Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Il2
Description: interleukin 2
Alias: interleukin-2, IL-2, T-cell growth factor, TCGF
- Roh M, Kim H, Song J, Lim J, Koh H, Kwon O. Concentration of cytokines in the aqueous humor of patients with naive, recurrent and regressed CNV associated with amd after bevacizumab treatment. Retina. 2009;29:523-9 pubmed publisher..Moreover, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha may be related to the activity of CNV. ..
- Mittal N, Sanyal S. In vivo effect of surfactant on inflammatory cytokines during endotoxin-induced lung injury in rodents. J Immunotoxicol. 2011;8:274-83 pubmed publisher..Last, the studies here clearly indicated that in this aspect, natural surfactant appears to be more beneficial compared to synthetic surfactant. ..
- Zhou C, Pridgen B, King N, Xu J, Breslow J. Hyperglycemic Ins2AkitaLdlr?/? mice show severely elevated lipid levels and increased atherosclerosis: a model of type 1 diabetic macrovascular disease. J Lipid Res. 2011;52:1483-93 pubmed publisher..and Lpl, along with increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, including interleukin (Il)1?, Il1?, Il2, tumor necrosis factor (Tnf)?, and Mcp1...
- Ronaghy A, de Jager W, Zonneveld Huijssoon E, Klein M, van Wijk F, Rijkers G, et al. Vaccination leads to an aberrant FOXP3 T-cell response in non-remitting juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:2037-43 pubmed publisher..mononuclear cells (PBMC) from polyarticular JIA exemplified higher antigen-specific CD4 T-cell proliferation, interleukin 2 (IL-2) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) production when compared with oligoarticular JIA or healthy ..
- Gong Z, Liu T, Wan Y, Hang Z, Tong X, Zhang B, et al. Decreased c-rel activation contributes to aberrant interleukin-2 expression in CD4(+)T cells of aged rats. Mol Immunol. 2014;61:1-6 pubmed publisher..Therefore, reduced IL-2 production in activated CD4(+)T cells from aged rats is associated with concomitant impairments in the activation of c-rel. ..
- Malley S, Vizzard M. Changes in urinary bladder cytokine mRNA and protein after cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. Physiol Genomics. 2002;9:5-13 pubmed..Increased cytokine expression after CYP-induced cystitis, alone or in combination with other inflammatory mediators or growth factors, may contribute to altered lower urinary tract function after cystitis...
- Liang Q, Guo L, Gogate S, Karim Z, Hanifi A, LEUNG D, et al. IL-2 and IL-4 stimulate MEK1 expression and contribute to T cell resistance against suppression by TGF-beta and IL-10 in asthma. J Immunol. 2010;185:5704-13 pubmed publisher..We have uncovered an IL-2- and IL-4-driven MEK1 induction mechanism that results in heightened ERK1/2 activation in asthmatic T cells and make them resistant to certain inhibitory mechanisms. ..
- Onorati F, Rubino A, Cuda A, Foti D, Sica V, Santini F, et al. Impact of endothelial activation on infective and inflammatory complications after cardiac surgery in type II diabetes mellitus. Int J Artif Organs. 2011;34:469-80 pubmed publisher..Infections and inflammatory organ damage often complicate the postoperative course. We evaluated endothelial/cytokine response (ECR) after cardiac surgery and its role on infective/inflammatory complications of type II diabetic patients...
- Murugaiyan G, da Cunha A, Ajay A, Joller N, Garo L, Kumaradevan S, et al. MicroRNA-21 promotes Th17 differentiation and mediates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:1069-80 pubmed publisher..Thus, we have characterized a T cell-intrinsic miRNA pathway that enhances TGF-Î² signaling, limits the autocrine inhibitory effects of IL-2, and thereby promotes Th17 differentiation and autoimmunity. ..
- Freyschmidt Paul P, McElwee K, Hoffmann R, Sundberg J, Kissling S, Hummel S, et al. Reduced expression of interleukin-2 decreases the frequency of alopecia areata onset in C3H/HeJ mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;125:945-51 pubmed..Mice heterozygous for a targeted deletion of IL-2 from the histocompatible C3.129P2(B6)-Il2(tm1Hor) substrain, that produce reduced levels of IL-2, were examined for AA development after grafting skin from ..
