Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Il6
Description: interleukin 6
Alias: ILg6, Ifnb2, interleukin-6, IL-6, Interleukin 6 (interferon, beta 2)
- Jones S, Scheller J, Rose John S. Therapeutic strategies for the clinical blockade of IL-6/gp130 signaling. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:3375-83 pubmed publisher..Attention will be given to the role of the soluble IL-6R, and we will provide a perspective into the clinical blockade of IL-6 activity in autoimmunity, inflammation, and cancer. ..
- Liu Z, Qiu Y, Li B, Ma S, Peng Y. Neuroprotection of interleukin-6 against NMDA-induced apoptosis and its signal-transduction mechanisms. Neurotox Res. 2011;19:484-95 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that IL-6 protects neurons against NMDA-induced apoptosis, and that the IL-6 neuroprotection is jointly mediated by JAK-STAT3 and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. ..
- Dubovy P, Brazda V, Klusáková I, Hradilová Svíženská I. Bilateral elevation of interleukin-6 protein and mRNA in both lumbar and cervical dorsal root ganglia following unilateral chronic compression injury of the sciatic nerve. J Neuroinflammation. 2013;10:55 pubmed publisher..Current research implicates interleukin (IL)-6 as a key component of the nervous-system response to injury with various effects...
- Wang X, Peng Y, Lu J, Cao B, Qiu Y. Neuroprotection of interleukin-6 against NMDA attack and its signal transduction by JAK and MAPK. Neurosci Lett. 2009;450:122-6 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest that IL-6 protects neurons from NMDA-induced excitoxicity and the IL-6 neuroprotection may be transduced by both JAK/STAT3 and RAS/MAPK pathways. ..
- Mihara M, Hashizume M, Yoshida H, Suzuki M, Shiina M. IL-6/IL-6 receptor system and its role in physiological and pathological conditions. Clin Sci (Lond). 2012;122:143-59 pubmed publisher..In the present review, we first summarize the IL-6/IL-6R system and IL-6 signal transduction, and then go on to discuss the physiological and pathological roles of IL-6. ..
- Coudriet G, He J, Trucco M, Mars W, Piganelli J. Hepatocyte growth factor modulates interleukin-6 production in bone marrow derived macrophages: implications for inflammatory mediated diseases. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15384 pubmed publisher..Combined, these data provide compelling evidence that under normal circumstances, HGF acts to suppress the inflammatory response. ..
- Dubovy P, Klusáková I, Svízenská I, Brazda V. Satellite glial cells express IL-6 and corresponding signal-transducing receptors in the dorsal root ganglia of rat neuropathic pain model. Neuron Glia Biol. 2010;6:73-83 pubmed publisher..The results may suggest that unilateral CCI of the sciatic nerve induces bilateral activation of SGC in L4-L5 DRG to transduce IL-6 signalling during neuroinflammation...
- Brazda V, Klusáková I, Svízenská I, Veselková Z, Dubovy P. Bilateral changes in IL-6 protein, but not in its receptor gp130, in rat dorsal root ganglia following sciatic nerve ligature. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2009;29:1053-62 pubmed publisher..The data provide evidence for changes in IL-6 levels not only in the DRG associated with the damaged nerve but also in those unassociated with nerve injury during the experimental neuropathic pain model. ..
- Ellingsgaard H, Ehses J, Hammar E, Van Lommel L, Quintens R, Martens G, et al. Interleukin-6 regulates pancreatic alpha-cell mass expansion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:13163-8 pubmed publisher....
- Li R, Xi Y, Liu X, Chen G, Wang B, Jiang L, et al. Expression of IL-1alpha, IL-6, TGF-beta, FasL and ZNF265 during sertoli cell infection by ureaplasma urealyticum. Cell Mol Immunol. 2009;6:215-21 pubmed publisher..The trend of varied expression of ZNF265 was similar to those of TGF-beta and FasL in vitro and in vivo for Sertoli cells infected with UU. ..
- Martin Cordero L, Garcia J, Hinchado M, Bote E, Manso R, Ortega E. Habitual physical exercise improves macrophage IL-6 and TNF-? deregulated release in the obese zucker rat model of the metabolic syndrome. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2011;18:123-30 pubmed publisher..MS involves a deregulation of TNF-? and IL-6 release by non-infiltrated peritoneal macrophages, which is improved by habitual physical activity. ..
