Gene Symbol: Il2
Description: interleukin 2
Alias: interleukin-2, IL-2, T-cell growth factor, TCGF
Species: rat
Products:     Il2

Top Publications

  1. van de Wetering D, de Paus R, van Dissel J, van de Vosse E. IL-23 modulates CD56+/CD3- NK cell and CD56+/CD3+ NK-like T cell function differentially from IL-12. Int Immunol. 2009;21:145-53 pubmed publisher
  2. Li D, Jiang W, Bishop J, Ralston R, O Malley B. Combination surgery and nonviral interleukin 2 gene therapy for head and neck cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 1999;5:1551-6 pubmed
    We have developed a novel nonviral interleukin 2 (IL-2) gene therapy that demonstrates significant treatment-specific, antitumor efficacy in combination with subtotal surgical resection in a head and neck cancer murine model...
  3. Selezn ov K, Barynov E, Iel s kyĭ K, Ziablitsev S. [Interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 blood levels in sinusitis]. Fiziol Zh. 2001;47:69-73 pubmed
    ..The disbalance of anti-inflammation cytokines is reflect the acuteness a from of treatment and disposition of treatment and disposition of interleukin regulation of inflammation. ..
  4. Roh M, Kim H, Song J, Lim J, Koh H, Kwon O. Concentration of cytokines in the aqueous humor of patients with naive, recurrent and regressed CNV associated with amd after bevacizumab treatment. Retina. 2009;29:523-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha may be related to the activity of CNV. ..
  5. Cata J, Weng H, Dougherty P. Spinal injection of IL-2 or IL-15 alters mechanical and thermal withdrawal thresholds in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2008;437:45-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects dissipated within 24h. These results suggest that IL-2 and IL-15 may participate in the generation of hyperalgesia in some pain conditions. ..
  6. Shiohara T, Kobayashi M, Ishii Y, Nagashima M. Production of interleukin-2 and interleukin-2 inhibitor in patients with palmoplantar pustulosis. Acta Derm Venereol. 1987;67:422-6 pubmed
    ..The increased IL-2 production in the inactive stage may be due in part to the depletion of IL-2 inhibitor-producing cells by the treatment. ..
  7. Heike Y, Takahashi M, Ohira T, Naruse I, Hama S, Ohe Y, et al. Genetic immunotherapy by intrapleural, intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injection of IL-2 gene-modified Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Int J Cancer. 1997;73:844-9 pubmed
    ..and subcutaneous injection of interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene-modified Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells (LLC-IL2) was tested in C57BL/6 mice...
  8. Mittal N, Sanyal S. In vivo effect of surfactant on inflammatory cytokines during endotoxin-induced lung injury in rodents. J Immunotoxicol. 2011;8:274-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Last, the studies here clearly indicated that in this aspect, natural surfactant appears to be more beneficial compared to synthetic surfactant. ..
  9. Zhou C, Pridgen B, King N, Xu J, Breslow J. Hyperglycemic Ins2AkitaLdlr?/? mice show severely elevated lipid levels and increased atherosclerosis: a model of type 1 diabetic macrovascular disease. J Lipid Res. 2011;52:1483-93 pubmed publisher
    ..and Lpl, along with increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, including interleukin (Il)1?, Il1?, Il2, tumor necrosis factor (Tnf)?, and Mcp1...

More Information


  1. Ronaghy A, de Jager W, Zonneveld Huijssoon E, Klein M, van Wijk F, Rijkers G, et al. Vaccination leads to an aberrant FOXP3 T-cell response in non-remitting juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:2037-43 pubmed publisher
    ..mononuclear cells (PBMC) from polyarticular JIA exemplified higher antigen-specific CD4 T-cell proliferation, interleukin 2 (IL-2) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) production when compared with oligoarticular JIA or healthy ..
  2. Gong Z, Liu T, Wan Y, Hang Z, Tong X, Zhang B, et al. Decreased c-rel activation contributes to aberrant interleukin-2 expression in CD4(+)T cells of aged rats. Mol Immunol. 2014;61:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, reduced IL-2 production in activated CD4(+)T cells from aged rats is associated with concomitant impairments in the activation of c-rel. ..