- Watkins R, Pallister K, Voyich J. The SaeR/S gene regulatory system induces a pro-inflammatory cytokine response during Staphylococcus aureus infection. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19939 pubmed publisher..aureus during staphylococcal disease and characterizes a relationship between a bacterial global regulator of virulence and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. ..
- Li L, Krajewski S, Reed J, Choi Y. The apoptosis and proliferation of SAC-activated B cells by IL-10 are associated with changes in Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 expression. Cell Immunol. 1997;178:33-41 pubmed..Taken together, our data suggest that IL-10 acts on the induction stage of Bcl-xL expression and regulates the apoptosis and proliferation of SAC-activated B cells through their bcl-2 family gene expression. ..
- Allenspach E, Cullinan P, Tong J, Tang Q, Tesciuba A, Cannon J, et al. ERM-dependent movement of CD43 defines a novel protein complex distal to the immunological synapse. Immunity. 2001;15:739-50 pubmed..These results indicate that ERM proteins organize a complex distal to the T cell/APC interaction site and provide evidence that full T cell activation may involve removal of inhibitory proteins from the immunological synapse. ..
- Wang A, Zhang H, Zhang L, Li X, Li L, Si J, et al. [An increase in the ratio of peripheral blood CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes and the levels of connexin 40 and inflammatory factors in spontaneously hypertensive rats]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2016;32:145-8 pubmed..ELISA was performed to test the levels of interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon Î³ (IFN-Î³), IL-4 and IL-6...
- Cortesina G, De Stefani A, Giovarelli M, Barioglio M, Cavallo G, Jemma C, et al. Treatment of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with low doses of interleukin-2 injected perilymphatically. Cancer. 1988;62:2482-5 pubmed..The injections were occasionally followed by moderate local swelling and lymph node pain, but no systemic disturbances. ..
- Yamashita M, Ukai Tadenuma M, Miyamoto T, Sugaya K, Hosokawa H, Hasegawa A, et al. Essential role of GATA3 for the maintenance of type 2 helper T (Th2) cytokine production and chromatin remodeling at the Th2 cytokine gene loci. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26983-90 pubmed..Thus, GATA3 plays important roles in the maintenance of the Th2 phenotype and continuous chromatin remodeling of the specific Th2 cytokine gene locus through cell division. ..
- Willerford D, Chen J, Ferry J, Davidson L, Ma A, Alt F. Interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain regulates the size and content of the peripheral lymphoid compartment. Immunity. 1995;3:521-30 pubmed..Thus, IL-2R alpha is essential for regulation of both the size and content of the peripheral lymphoid compartment, probably by influencing the balance between clonal expansion and cell death following lymphocyte activation. ..
- Hershko A, Suzuki R, Charles N, Alvarez Errico D, Sargent J, Laurence A, et al. Mast cell interleukin-2 production contributes to suppression of chronic allergic dermatitis. Immunity. 2011;35:562-71 pubmed publisher..Adoptive transfer of wild-type, but not Il2(-/-), mast cells into Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice dampened the inflammatory response...
- Moriggl R, Sexl V, Piekorz R, Topham D, Ihle J. Stat5 activation is uniquely associated with cytokine signaling in peripheral T cells. Immunity. 1999;11:225-30 pubmed..Here we demonstrate that activation of the Stat5 proteins by tyrosine phosphorylation is uniquely contributed by cytokine receptor signaling and specifically does not occur through the T cell receptor complex. ..
- Rocha A, De Souza C, Rocha G, De Melo F, Saraiva I, Clementino N, et al. IL1RN VNTR and IL2-330 polymorphic genes are independently associated with chronic immune thrombocytopenia. Br J Haematol. 2010;150:679-84 pubmed publisher..molecules involved in proinflammatory immune response [IL1B-31T/C, IL1RN variable number tandem repeats (VNTR), IL2-330T/G, and TNF-307G/A] as well as in genes that code Toll like receptors (TLR) (TLR2 Arg753Gln, TLR4 Asp299Gly and ..
- Kolb H, Zielasek J, Treichel U, Freytag G, Wrann M, Kiesel U. Recombinant interleukin 2 enhances spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes in BB rats. Eur J Immunol. 1986;16:209-12 pubmedTreatment of BB rats with recombinant interleukin 2 (IL2) enhanced the development of spontaneous diabetes in these animals. A dose of 20 micrograms IL 2/kg body weight was administered twice daily for 80 days starting at 42 days of age...