- Pérez C, Sobarzo C, Jacobo P, Pellizzari E, Cigorraga S, Denduchis B, et al. Loss of occludin expression and impairment of blood-testis barrier permeability in rats with autoimmune orchitis: effect of interleukin 6 on Sertoli cell tight junctions. Biol Reprod. 2012;87:122 pubmed publisher..The role of IL6 as modulator of tight junction dynamics was also evaluated because intratesticular content of this cytokine is ..
- Cohen T, Nahari D, Cerem L, Neufeld G, Levi B. Interleukin 6 induces the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:736-41 pubmed..This suggests that secondary structures in the 5'-UTR might be essential for VEGF expression through transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms. ..
- Benveniste E, Sparacio S, Norris J, Grenett H, Fuller G. Induction and regulation of interleukin-6 gene expression in rat astrocytes. J Neuroimmunol. 1990;30:201-12 pubmed..IL-6 may act to promote terminal differentiation of B cells in the CNS, leading to immunoglobulin synthesis. ..
- Hulkkonen J, Pertovaara M, Antonen J, Pasternack A, Hurme M. Elevated interleukin-6 plasma levels are regulated by the promoter region polymorphism of the IL6 gene in primary Sjögren's syndrome and correlate with the clinical manifestations of the disease. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2001;40:656-61 pubmedTo determine whether plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and G/C base exchange polymorphism at position -174 of the IL6 gene have an effect on the clinical manifestations of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS)...
- Przepiera Bedzak H, Fischer K, Brzosko M. Serum IL-6 and IL-23 Levels and Their Correlation with Angiogenic Cytokines and Disease Activity in Ankylosing Spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis, and SAPHO Syndrome. Mediators Inflamm. 2015;2015:785705 pubmed publisher..Serum IL-6 but not serum IL-23 correlated with ESR and CRP in SpA. No correlation was found of serum IL-6 and IL-23 with VAS, BASDAI, and angiogenic cytokines. ..
- Zhang H, Yin Y, Wang G, Liu Z, Liu L, Sun F. Interleukin-6 disrupts blood-testis barrier through inhibiting protein degradation or activating phosphorylated ERK in Sertoli cells. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4260 pubmed publisher..We demonstrated that IL-6 regulates the BTB by inhibiting the degradation of BTB constitutive proteins and activating ERK-MAPK pathways. Our results provide mechanistic insight into the roles of IL-6 in regulating BTB dynamics. ..
- Oka Y, Ibuki T, Matsumura K, Namba M, Yamazaki Y, Poole S, et al. Interleukin-6 is a candidate molecule that transmits inflammatory information to the CNS. Neuroscience. 2007;145:530-8 pubmed....
- Kryczek I, Zou L, Rodriguez P, Zhu G, Wei S, Mottram P, et al. B7-H4 expression identifies a novel suppressive macrophage population in human ovarian carcinoma. J Exp Med. 2006;203:871-81 pubmed..Blocking B7-H4 or depleting B7-H4+ tumor macrophages may represent novel strategies to enhance T cell tumor immunity in cancer. ..
- Joo H, Song E, Jin S, Oh S, Choi Y. [Expressions and clinical significances of c-met, c-erbB-2, COX-2, and IL-6 in the biliary tract cancers]. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2007;50:370-8 pubmed..Co-expression of c-met, COX-2 and, IL-6 showed a significant correlation with invasiveness and lymph node metastasis and these could be useful marker to guide clinical outcome in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. ..
- Kim D, Park B, Hong G, Lee B, Park J, Kim S, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of the R2 peptide, an inhibitor of transglutaminase 2, in a mouse model of allergic asthma, induced by ovalbumin. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;162:210-25 pubmed publisher..R2 peptide also restored expression of TIMP1/2. R2 peptide reduced allergic responses by regulating NF-?B/TGase 2 activity in a mouse model of allergic asthma. This peptide may be useful in the treatment of allergic asthma. ..
- Johnson R, Murray S, Camacho D, Wilson C. Vagal nerve stimulation attenuates IL-6 and TNF? expression in respiratory regions of the developing rat brainstem. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2016;229:1-4 pubmed publisher..Our experiments show that VNS attenuates the upregulation of IL-6 and TNF? caused by LPS and may be a viable alternative to antibiotics. ..
- Liu K, Glidden D, Eisner M, Parsons P, Ware L, Wheeler A, et al. Predictive and pathogenetic value of plasma biomarkers for acute kidney injury in patients with acute lung injury. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:2755-61 pubmed..The combination of these biological and clinical risk factors may have important and additive value in predictive models for acute kidney injury. ..