  3. Malley S, Vizzard M. Changes in urinary bladder cytokine mRNA and protein after cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. Physiol Genomics. 2002;9:5-13 pubmed
    ..Increased cytokine expression after CYP-induced cystitis, alone or in combination with other inflammatory mediators or growth factors, may contribute to altered lower urinary tract function after cystitis...
  4. Rayhel E, Fields T, Albright J, Diamantstein T, Hughes J. Interleukin 2 and a lactogen regulate proliferation and protein phosphorylation in Nb2 cells. Biochem J. 1988;249:333-8 pubmed
    Cell proliferation and protein phosphorylation in response to activation of lactogenic and interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptors were studied in Nb2 cells, a rat T-lymphocyte cell line...
  5. Liang Q, Guo L, Gogate S, Karim Z, Hanifi A, LEUNG D, et al. IL-2 and IL-4 stimulate MEK1 expression and contribute to T cell resistance against suppression by TGF-beta and IL-10 in asthma. J Immunol. 2010;185:5704-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We have uncovered an IL-2- and IL-4-driven MEK1 induction mechanism that results in heightened ERK1/2 activation in asthmatic T cells and make them resistant to certain inhibitory mechanisms. ..
  6. Horn S, Cohen R, Gertler A. Regulation of heat-shock protein (hsp70) gene expression by hGH and IL2 in rat Nb2 lymphoma cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1994;105:139-46 pubmed
    A comparative study of hGH and IL2 post-signaling effects, as examined by RNA expression (Nb29) and protein levels of the heat-shock protein hsp70, was performed in a hormone-dependent rat lymphoma cell line, Nb2-11C...
  7. Kermani Arab V, Hirji K, Ahmed A, Fahey J. Deficiency of interleukin-2 production and interleukin-2 receptor expression on peripheral blood leukocytes after phytohemagglutinin stimulation in pemphigus. J Invest Dermatol. 1984;83:101-4 pubmed
    ..mononuclear cells from 22 pemphigus patients with active disease and 30 normal subjects were evaluated for interleukin 2 (IL-2) production and IL-2 receptor expression following stimulation with phytohemagglutinin P (PHA-P)...
  8. Khan R, Gupta S, Sharma A. Circulatory levels of T-cell cytokines (interleukin [IL]-2, IL-4, IL-17, and transforming growth factor-?) in patients with vitiligo. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;66:510-1 pubmed publisher
  9. Onorati F, Rubino A, Cuda A, Foti D, Sica V, Santini F, et al. Impact of endothelial activation on infective and inflammatory complications after cardiac surgery in type II diabetes mellitus. Int J Artif Organs. 2011;34:469-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Infections and inflammatory organ damage often complicate the postoperative course. We evaluated endothelial/cytokine response (ECR) after cardiac surgery and its role on infective/inflammatory complications of type II diabetic patients...
  10. Murugaiyan G, da Cunha A, Ajay A, Joller N, Garo L, Kumaradevan S, et al. MicroRNA-21 promotes Th17 differentiation and mediates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:1069-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we have characterized a T cell-intrinsic miRNA pathway that enhances TGF-β signaling, limits the autocrine inhibitory effects of IL-2, and thereby promotes Th17 differentiation and autoimmunity. ..
  11. Freyschmidt Paul P, McElwee K, Hoffmann R, Sundberg J, Kissling S, Hummel S, et al. Reduced expression of interleukin-2 decreases the frequency of alopecia areata onset in C3H/HeJ mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;125:945-51 pubmed
    ..Mice heterozygous for a targeted deletion of IL-2 from the histocompatible C3.129P2(B6)-Il2(tm1Hor) substrain, that produce reduced levels of IL-2, were examined for AA development after grafting skin from ..
  12. Rosa Neto J, Lira F, Zanchi N, Oyama L, Pimentel G, Santos R, et al. Acute exhaustive exercise regulates IL-2, IL-4 and MyoD in skeletal muscle but not adipose tissue in rats. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:97 pubmed publisher
    ..MyoD expression increased at E6 in EDL. Exhaustive exercise was unable to modify IL-2 and IL-4 levels in MEAT and RPAT. The results show that exhaustive exercise has different effects depending on which muscle is analysed. ..
  13. Watkins R, Pallister K, Voyich J. The SaeR/S gene regulatory system induces a pro-inflammatory cytokine response during Staphylococcus aureus infection. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19939 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus during staphylococcal disease and characterizes a relationship between a bacterial global regulator of virulence and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. ..