- Weinberg K, Parkman R. Severe combined immunodeficiency due to a specific defect in the production of interleukin-2. N Engl J Med. 1990;322:1718-23 pubmed
- Shaddox L, Wiedey J, Calderón N, Magnusson I, Bimstein E, Bidwell J, et al. Local inflammatory markers and systemic endotoxin in aggressive periodontitis. J Dent Res. 2011;90:1140-4 pubmed publisher..Nine mediators were elevated in LAP diseased sites as compared with healthy sites (TNF?, INF?, IL1?, IL2, IL6, IL10, Il12p40, GMCSF, and MIP1?, p < 0...
- Saruhan Direskeneli G, Bicakcigil M, Yilmaz V, Kamali S, Aksu K, Fresko I, et al. Interleukin (IL)-12, IL-2, and IL-6 gene polymorphisms in Takayasu's arteritis from Turkey. Hum Immunol. 2006;67:735-40 pubmed..A total of 94 patients with TA were investigated for the genetic polymorphisms of the interleukin genes IL12, IL2,and IL6 and were compared with 108 healthy control subjects using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific ..
- Kuiper J, Mutis T, de Jager W, de Groot Mijnes J, Rothova A. Intraocular interleukin-17 and proinflammatory cytokines in HLA-A29-associated birdshot chorioretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;152:177-182.e1 pubmed publisher..To determine the levels of 23 immune mediators in paired aqueous humor (AqH) and serum samples from patients with birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR)...
- Liljedahl M, Winqvist O, Surh C, Wong P, Ngo K, Teyton L, et al. Altered antigen presentation in mice lacking H2-O. Immunity. 1998;8:233-43 pubmed..This effect may serve to decrease the presentation of antigens internalized by fluid-phase endocytosis, thus concentrating the B cell-mediated antigen presentation to antigens internalized by membrane immunoglobulin. ..
- Choyke P, Miller D, Lotze M, Whiteis J, Ebbitt B, Rosenberg S. Delayed reactions to contrast media after interleukin-2 immunotherapy. Radiology. 1992;183:111-4 pubmed..Most delayed reactions do not require therapy, but, when necessary, therapy is usually limited to relief of symptoms. ..
- Vigne S, Palmer G, Martin P, Lamacchia C, Strebel D, Rodriguez E, et al. IL-36 signaling amplifies Th1 responses by enhancing proliferation and Th1 polarization of naive CD4+ T cells. Blood. 2012;120:3478-87 pubmed publisher..Our findings point toward a critical function of IL-36 in the priming of Th1 cell responses in vitro, and in adaptive immunity in a model of mycobacterial infection in vivo. ..
- Pawlak C, Schwarting R, Bauhofer A. Cytokine mRNA levels in brain and peripheral tissues of the rat: relationships with plus-maze behavior. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;137:159-65 pubmed..These results provide new evidence indicating that cytokine mRNA in the brain can be related to elevated plus-maze behavior and that this relationship is site (prefrontal cortex, striatum)- and cytokine mRNA-specific (IL-2). ..
- Chen Y, Yan T, Shi L, Liu Z, Liang S, Luan X, et al. Knockdown of interleukin-2 by shRNA-mediated RNA interference prolongs liver allograft survival. J Surg Res. 2010;159:582-7 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that IL-2 targeting using RNA interference approach may be of potential interest in organ transplantation. ..
- Charteris D, Lightman S. Comparison of the expression of interferon gamma, IL2, IL4, and lymphotoxin mRNA in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 1994;78:786-90 pubmed..EAU) by quantifying the numbers of cells expressing mRNA for each of the lymphokines interferon gamma, interleukin 2, interleukin 4, and lymphotoxin throughout the disease process...
- Huberman M, Sredni B, Stern L, Kott E, Shalit F. IL-2 and IL-6 secretion in dementia: correlation with type and severity of disease. J Neurol Sci. 1995;130:161-4 pubmed..Our results suggest that increased levels of IL-2-production correlate with severity of the dementia, whereas increased levels of IL-6 production seem to be related to AD and thus may play a role in AD pathogenesis. ..