- Liu Y, Zhu S, Wang K, Feng Z, Chen Q. Effect of tramadol on immune responses and nociceptive thresholds in a rat model of incisional pain. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2008;9:895-902 pubmed publisher..The results suggest that tramadol could be a good choice for the treatment of pain under the conditions that immunosuppression may be particularly contraindicated. ..
- Sears B, Volkmer D, Yong S, Himes R, Lauing K, Morgan M, et al. Correlation of measurable serum markers of inflammation with lung levels following bilateral femur fracture in a rat model. J Inflamm Res. 2010;2010:105-114 pubmed..Ultimately, analysis of serum levels of KC/GRO (CINC-1), or human IL-8, may be a useful adjunct to guide clinical decisions regarding surgical timing. ..
- Roher N, Samokhvalov V, Diaz M, MacKenzie S, Klip A, Planas J. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha increases the amount of glucose transporter-4 at the surface of muscle cells independently of changes in interleukin-6. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1880-9 pubmed....
- Choi S, Shin I, Je K, Min E, Kim E, Kim H, et al. Hypoxia antagonizes glucose deprivation on interleukin 6 expression in an Akt dependent, but HIF-1/2? independent manner. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58662 pubmed publisher..Gene expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6) was analyzed by real-time PCR, ELISA, or Western blot...
- Chen M, Li T, Lin S, Bi D, Zhu D, Shang Q, et al. Association of Interleukin 6 gene polymorphisms with genetic susceptibilities to spastic tetraplegia in males: a case-control study. Cytokine. 2013;61:826-30 pubmed publisher..It may be caused by infection (such as chorioamnionitis), asphyxia or multiple genetic factors. The Interleukin 6 gene (IL6) was suggested to be involved in the susceptibilities to CP risk as a kind of proinflammatory ..
- Logan R, Stringer A, Bowen J, Gibson R, Sonis S, Keefe D. Serum levels of NFkappaB and pro-inflammatory cytokines following administration of mucotoxic drugs. Cancer Biol Ther. 2008;7:1139-45 pubmed..Further studies are required to determine the possible relationships between different toxicities and determine how, once these links are known, patient management can be improved. ..
- Sam S, Haffner S, Davidson M, D Agostino R, Feinstein S, Kondos G, et al. Relation of abdominal fat depots to systemic markers of inflammation in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:932-7 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest that adipose tissue distribution remains an important determinant of systemic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. ..
- Wang S, Yuan B, Dan Q, Yang X, Meng B, Zhang Y. [Effects of enalapril on IL-1beta, IL-6 expression in rat lung exposure to acrolein]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2010;41:1003-7, 1038 pubmed..Enalapril, as a ACE inhibitor, could protect the airway from inflammation injury in acrolein-treated rats via the down-regulation of IL-1beta and IL-6 expression. ..
- Wang J, Zhao L, Pan X, Chen N, Chen J, Gong Q, et al. Hypoxia-stimulated cardiac fibroblast production of IL-6 promotes myocardial fibrosis via the TGF-?1 signaling pathway. Lab Invest. 2016;96:839-52 pubmed publisher..Thus, IL-6 functions in ischemic myocardial remodeling through multifunctional reprogramming of hypoxia-associated FBs towards fibrosis via upregulation of the TGF-?1 signaling pathway. ..
- Sonego F, Castanheira F, Czaikoski P, Kanashiro A, Souto F, França R, et al. MyD88-, but not Nod1- and/or Nod2-deficient mice, show increased susceptibility to polymicrobial sepsis due to impaired local inflammatory response. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e103734 pubmed publisher....
- Zhang L, Jin M, Hu X, Zhu J. Homocysteine stimulates nuclear factor kappaB activity and interleukin-6 expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Cell Biol Int. 2006;30:592-7 pubmed..Inflammation activation on vessel walls by elevation of Hcy may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. ..
- Ishizu A, Abe A, Miyatake Y, Baba T, Iinuma C, Tomaru U, et al. Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein is implicated in IL-6 production from arthritic synovial cells. Mod Rheumatol. 2010;20:134-8 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest that CREB is implicated in IL-6 production from synovial cells and plays an important role in RA pathogenesis. ..
- Stringer D, Sellers E, Burr L, Taylor C. Altered plasma adipokines and markers of oxidative stress suggest increased risk of cardiovascular disease in First Nation youth with obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009;10:269-77 pubmed publisher....
