinović L, Kuzmanovic B, Jovicic A. Interleukin 6 and its soluble receptor are elevated in aqueous humor of patients with uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 1999;7:75-84 pubmed
    ..Low levels of sIL-6R in AH compared to those found in serum suggest the presence of active local regulatory mechanisms that require further investigation. ..
  47. Fulop A, Pocsik E, Brozik M, Karabelyos C, Kiss A, Novak I, et al. Hepatic regeneration induces transient acute phase reaction: systemic elevation of acute phase reactants and soluble cytokine receptors. Cell Biol Int. 2001;25:585-92 pubmed
    ..These data suggest the involvement of both acute phase proteins and soluble cytokine receptors in the regulation of liver regeneration. ..
  48. Rival C, Theas M, Guazzone V, Lustig L. Interleukin-6 and IL-6 receptor cell expression in testis of rats with autoimmune orchitis. J Reprod Immunol. 2006;70:43-58 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that IL-6 and IL-6R may be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune orchitis by promoting testicular inflammation and germ cell apoptosis...
  49. Deten A, Volz H, Briest W, Zimmer H. Cardiac cytokine expression is upregulated in the acute phase after myocardial infarction. Experimental studies in rats. Cardiovasc Res. 2002;55:329-40 pubmed
  50. Brazda V, Klusáková I, Hradilová Svíženská I, Dubovy P. Dynamic response to peripheral nerve injury detected by in situ hybridization of IL-6 and its receptor mRNAs in the dorsal root ganglia is not strictly correlated with signs of neuropathic pain. Mol Pain. 2013;9:42 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible functional involvement of IL-6 signaling is discussed. ..
  51. Gulko P, Kawahito Y, Remmers E, Reese V, Wang J, Dracheva S, et al. Identification of a new non-major histocompatibility complex genetic locus on chromosome 2 that controls disease severity in collagen-induced arthritis in rats. Arthritis Rheum. 1998;41:2122-31 pubmed
    ..This rat model should facilitate positional cloning and functional characterization of regulatory genes that may play a role in several forms of autoimmune disease, including rheumatoid arthritis. ..
  52. Bossowski A, Urban M, Koput A, Gardziejczyk M, Wysocka J, Kreczko S. [Serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) in children and adolescents with Graves-Basedow disease]. Endokrynol Diabetol Chor Przemiany Materii Wieku Rozw. 1999;5:85-93 pubmed
    ..No correlation was revealed between the level of thyroid hormones and the concentration of cytokines and adhesion molecules. ..
  53. Ouellet J, Berthiaume M, Corriveau S, Rola Pleszczynski M, Pasquier J. Effect of interleukin-6 receptor blockade on feto-maternal outcomes in a rat model of intrauterine inflammation. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2013;39:1456-64 pubmed publisher
    ..06). Paradoxically, the association of pregnancy, inflammation and anti-IL-6R increases the inflammatory effects of LPS. ..