- Su H, Lu R, Ding R, Kan Y. Adeno-associated viral-mediated gene transfer to hepatoma: thymidine kinase/interleukin 2 is more effective in tumor killing in non-ganciclovir (GCV)-treated than in GCV-treated animals. Mol Ther. 2000;1:509-15 pubmedb>Interleukin 2 (IL-2) enhancement of herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV-TK)/ganciclovir (GCV)-induced tumor killing was studied by cloning the human interleukin 2 gene into an HSV-TK-bearing adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector (TK/..
- Zhang M, Wu N, Yang L, Zhang J, Sun X, Zhong S, et al. Study on the T-helper cell 1/2 cytokine profile in blister fluid of patients with herpes zoster and its clinical significance. J Dermatol. 2011;38:1158-62 pubmed publisher..Our data suggested that the Th immunity was associated with disease activity, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HZ. ..
- Jiang C, Ye D, Qiu W, Zhang X, Zhang Z, He D, et al. Response of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines to Shenyang prescription in Sprague-Dawley rats with tongue squamous cell carcinomas induced by 4NQO. BMC Cancer. 2007;7:40 pubmed..Oral cancer progression was associated with an aggressive disturbance of immune function. "Shenyang" prescription has the ability to improve the disturbance of immune function. ..
- Kondo N, Fukutomi O, Shinbara M, Orii T. Inhibition of interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 production from lymphocytes stimulated with food antigens by an anti-allergic drug, Tranilast, in patients with food-sensitive atopic dermatitis. Biotherapy. 1994;8:19-22 pubmed..Moreover, interleukin-2 (IL-2) production of OA-stimulated PBMCs from hen's egg-sensitive patients with AD was also inhibited by Tranilast. Our results suggest that Tranilast can be used to the patients with food sensitive AD. ..
- Parker J, Caldini G, Krishnamurti C, Ahrens P, Ankel H. Binding of interleukin 2 to gangliosides. FEBS Lett. 1984;170:391-5 pubmedExogenous gangliosides inhibit interleukin 2 (IL2)-dependent growth of a T cell line, AKIL -1.E8...
- Pan H, Lu H, Hu W, Tian B, Liu X, Zhang Z, et al. Anti-CD25 mAb, anti-IL2 mAb, and IL2 block tolerance induction through anti-CD154 mAb and rapamycin in xenogeneic islet transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2007;39:3452-4 pubmed..We then administered in addition to the combination therapy with early (from days 0 to 14 [for IL2] or to 28 [for anti-IL2 mAb and anti-CD25 mAb] post-transplantation) or late (from days 100 to 114 [for IL2] or to ..
- Sant Angelo D, Waterbury G, Preston Hurlburt P, Yoon S, Medzhitov R, Hong S, et al. The specificity and orientation of a TCR to its peptide-MHC class II ligands. Immunity. 1996;4:367-76 pubmed..Based on these results, we propose an orientation for the TCR of this cloned line and argue for its generality. ..
- Hoeve M, Savage N, De Boer T, Langenberg D, de Waal Malefyt R, Ottenhoff T, et al. Divergent effects of IL-12 and IL-23 on the production of IL-17 by human T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:661-70 pubmed
- Rizos I, Tsiodras S, Rigopoulos A, Dragomanovits S, Kalogeropoulos A, Papathanasiou S, et al. Interleukin-2 serum levels variations in recent onset atrial fibrillation are related with cardioversion outcome. Cytokine. 2007;40:157-64 pubmed..This observation highlights the role of inflammation in AF and might have further prognostic and therapeutic implications. ..
- Sadra A, Cinek T, Imboden J. Translocation of CD28 to lipid rafts and costimulation of IL-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11422-7 pubmed..Taken together with the known importance of lipid rafts in T cell activation, these observations suggest that translocation to lipid rafts may play an important role in CD28 signaling. ..
- Shen Y, Liu S, Zhan M, Luo J, Zhu L. Interleukin-2 enhances dendritic development and spinogenesis in cultured hippocampal neurons. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2010;293:1017-23 pubmed publisher..These results indicate that IL-2 affects the dendritic development and spinogenesis of cultured hippocampal neurons, especially during the early developmental stage. ..