- Chennaoui M, Drogou C, Gomez Merino D. Effects of physical training on IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-1ra concentrations in various brain areas of the rat. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2008;19:8-14 pubmed publisher....
- Imai F, Kishi H, Nakao K, Nishimura T, Minegishi T. IL-6 up-regulates the expression of rat LH receptors during granulosa cell differentiation. Endocrinology. 2014;155:1436-44 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that IL-6 up-regulates FSH-induced LHR production by increasing mRNA transcription, and JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling is required for up-regulation by IL-6 in granulosa cells. ..
- del Rey A, Wolff C, Wildmann J, Randolf A, Hahnel A, Besedovsky H, et al. Disrupted brain-immune system-joint communication during experimental arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:3090-9 pubmed publisher..We also studied whether depletion of hypothalamic noradrenaline can affect peripheral joint disease...
- Martinez R, Menendez R, Reyes S, Polverino E, Cilloniz C, Martinez A, et al. Factors associated with inflammatory cytokine patterns in community-acquired pneumonia. Eur Respir J. 2011;37:393-9 pubmed publisher....
- Perez D, Papay R, Shi T. alpha1-Adrenergic receptor stimulates interleukin-6 expression and secretion through both mRNA stability and transcriptional regulation: involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;76:144-52 pubmed publisher..Our results indicate that alpha(1)-ARs stimulated IL-6 expression and secretion through regulating both mRNA transcription and stability, involving p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways. ..
- Bhattacharyya S, Zhao Y, Kay T, Muglia L. Glucocorticoids target suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and type 1 interferons to regulate Toll-like receptor-induced STAT1 activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9554-9 pubmed publisher..Our data show that SOCS1 and type I interferons are critical GC targets for regulating STAT1 activity and may account for overall GC effectiveness in inflammation suppression in the clinically relevant time frame. ..
- Poralla C, Hertfelder H, Oldenburg J, Muller A, Bartmann P, Heep A. Elevated interleukin-6 concentration and alterations of the coagulation system are associated with the development of intraventricular hemorrhage in extremely preterm infants. Neonatology. 2012;102:270-5 pubmed publisher..The association of elevated IL-6 levels with alterations of the coagulation profile and development of IVH found in our study supports the assumption of a close pathophysiological relation between inflammation and IVH. ..
- Liao X, Lin J, Ni X, Lin H. [Effects of reduced glutathione on plasma level of cytokines and pulmonary ultrastructure in rats with sepsis]. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2010;22:282-4 pubmed..TNF-alpha and IL-6 play significant role in the development of pulmonary ultrastructure injury in acute lung injury of septic rats. Treatment with GSH was effective in preventing such injury. ..
- Delbin M, Davel A, Rossoni L, Antunes E, Zanesco A. Beneficial effects of physical training on the cardio-inflammatory disorder induced by lung ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Inflammation. 2011;34:319-25 pubmed publisher..Protein expressions of SOD-1 and p47(phox), plasma nitritre/nitrate (NO (x) (-) ) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were evaluated...
- Jiang Y, Steinle J. Regulation of IRS-2 signaling by IGF-1 receptor in the diabetic rat heart. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;88:553-61 pubmed publisher....
- Ryden A, Stechova K, Durilova M, Faresjö M. Switch from a dominant Th1-associated immune profile during the pre-diabetic phase in favour of a temporary increase of a Th3-associated and inflammatory immune profile at the onset of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2009;25:335-43 pubmed publisher..A dominant Th1-associated immune profile was observed during the pre-diabetic phase. This Th1 dominance, however, diminished in favour of a temporary increase in a Th3-associated and inflammatory immune profile at the onset of disease. ..
- Wang D, Liu Z, Li Q, Karpurapu M, Kundumani Sridharan V, Cao H, et al. An essential role for gp130 in neointima formation following arterial injury. Circ Res. 2007;100:807-16 pubmed..Together, these observations for the first time suggest that IL-6/gp130/STAT-3 signaling plays an important role in vascular wall remodeling particularly in the settings of postangioplasty and thereby in neointima formation. ..
- Henriques Coelho T, Oliveira S, Moura R, Roncon Albuquerque R, Neves A, Santos M, et al. Thymulin inhibits monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension modulating interleukin-6 expression and suppressing p38 pathway. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4367-73 pubmed publisher..The pulmonary thymulin effect was likely mediated through suppression of p38 pathway. ..