  14. Li L, Krajewski S, Reed J, Choi Y. The apoptosis and proliferation of SAC-activated B cells by IL-10 are associated with changes in Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 expression. Cell Immunol. 1997;178:33-41 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that IL-10 acts on the induction stage of Bcl-xL expression and regulates the apoptosis and proliferation of SAC-activated B cells through their bcl-2 family gene expression. ..
  15. Allenspach E, Cullinan P, Tong J, Tang Q, Tesciuba A, Cannon J, et al. ERM-dependent movement of CD43 defines a novel protein complex distal to the immunological synapse. Immunity. 2001;15:739-50 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that ERM proteins organize a complex distal to the T cell/APC interaction site and provide evidence that full T cell activation may involve removal of inhibitory proteins from the immunological synapse. ..
  16. Hirooka Y, Ohtake K, Nogimori T, Mitsuma T. Impaired production of interleukin-2(IL2) in patients with Graves' disease by newly developed IL2 radioimmunoassay. Exp Clin Endocrinol. 1990;96:64-72 pubmed
    ..0 +/- 35.6 U/ml, respectively). The present study demonstrates the usefulness of quantitating human interleukin-2 produced by human blood mononuclear cells and that there exists an impaired production of interleukin-2 in Graves' disease. ..
  17. Wang A, Zhang H, Zhang L, Li X, Li L, Si J, et al. [An increase in the ratio of peripheral blood CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes and the levels of connexin 40 and inflammatory factors in spontaneously hypertensive rats]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2016;32:145-8 pubmed
    ..ELISA was performed to test the levels of interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon γ (IFN-γ), IL-4 and IL-6...
  18. Cortesina G, De Stefani A, Giovarelli M, Barioglio M, Cavallo G, Jemma C, et al. Treatment of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with low doses of interleukin-2 injected perilymphatically. Cancer. 1988;62:2482-5 pubmed
    ..The injections were occasionally followed by moderate local swelling and lymph node pain, but no systemic disturbances. ..
  19. Yamashita M, Ukai Tadenuma M, Miyamoto T, Sugaya K, Hosokawa H, Hasegawa A, et al. Essential role of GATA3 for the maintenance of type 2 helper T (Th2) cytokine production and chromatin remodeling at the Th2 cytokine gene loci. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26983-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, GATA3 plays important roles in the maintenance of the Th2 phenotype and continuous chromatin remodeling of the specific Th2 cytokine gene locus through cell division. ..
  20. Willerford D, Chen J, Ferry J, Davidson L, Ma A, Alt F. Interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain regulates the size and content of the peripheral lymphoid compartment. Immunity. 1995;3:521-30 pubmed
    ..Thus, IL-2R alpha is essential for regulation of both the size and content of the peripheral lymphoid compartment, probably by influencing the balance between clonal expansion and cell death following lymphocyte activation. ..
  21. Hu J, Li C, Wang Y. Intrathecal administration of triptolide, a T lymphocyte inhibitor, attenuates chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Brain Res. 2012;1436:122-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, triptolide could be a promising immunosuppressive agent in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Further studies are required to examine the safety of intrathecal triptolide for clinical application. ..
  22. Ishikawa T, Ikawa T, Eura M, Fukiage T, Masuyama K. Adoptive immunotherapy for head and neck cancer with killer cells induced by stimulation with autologous or allogeneic tumour cells and recombinant interleukin-2. Acta Otolaryngol. 1989;107:346-51 pubmed
    ..The results suggested that adoptive immunotherapy by the killer cells can be a powerful treatment to bring the cancer under control, in with combination of other therapies. ..
  23. Jin E, Li S, Ren M, Hu Q, Gu Y, Li K. Boron Affects Immune Function Through Modulation of Splenic T Lymphocyte Subsets, Cytokine Secretion, and Lymphocyte Proliferation and Apoptosis in Rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2017;178:261-275 pubmed publisher
  24. Hershko A, Suzuki R, Charles N, Alvarez Errico D, Sargent J, Laurence A, et al. Mast cell interleukin-2 production contributes to suppression of chronic allergic dermatitis. Immunity. 2011;35:562-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Adoptive transfer of wild-type, but not Il2(-/-), mast cells into Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice dampened the inflammatory response...
