Gene Symbol: Il1b
Description: interleukin 1 beta
Alias: IL-1F2, interleukin-1 beta, IL-1 beta
Species: rat
Products:     Il1b

Top Publications

  1. Sims J, Smith D. The IL-1 family: regulators of immunity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2010;10:89-102 pubmed publisher
    ..This Review provides an overview of both the long-established and more recently characterized members of the IL-1 family. In addition to their effects on immune cells, their involvement in human disease and disease models is discussed. ..
  2. Green H, Treacy E, Keohane A, Sullivan A, O Keeffe G, Nolan Y. A role for interleukin-1? in determining the lineage fate of embryonic rat hippocampal neural precursor cells. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2012;49:311-21 pubmed publisher
  3. Miani M, Colli M, Ladriere L, Cnop M, Eizirik D. Mild endoplasmic reticulum stress augments the proinflammatory effect of IL-1? in pancreatic rat ?-cells via the IRE1?/XBP1s pathway. Endocrinology. 2012;153:3017-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations link ?-cell ER stress to the triggering of exacerbated local inflammation. ..
  4. Green H, Nolan Y. GSK-3 mediates the release of IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-10 from cortical glia. Neurochem Int. 2012;61:666-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a role for GSK-3 as a modulator of inflammatory cytokine levels in the brain, and contribute to a mechanistic insight into neurological disorders in which neuroinflammation is a characteristic feature. ..
  5. Tsakiri N, Kimber I, Rothwell N, Pinteaux E. Interleukin-1-induced interleukin-6 synthesis is mediated by the neutral sphingomyelinase/Src kinase pathway in neurones. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153:775-83 pubmed
    ..The mechanism by which IL-1beta induces IL-6 synthesis in neurones could be critical in both physiological and pathophysiological actions of IL-1beta, and may provide a new therapeutic target for the treatment of acute CNS injury. ..
  6. Zhang R, Li A, Liu B, Wang L, Ren K, Zhang H, et al. IL-1ra alleviates inflammatory hyperalgesia through preventing phosphorylation of NMDA receptor NR-1 subunit in rats. Pain. 2008;135:232-9 pubmed
    ..05) and inhibited NR1 phosphorylation compared to saline control. The results suggest that spinal IL-1beta is produced by astrocytes and enhances NR1 phosphorylation to facilitate inflammatory pain. ..
  7. Temporin K, Tanaka H, Kuroda Y, Okada K, Yachi K, Moritomo H, et al. IL-1beta promotes neurite outgrowth by deactivating RhoA via p38 MAPK pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;365:375-80 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that IL-1beta may contribute to nerve regeneration by promoting neurite outgrowth following nerve injury. ..
  8. Koo J, Duman R. IL-1beta is an essential mediator of the antineurogenic and anhedonic effects of stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:751-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that IL-1beta is a critical mediator of the antineurogenic and depressive-like behavior caused by acute and chronic stress. ..
  9. Wang X, Fu S, Wang Y, Yu P, Hu J, Gu W, et al. Interleukin-1beta mediates proliferation and differentiation of multipotent neural precursor cells through the activation of SAPK/JNK pathway. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2007;36:343-54 pubmed
    ..These findings collectively suggest that the inflammatory environment following CNS injuries may influence the ability of NPCs to repair the damage. ..