- Moubarak M, Jabbour H, Smayra V, Chouery E, Saliba Y, Jebara V, et al. Cardiorenal syndrome in hypertensive rats: microalbuminuria, inflammation and ventricular hypertrophy. Physiol Res. 2012;61:13-24 pubmed..developed hypertension, a significant increase in plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
- Pirih F, Michalski M, Cho S, Koh A, Berry J, Ghaname E, et al. Parathyroid hormone mediates hematopoietic cell expansion through interleukin-6. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13657 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, PTH acts with Flt-3L to maintain hematopoietic cells by limiting apoptosis. IL-6 is a critical mediator of bone marrow cell expansion and is responsible for PTH actions in hematopoietic cell expansion. ..
- Yang D, Ye Z, Jin B, He X, Zhang Q, Zhou W, et al. Salvianolate inhibits cytokine gene expression in small intestine of cirrhotic rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:1903-9 pubmed publisher..Salvianolate can reduce the endotoxin level, ameliorate the injury of intestinal mucosa, and inhibit the expression of TNF-? and IL-6 mRNA in small intestine of cirrhotic rats. ..
- Subramanian U, Nagarajan D. All-Trans Retinoic Acid supplementation prevents cardiac fibrosis and cytokines induced by Methylglyoxal. Glycoconj J. 2017;34:255-265 pubmed publisher..Methylglyoxal-induced fibrosis can lead to pathological effects in the heart tissues. RA attenuates the effects of MG in the heart, suggesting that it can be of added value to usual diabetic therapy. ..
- Upperman J, Pillage G, Siddiqi M, Zeevi A, Kelly N, Ford H, et al. Dominance of high-producing interleukin 6 and low-producing interleukin 10 and interferon gamma alleles in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient trauma patients. Shock. 2005;23:197-201 pubmed....
- Alghasham A, Salem T, Meki A. Effect of cadmium-polluted water on plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6 and oxidative status biomarkers in rats: protective effect of curcumin. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;59:160-4 pubmed publisher..This may be involved in the mechanism of the Cd toxicity. On the other hand, the findings suggest the curative action of curcumin against Cd toxicity. ..
- Bosello S, De Santis M, Lama G, Spanò C, Angelucci C, Tolusso B, et al. B cell depletion in diffuse progressive systemic sclerosis: safety, skin score modification and IL-6 modulation in an up to thirty-six months follow-up open-label trial. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12:R54 pubmed publisher..The clear fall in IL-6 levels could contribute to the skin fibrosis improvement, while the presence of B cells in the skin seems to be irrelevant with respect to the outcome after B cell depletion. ISRCTN77554566. ..
- Yubero S, Ramudo L, Manso M, de Dios I. Targeting peripheral immune response reduces the severity of necrotizing acute pancreatitis. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:240-5 pubmed publisher....
- Jain S, Rains J, Croad J, Larson B, Jones K. Curcumin supplementation lowers TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 secretion in high glucose-treated cultured monocytes and blood levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, MCP-1, glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic rats. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2009;11:241-9 pubmed publisher..This suggests that curcumin supplementation can reduce glycemia and the risk of vascular inflammation in diabetes. ..
- Hassmann Poznańska E, Taranta A, Bialuk I, Poznańska M, Zajaczkiewicz H, Winnicka M. Analysis of gene expression profiles in tympanic membrane following perforation using PCR Array in rats--preliminary investigation. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;77:1753-9 pubmed publisher..The increased expression of genes taking part in the inflammatory reaction (interleukin 6, granulocyte and macrophage chemotactic proteins) was observed from day 2...
- Szabo Fresnais N, Blondeau J, Pomerance M. Activation of the cAMP pathway synergistically increases IL-1-induced IL-6 gene expression in FRTL-5 thyroid cells: involvement of AP-1 transcription factors. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;284:28-37 pubmed publisher..These findings contribute to elucidating the synergistic mechanisms that regulate IL-6 secretion by thyroid cells, and suggest that such mechanisms may be involved in the development of thyroid autoimmune disorders. ..
- Chava K, Karpurapu M, Wang D, Bhanoori M, Kundumani Sridharan V, Zhang Q, et al. CREB-mediated IL-6 expression is required for 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:809-15 pubmed publisher..The above results suggest a role for 15-LOX2-15-HETE in the regulation of VSMC migration and neointima formation involving CREB-mediated IL-6 expression. ..