- Hsieh K, Chou C, Huang S. Interleukin 2 therapy in severe atopic dermatitis. J Clin Immunol. 1991;11:22-8 pubmedb>Interleukin 2 (IL-2) at a dose of 10,000 to 20,000 U/kg/q 8 hr was given for 9-12 days to six patients with cases of severe atopic dermatitis (AD) which were refractory to conventional therapy...
- Orecchia G, Capelli E, Martinetti M, Cuccia Belvedere M, Rabbiosi G. Decreased in vitro lymphocyte stimulation and reduced sensitivity to IL-2 in patients with alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol Res. 1988;280 Suppl:S47-50 pubmed..The relationship between reduced in vitro response to mitogens and particularly to IL-2, and in vivo response to sensitization to SADBE and the presence of HLA-DR5 are discussed. ..
- Reiner N, Finke J. Interleukin 2 deficiency in murine Leishmaniasis donovani and its relationship to depressed spleen cell responses to phytohemagglutinin. J Immunol. 1983;131:1487-91 pubmed..Mice with 2 wk of infection did manifest an impairment in spleen cell production of interleukin 2 (IL 2) and by 8 wk IL 2 activity in supernatants from these cells was reduced by approximately 95%...
- Graf M, Prins R, Poulsen G, Merchant R. Contrasting effects of interleukin-2 secretion by rat glioma cells contingent upon anatomical location: accelerated tumorigenesis in the central nervous system and complete rejection in the periphery. J Neuroimmunol. 2003;140:49-60 pubmedRat T9.F glioma cells were transduced with the interleukin (IL)-2 gene. Clone T9.F/IL2/#12 secreted a high level of IL-2 (15 ng/10(6) cells/48 h). Enhanced tumor progression and reduced survival was observed when T9...
- Mattuzzi S, Barbi S, Carletto A, Ravagnani V, Moore P, Bambara L, et al. Association of polymorphisms in the IL1B and IL2 genes with susceptibility and severity of systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol. 2007;34:997-1004 pubmedTo investigate possible associations of 9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the IL10, IL1B, IL1A, IL1RN, IL2, LTA, and IL6 genes with susceptibility to systemic sclerosis (SSc), and with clinical subtype of SSc patients...
- Deshmukh H, Hamburger J, Ahn S, McCafferty D, Yang S, Fowler V. Critical role of NOD2 in regulating the immune response to Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun. 2009;77:1376-82 pubmed publisher..Thus, mice deficient in NOD2 are more susceptible to S. aureus. Increased susceptibility is due in part to defective neutrophil phagocytosis, elevated serum levels of Th1 cytokines, and a higher bacterial tissue burden. ..
- Karrenbauer B, Muller C, Ho Y, Spanagel R, Huston J, Schwarting R, et al. Time-dependent in-vivo effects of interleukin-2 on neurotransmitters in various cortices: relationships with depressive-related and anxiety-like behaviour. J Neuroimmunol. 2011;237:23-32 pubmed publisher..IL-2 had dose-dependent effects on depressive-related behaviour after delayed but not acute testing, but no effects on anxiety-like behaviour. ..
- Chuang Y, Tyagi P, Huang H, Yoshimura N, Wu M, Kaufman J, et al. Intravesical immune suppression by liposomal tacrolimus in cyclophosphamide-induced inflammatory cystitis. Neurourol Urodyn. 2011;30:421-7 pubmed publisher..0% decrease in untreated animals) as well as normalized the several fold elevation of IL 2 and PGE2 levels in tissue and urine. CYP induced effects were not suppressed in rats left untreated with tacrolimus...
- Sears B, Volkmer D, Yong S, Himes R, Lauing K, Morgan M, et al. Correlation of measurable serum markers of inflammation with lung levels following bilateral femur fracture in a rat model. J Inflamm Res. 2010;2010:105-114 pubmed..Ultimately, analysis of serum levels of KC/GRO (CINC-1), or human IL-8, may be a useful adjunct to guide clinical decisions regarding surgical timing. ..
- Alcocer Varela J, Reyes López P, Sánchez Torres G, Alarcon Segovia D. Immunologic studies in patients with Takayasu's arteritis. III. Immunoregulatory changes. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1989;7:345-50 pubmed..and spontaneously expanded suppression, normal NK cell function and normal enhancement of NK cell function by interleukin 2. The findings indicate that the immunoregulatory disturbance of TKA is different from that occurring in ..