  25. Moriggl R, Sexl V, Piekorz R, Topham D, Ihle J. Stat5 activation is uniquely associated with cytokine signaling in peripheral T cells. Immunity. 1999;11:225-30 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that activation of the Stat5 proteins by tyrosine phosphorylation is uniquely contributed by cytokine receptor signaling and specifically does not occur through the T cell receptor complex. ..
  26. Rocha A, De Souza C, Rocha G, De Melo F, Saraiva I, Clementino N, et al. IL1RN VNTR and IL2-330 polymorphic genes are independently associated with chronic immune thrombocytopenia. Br J Haematol. 2010;150:679-84 pubmed publisher
    ..molecules involved in proinflammatory immune response [IL1B-31T/C, IL1RN variable number tandem repeats (VNTR), IL2-330T/G, and TNF-307G/A] as well as in genes that code Toll like receptors (TLR) (TLR2 Arg753Gln, TLR4 Asp299Gly and ..
  27. Kolb H, Zielasek J, Treichel U, Freytag G, Wrann M, Kiesel U. Recombinant interleukin 2 enhances spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes in BB rats. Eur J Immunol. 1986;16:209-12 pubmed
    Treatment of BB rats with recombinant interleukin 2 (IL2) enhanced the development of spontaneous diabetes in these animals. A dose of 20 micrograms IL 2/kg body weight was administered twice daily for 80 days starting at 42 days of age...
  28. Weinberg K, Parkman R. Severe combined immunodeficiency due to a specific defect in the production of interleukin-2. N Engl J Med. 1990;322:1718-23 pubmed
  29. Shaddox L, Wiedey J, Calderón N, Magnusson I, Bimstein E, Bidwell J, et al. Local inflammatory markers and systemic endotoxin in aggressive periodontitis. J Dent Res. 2011;90:1140-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Nine mediators were elevated in LAP diseased sites as compared with healthy sites (TNF?, INF?, IL1?, IL2, IL6, IL10, Il12p40, GMCSF, and MIP1?, p < 0...
  30. Saruhan Direskeneli G, Bicakcigil M, Yilmaz V, Kamali S, Aksu K, Fresko I, et al. Interleukin (IL)-12, IL-2, and IL-6 gene polymorphisms in Takayasu's arteritis from Turkey. Hum Immunol. 2006;67:735-40 pubmed
    ..A total of 94 patients with TA were investigated for the genetic polymorphisms of the interleukin genes IL12, IL2,and IL6 and were compared with 108 healthy control subjects using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific ..
  31. Kuiper J, Mutis T, de Jager W, de Groot Mijnes J, Rothova A. Intraocular interleukin-17 and proinflammatory cytokines in HLA-A29-associated birdshot chorioretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;152:177-182.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the levels of 23 immune mediators in paired aqueous humor (AqH) and serum samples from patients with birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR)...
  32. Liljedahl M, Winqvist O, Surh C, Wong P, Ngo K, Teyton L, et al. Altered antigen presentation in mice lacking H2-O. Immunity. 1998;8:233-43 pubmed
    ..This effect may serve to decrease the presentation of antigens internalized by fluid-phase endocytosis, thus concentrating the B cell-mediated antigen presentation to antigens internalized by membrane immunoglobulin. ..
  33. Choyke P, Miller D, Lotze M, Whiteis J, Ebbitt B, Rosenberg S. Delayed reactions to contrast media after interleukin-2 immunotherapy. Radiology. 1992;183:111-4 pubmed
    ..Most delayed reactions do not require therapy, but, when necessary, therapy is usually limited to relief of symptoms. ..
  34. Vigne S, Palmer G, Martin P, Lamacchia C, Strebel D, Rodriguez E, et al. IL-36 signaling amplifies Th1 responses by enhancing proliferation and Th1 polarization of naive CD4+ T cells. Blood. 2012;120:3478-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings point toward a critical function of IL-36 in the priming of Th1 cell responses in vitro, and in adaptive immunity in a model of mycobacterial infection in vivo. ..
  35. Pawlak C, Schwarting R, Bauhofer A. Cytokine mRNA levels in brain and peripheral tissues of the rat: relationships with plus-maze behavior. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;137:159-65 pubmed
    ..These results provide new evidence indicating that cytokine mRNA in the brain can be related to elevated plus-maze behavior and that this relationship is site (prefrontal cortex, striatum)- and cytokine mRNA-specific (IL-2). ..
  36. Chen Y, Yan T, Shi L, Liu Z, Liang S, Luan X, et al. Knockdown of interleukin-2 by shRNA-mediated RNA interference prolongs liver allograft survival. J Surg Res. 2010;159:582-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that IL-2 targeting using RNA interference approach may be of potential interest in organ transplantation. ..
  37. Charteris D, Lightman S. Comparison of the expression of interferon gamma, IL2, IL4, and lymphotoxin mRNA in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 1994;78:786-90 pubmed
    ..EAU) by quantifying the numbers of cells expressing mRNA for each of the lymphokines interferon gamma, interleukin 2, interleukin 4, and lymphotoxin throughout the disease process...
  38. Huberman M, Sredni B, Stern L, Kott E, Shalit F. IL-2 and IL-6 secretion in dementia: correlation with type and severity of disease. J Neurol Sci. 1995;130:161-4 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that increased levels of IL-2-production correlate with severity of the dementia, whereas increased levels of IL-6 production seem to be related to AD and thus may play a role in AD pathogenesis. ..
  39. Su H, Lu R, Ding R, Kan Y. Adeno-associated viral-mediated gene transfer to hepatoma: thymidine kinase/interleukin 2 is more effective in tumor killing in non-ganciclovir (GCV)-treated than in GCV-treated animals. Mol Ther. 2000;1:509-15 pubmed
    b>Interleukin 2 (IL-2) enhancement of herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV-TK)/ganciclovir (GCV)-induced tumor killing was studied by cloning the human interleukin 2 gene into an HSV-TK-bearing adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector (TK/..
  40. Zhang M, Wu N, Yang L, Zhang J, Sun X, Zhong S, et al. Study on the T-helper cell 1/2 cytokine profile in blister fluid of patients with herpes zoster and its clinical significance. J Dermatol. 2011;38:1158-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggested that the Th immunity was associated with disease activity, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HZ. ..
  41. Jiang C, Ye D, Qiu W, Zhang X, Zhang Z, He D, et al. Response of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines to Shenyang prescription in Sprague-Dawley rats with tongue squamous cell carcinomas induced by 4NQO. BMC Cancer. 2007;7:40 pubmed
    ..Oral cancer progression was associated with an aggressive disturbance of immune function. "Shenyang" prescription has the ability to improve the disturbance of immune function. ..
  42. Kondo N, Fukutomi O, Shinbara M, Orii T. Inhibition of interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 production from lymphocytes stimulated with food antigens by an anti-allergic drug, Tranilast, in patients with food-sensitive atopic dermatitis. Biotherapy. 1994;8:19-22 pubmed
    ..Moreover, interleukin-2 (IL-2) production of OA-stimulated PBMCs from hen's egg-sensitive patients with AD was also inhibited by Tranilast. Our results suggest that Tranilast can be used to the patients with food sensitive AD. ..
  43. Parker J, Caldini G, Krishnamurti C, Ahrens P, Ankel H. Binding of interleukin 2 to gangliosides. FEBS Lett. 1984;170:391-5 pubmed
    Exogenous gangliosides inhibit interleukin 2 (IL2)-dependent growth of a T cell line, AKIL -1.E8...
  44. Pan H, Lu H, Hu W, Tian B, Liu X, Zhang Z, et al. Anti-CD25 mAb, anti-IL2 mAb, and IL2 block tolerance induction through anti-CD154 mAb and rapamycin in xenogeneic islet transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2007;39:3452-4 pubmed
    ..We then administered in addition to the combination therapy with early (from days 0 to 14 [for IL2] or to 28 [for anti-IL2 mAb and anti-CD25 mAb] post-transplantation) or late (from days 100 to 114 [for IL2] or to ..
  45. Sant Angelo D, Waterbury G, Preston Hurlburt P, Yoon S, Medzhitov R, Hong S, et al. The specificity and orientation of a TCR to its peptide-MHC class II ligands. Immunity. 1996;4:367-76 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, we propose an orientation for the TCR of this cloned line and argue for its generality. ..