- Zhang H, Hua Q. [The clinical studies of 30 cases perennial allergic rhinitis with special immunotherapy]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2007;21:356-8 pubmed..53% (54/3530). Both side-effects were slight. Specific immunotherapy is a sort of effective method for treating perennial allergic rhinitis, so it is worth spreading. ..
- Bujia J, Kim C, Ostos P, Sudhoff H, Kastenbauer E, Hültner L. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) and IL-1-receptor antagonist (IL-1-RA) in middle ear cholesteatoma: an analysis of protein production and biological activity. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1996;253:252-5 pubmed..Furthermore IL-1-RA production is deficient relative to total IL-1 production, resulting in the presence of active IL-1. ..
- Case J, Lorberboum Galski H, Lafyatis R, Fitzgerald D, Wilder R, Pastan I. Chimeric cytotoxin IL2-PE40 delays and mitigates adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:287-91 pubmed..adjuvant leads to T-cell activation and proliferation, processes in which the de novo expression of the interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor plays a pivotal role...
- Ting C, Yang S, Hargrove M. Induction of suppressor T cells by interleukin 2. J Immunol. 1984;133:261-6 pubmedThe optimal concentration of interleukin 2 (IL 2) for maintaining the in vitro growth of T cells was quite different from that required for the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in nu/nu spleen cells...
- Cao S, Wang Y, Ren X, Yu J, Ren B, Zhang X, et al. Efficacy of large doses of IL-2-activated human leukocyte antigen haploidentical peripheral blood stem cells on refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2011;26:503-10 pubmed publisher..5 months (3-14 months). The adoptive transfusion of IL-2-activated haplo-PBSCs can induce sustained antitumor effects for advanced intractable RCC patients who have had no response to conventional immunotherapy. ..
- Koulmanda M, Budo E, Bonner Weir S, Qipo A, Putheti P, Degauque N, et al. Modification of adverse inflammation is required to cure new-onset type 1 diabetic hosts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:13074-9 pubmed..Thus, this triple-therapy regimen, possessing both tolerance-inducing and select antiinflammatory properties, may represent a prototype for therapies able to restore euglycemia and self-tolerance in T1DM. ..
- Bikhazi P, Ryan A. Expression of immunoregulatory cytokines during acute and chronic middle ear immune response. Laryngoscope. 1995;105:629-34 pubmed..These finding support a model by which locally produced IL-2 and IL-4 augment IgG production in acute OME, whereas, IL-5 contributes to increased IgA production in chronic OME. ..
- Adam B, Liebregts T, Gschossmann J, Krippner C, Scholl F, Ruwe M, et al. Severity of mucosal inflammation as a predictor for alterations of visceral sensory function in a rat model. Pain. 2006;123:179-86 pubmed..Visceral hyperalgesia occurs after a transient colitis. However, even a mild acute but asymptomatic colitis can induce long-lasting visceral hyperalgesia in the presence of additional stimuli. ..
- Verma N, Plain K, Nomura M, Tran G, Robinson C, Boyd R, et al. CD4+CD25+ T cells alloactivated ex vivo by IL-2 or IL-4 become potent alloantigen-specific inhibitors of rejection with different phenotypes, suggesting separate pathways of activation by Th1 and Th2 responses. Blood. 2009;113:479-87 pubmed publisher..These findings suggested that T-helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 responses activate 2 pathways of adaptive Ag-specific Tregs that mediate tolerance. We propose they be known as T-suppressor 1 (Ts1) and Ts2 cells. ..
- Dang S, Zhang J, Qu J, Mao Z, Wang X, Zhu B. Dynamic changes of IL-2/IL-10, sFas and expression of Fas in intestinal mucosa in rats with acute necrotizing pancreatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:2246-50 pubmed..Fas were involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis associated intestinal injury. The mechanisms of Fas may be associated to Fas mediated T helper cell apoptosis. ..
- Schaller J, Giese T, Ladusch M, Haustein U. Interleukin-2 receptor expression and interleukin-2 production in bullous pemphigoid. Arch Dermatol Res. 1990;282:223-6 pubmedExpression of interleukin-2 (IL2) receptors was studied on peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) in 25 patients with bullous pemphigoid. Analysis was carried out by flow cytometry...