  46. Hoeve M, Savage N, De Boer T, Langenberg D, de Waal Malefyt R, Ottenhoff T, et al. Divergent effects of IL-12 and IL-23 on the production of IL-17 by human T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:661-70 pubmed
  47. Rizos I, Tsiodras S, Rigopoulos A, Dragomanovits S, Kalogeropoulos A, Papathanasiou S, et al. Interleukin-2 serum levels variations in recent onset atrial fibrillation are related with cardioversion outcome. Cytokine. 2007;40:157-64 pubmed
    ..This observation highlights the role of inflammation in AF and might have further prognostic and therapeutic implications. ..
  48. Sadra A, Cinek T, Imboden J. Translocation of CD28 to lipid rafts and costimulation of IL-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11422-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together with the known importance of lipid rafts in T cell activation, these observations suggest that translocation to lipid rafts may play an important role in CD28 signaling. ..
  49. Shen Y, Liu S, Zhan M, Luo J, Zhu L. Interleukin-2 enhances dendritic development and spinogenesis in cultured hippocampal neurons. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2010;293:1017-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that IL-2 affects the dendritic development and spinogenesis of cultured hippocampal neurons, especially during the early developmental stage. ..
  50. Hsieh K, Chou C, Huang S. Interleukin 2 therapy in severe atopic dermatitis. J Clin Immunol. 1991;11:22-8 pubmed
    b>Interleukin 2 (IL-2) at a dose of 10,000 to 20,000 U/kg/q 8 hr was given for 9-12 days to six patients with cases of severe atopic dermatitis (AD) which were refractory to conventional therapy...
  51. Shaashua L, Sominsky L, Levi B, Sorski L, Reznick M, Page G, et al. In vivo suppression of plasma IL-12 levels by acute and chronic stress paradigms: potential mediating mechanisms and sex differences. Brain Behav Immun. 2012;26:996-1005 pubmed publisher
  52. Orecchia G, Capelli E, Martinetti M, Cuccia Belvedere M, Rabbiosi G. Decreased in vitro lymphocyte stimulation and reduced sensitivity to IL-2 in patients with alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol Res. 1988;280 Suppl:S47-50 pubmed
    ..The relationship between reduced in vitro response to mitogens and particularly to IL-2, and in vivo response to sensitization to SADBE and the presence of HLA-DR5 are discussed. ..
  53. Reiner N, Finke J. Interleukin 2 deficiency in murine Leishmaniasis donovani and its relationship to depressed spleen cell responses to phytohemagglutinin. J Immunol. 1983;131:1487-91 pubmed
    ..Mice with 2 wk of infection did manifest an impairment in spleen cell production of interleukin 2 (IL 2) and by 8 wk IL 2 activity in supernatants from these cells was reduced by approximately 95%...
  54. Graf M, Prins R, Poulsen G, Merchant R. Contrasting effects of interleukin-2 secretion by rat glioma cells contingent upon anatomical location: accelerated tumorigenesis in the central nervous system and complete rejection in the periphery. J Neuroimmunol. 2003;140:49-60 pubmed
    Rat T9.F glioma cells were transduced with the interleukin (IL)-2 gene. Clone T9.F/IL2/#12 secreted a high level of IL-2 (15 ng/10(6) cells/48 h). Enhanced tumor progression and reduced survival was observed when T9...
  55. Mattuzzi S, Barbi S, Carletto A, Ravagnani V, Moore P, Bambara L, et al. Association of polymorphisms in the IL1B and IL2 genes with susceptibility and severity of systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol. 2007;34:997-1004 pubmed
    To investigate possible associations of 9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the IL10, IL1B, IL1A, IL1RN, IL2, LTA, and IL6 genes with susceptibility to systemic sclerosis (SSc), and with clinical subtype of SSc patients...
  56. Deshmukh H, Hamburger J, Ahn S, McCafferty D, Yang S, Fowler V. Critical role of NOD2 in regulating the immune response to Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun. 2009;77:1376-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, mice deficient in NOD2 are more susceptible to S. aureus. Increased susceptibility is due in part to defective neutrophil phagocytosis, elevated serum levels of Th1 cytokines, and a higher bacterial tissue burden. ..
  57. Hautala N, Glumoff V, Hautala T, Vainio O. IL-2 may possess neuroprotective properties in glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Acta Ophthalmol. 2012;90:e246-7 pubmed publisher
  58. Karrenbauer B, Muller C, Ho Y, Spanagel R, Huston J, Schwarting R, et al. Time-dependent in-vivo effects of interleukin-2 on neurotransmitters in various cortices: relationships with depressive-related and anxiety-like behaviour. J Neuroimmunol. 2011;237:23-32 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-2 had dose-dependent effects on depressive-related behaviour after delayed but not acute testing, but no effects on anxiety-like behaviour. ..
  59. Chuang Y, Tyagi P, Huang H, Yoshimura N, Wu M, Kaufman J, et al. Intravesical immune suppression by liposomal tacrolimus in cyclophosphamide-induced inflammatory cystitis. Neurourol Urodyn. 2011;30:421-7 pubmed publisher
    ..0% decrease in untreated animals) as well as normalized the several fold elevation of IL 2 and PGE2 levels in tissue and urine. CYP induced effects were not suppressed in rats left untreated with tacrolimus...
  60. Sears B, Volkmer D, Yong S, Himes R, Lauing K, Morgan M, et al. Correlation of measurable serum markers of inflammation with lung levels following bilateral femur fracture in a rat model. J Inflamm Res. 2010;2010:105-114 pubmed
    ..Ultimately, analysis of serum levels of KC/GRO (CINC-1), or human IL-8, may be a useful adjunct to guide clinical decisions regarding surgical timing. ..
  61. Alcocer Varela J, Reyes López P, Sánchez Torres G, Alarcon Segovia D. Immunologic studies in patients with Takayasu's arteritis. III. Immunoregulatory changes. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1989;7:345-50 pubmed
    ..and spontaneously expanded suppression, normal NK cell function and normal enhancement of NK cell function by interleukin 2. The findings indicate that the immunoregulatory disturbance of TKA is different from that occurring in ..
  62. Zhang H, Hua Q. [The clinical studies of 30 cases perennial allergic rhinitis with special immunotherapy]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2007;21:356-8 pubmed
    ..53% (54/3530). Both side-effects were slight. Specific immunotherapy is a sort of effective method for treating perennial allergic rhinitis, so it is worth spreading. ..
  63. Bujia J, Kim C, Ostos P, Sudhoff H, Kastenbauer E, Hültner L. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) and IL-1-receptor antagonist (IL-1-RA) in middle ear cholesteatoma: an analysis of protein production and biological activity. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1996;253:252-5 pubmed
    ..Furthermore IL-1-RA production is deficient relative to total IL-1 production, resulting in the presence of active IL-1. ..
  64. Case J, Lorberboum Galski H, Lafyatis R, Fitzgerald D, Wilder R, Pastan I. Chimeric cytotoxin IL2-PE40 delays and mitigates adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:287-91 pubmed
    ..adjuvant leads to T-cell activation and proliferation, processes in which the de novo expression of the interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor plays a pivotal role...
  65. Chen G, Mi J, Xiao M, Fu Y. PDIA3 mRNA expression and IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and CRP levels of acute kidney allograft rejection in rat. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:5233-8 pubmed publisher
  66. Ting C, Yang S, Hargrove M. Induction of suppressor T cells by interleukin 2. J Immunol. 1984;133:261-6 pubmed
    The optimal concentration of interleukin 2 (IL 2) for maintaining the in vitro growth of T cells was quite different from that required for the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in nu/nu spleen cells...
  67. Cao S, Wang Y, Ren X, Yu J, Ren B, Zhang X, et al. Efficacy of large doses of IL-2-activated human leukocyte antigen haploidentical peripheral blood stem cells on refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2011;26:503-10 pubmed publisher
    ..5 months (3-14 months). The adoptive transfusion of IL-2-activated haplo-PBSCs can induce sustained antitumor effects for advanced intractable RCC patients who have had no response to conventional immunotherapy. ..
  68. Koulmanda M, Budo E, Bonner Weir S, Qipo A, Putheti P, Degauque N, et al. Modification of adverse inflammation is required to cure new-onset type 1 diabetic hosts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:13074-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, this triple-therapy regimen, possessing both tolerance-inducing and select antiinflammatory properties, may represent a prototype for therapies able to restore euglycemia and self-tolerance in T1DM. ..
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