- Barabanova S, Artyukhina Z, Kazakova T, Khavinson V, Malinin V, Korneva E. Interleukin-2 concentration in hypothalamic structures of rats receiving peptides during mild stress. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2006;141:390-3 pubmed..Adaptation of animals to experimental conditions prevented the decrease in the number of IL-2-positive cells in the supraoptic nucleus after intranasal administration of Epithalon. ..
- Uchiyama M, Jin X, Zhang Q, Amano A, Watanabe T, Niimi M. Music exposure induced prolongation of cardiac allograft survival and generated regulatory CD4? cells in mice. Transplant Proc. 2012;44:1076-9 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, exposure to some types of music may induce prolonged survival of fully allogeneic cardiac allografts and generate CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory cells. ..
- Chae W, Henegariu O, Lee S, Bothwell A. The mutant leucine-zipper domain impairs both dimerization and suppressive function of Foxp3 in T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9631-6 pubmed..Taken together, our results provide insight into the mechanism that controls autoimmune diseases via the deletion of this single glutamic acid residue in the leucine-zipper domain of Foxp3. ..
- McKnight A, Mason D, Barclay A. Sequence of rat interleukin 2 and anomalous binding of a mouse interleukin 2 cDNA probe to rat MHC class II-associated invariant chain mRNA. Immunogenetics. 1989;30:145-7 pubmed
- Butler L, Browne C, Layman N, Riedl P, Tang J, Marder P, et al. In vivo effects of recombinant human interleukin 2 on antitumor and antiviral natural immunity in induced or natural murine immunodeficiency states. Cancer Res. 1988;48:6081-9 pubmedWe have examined the ability of in vivo treatment of mice with recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) to affect natural immunity measured against tumor (YAC-1) or virally infected (herpes simplex type 1) target cells...
- Butler J, Mader J, Watson C, Zhang H, Blay J, Hoskin D. Adenosine inhibits activation-induced T cell expression of CD2 and CD28 co-stimulatory molecules: role of interleukin-2 and cyclic AMP signaling pathways. J Cell Biochem. 2003;89:975-91 pubmed..We conclude that adenosine interferes with IL-2-dependent T cell expression of co-stimulatory molecules via a mechanism that does not involve the accumulation of intracellular cAMP. ..
- Sadlack B, Merz H, Schorle H, Schimpl A, Feller A, Horak I. Ulcerative colitis-like disease in mice with a disrupted interleukin-2 gene. Cell. 1993;75:253-61 pubmed..The data provide evidence for a primary role of the immune system in the etiology of ulcerative colitis and strongly suggest that the disease results from an abnormal immune response to a normal antigenic stimulus. ..
- Liu Y, Bi H, Chi S, Fan R, Wang Y, Ma X, et al. The effect of compound nutrients on stress-induced changes in serum IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels in rats. Cytokine. 2007;37:14-21 pubmed..These results suggested that compound nutrients might be proposed as a possible candidate in the research or therapeutic modulation of stress-related disorders. ..
- Feng Y, Huang N, Wu Q, Wang B. HMGN2: a novel antimicrobial effector molecule of human mononuclear leukocytes?. J Leukoc Biol. 2005;78:1136-41 pubmed..These results suggest that HMGN2 would be a novel antimicrobial effector molecule of human mononuclear leukocyte. ..
- Dubrac S, Elentner A, Schoonjans K, Auwerx J, Schmuth M. Lack of IL-2 in PPAR-?-deficient mice triggers allergic contact dermatitis by affecting regulatory T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:1980-91 pubmed publisher..Finally, injection of IL-2 to PPAR-?-/- mice decreased skin inflammation to a level similar to WT mice. In conclusion, the pro-inflammatory skin phenotype of PPAR-?-/- mice is due to lack of IL-2-mediated Treg induction in these mice. ..
- Olosz F, Malek T. Structural basis for binding multiple ligands by the common cytokine receptor gamma-chain. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:12047-52 pubmed..Asn-128 and Tyr-103 likely act as contact residues whereas Cys-161, Cys-210, and Gly-211 may stabilize the structure of the proposed ligand-interacting surface formed by the two extracytoplasmic domains. ..