More Information


  1. Zhao C, Liu D, Li H, Jiang L, Dai L. Interleukin-1beta enhances the effect of serum deprivation on rat annular cell apoptosis. Apoptosis. 2007;12:2155-61 pubmed
  2. Vela J, Molina Holgado E, Arevalo Martin A, Almazan G, Guaza C. Interleukin-1 regulates proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2002;20:489-502 pubmed
    ..These results support a role for IL-1beta in promoting mitotic arrest and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitors as well as maturation and survival of differentiating oligodendrocytes. ..
  3. Kaneko N, Kudo K, Mabuchi T, Takemoto K, Fujimaki K, Wati H, et al. Suppression of cell proliferation by interferon-alpha through interleukin-1 production in adult rat dentate gyrus. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:2619-26 pubmed
    ..The decreased cell proliferation caused by IFN-alpha-induced IL-1beta may be responsible, at least in part, for IFN-alpha-induced depression. ..
  4. Shi L, Smolders I, Umbrain V, Lauwers M, Sarre S, Michotte Y, et al. Peripheral inflammation modifies the effect of intrathecal IL-1beta on spinal PGE2 production mainly through cyclooxygenase-2 activity. A spinal microdialysis study in freely moving rats. Pain. 2006;120:307-14 pubmed
    ..Our study suggests that mainly the COX-2 enzyme mediates the IL-1beta-induced increase in spinal PGE(2) in the presence of peripheral formalin inflammation. ..
  5. Yang S, Liu Z, Wen L, Qiao H, Zhou W, Zhang Y. Interleukin-1beta enhances NMDA receptor-mediated current but inhibits excitatory synaptic transmission. Brain Res. 2005;1034:172-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that IL-1beta modulates hippocampus-related functions via its effect on synaptic activity and Ca2+ signaling in neurons. ..
  6. Viviani B, Bartesaghi S, Gardoni F, Vezzani A, Behrens M, Bartfai T, et al. Interleukin-1beta enhances NMDA receptor-mediated intracellular calcium increase through activation of the Src family of kinases. J Neurosci. 2003;23:8692-700 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that IL-1beta increases NMDA receptor function through activation of tyrosine kinases and subsequent NR2A/B subunit phosphorylation. These effects may contribute to glutamate-mediated neurodegeneration. ..
  7. Li Y, Liu L, Barger S, Griffin W. Interleukin-1 mediates pathological effects of microglia on tau phosphorylation and on synaptophysin synthesis in cortical neurons through a p38-MAPK pathway. J Neurosci. 2003;23:1605-11 pubmed
  8. Yoshida M, Yoshimura N, Hangai M, Tanihara H, Honda Y. Interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor gene expression in endotoxin-induced uveitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994;35:1107-13 pubmed
    ..Expression of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and TNF genes was dramatically up-regulated in the process of EIU. These genes were found to be expressed in "histiocyte-like" cells in the ICB, and may have an important role in EIU. ..
  9. Liu T, Jiang C, Fujita T, Luo S, Kumamoto E. Enhancement by interleukin-1? of AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated currents in adult rat spinal superficial dorsal horn neurons. Mol Pain. 2013;9:16 pubmed publisher
    ..Since IL-1? contributes to nociceptive behavior induced by peripheral nerve or tissue injury, the present findings also reveal an important cellular link between neuronal and glial cells in the spinal dorsal horn. ..
  10. Liu C, Sun Y, Sun J, Ma J, Cheng C. Protective role of quercetin against lead-induced inflammatory response in rat kidney through the ROS-mediated MAPKs and NF-?B pathway. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1820:1693-703 pubmed publisher
    ..Quercetin might be a potent nephroprotective drug to protect Pb-induced kidney injury. ..
  11. Ahmad A, Mondello S, Di Paola R, Mazzon E, Esposito E, Catania M, et al. Protective effect of apocynin, a NADPH-oxidase inhibitor, against contrast-induced nephropathy in the diabetic rats: a comparison with n-acetylcysteine. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;674:397-406 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, these parameters were also markedly modified by NAC pre-treatment. Here, we have shown that apocynin attenuates the degree of iomeprol-induced nephropathy in diabetic rats. ..
  12. Cantwell A, Bubeck S, Dube P. YopH inhibits early pro-inflammatory cytokine responses during plague pneumonia. BMC Immunol. 2010;11:29 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our results suggest that YopH can inhibit an early pro-inflammatory response in the lungs of mice and that this is an important step in the pathogenesis of infection...
  13. Kwon S, Roh D, Yoon S, Choi S, Choi H, Moon J, et al. Involvement of peripheral P2Y1 receptors and potential interaction with IL-1 receptors in IL-1β-induced thermal hypersensitivity in rats. Brain Res Bull. 2017;130:165-172 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a positive interaction between peripheral P2Y1Rs and IL-1Rs in both IL-1β and carrageenan-induced thermal hypersensitivity. ..
  14. Whitehead K, Smith C, Delaney S, Curnow S, Salmon M, Hughes J, et al. Dynamic regulation of spinal pro-inflammatory cytokine release in the rat in vivo following peripheral nerve injury. Brain Behav Immun. 2010;24:569-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our studies demonstrate the ability of a neurone-glia signaling mechanism to dynamically modulate this release and support a role of spinal IL-1beta in the phasic transmission of abnormal pain signals. ..
  15. Fedorczyk J, Barr A, Rani S, Gao H, Amin M, Amin S, et al. Exposure-dependent increases in IL-1beta, substance P, CTGF, and tendinosis in flexor digitorum tendons with upper extremity repetitive strain injury. J Orthop Res. 2010;28:298-307 pubmed publisher
  16. Wang H, Deng X, Li G. [Effects of edaravone on the expression of interleukin-1beta, nuclear factor-kappaB and neuron apoptosis in juvenile rat hippocampus after status convulsion]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2009;47:575-80 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that edaravone may have protective effect against the damage caused by status convulsion. ..
  17. Wang W, Zheng M. Nuclear factor kappa B pathway down-regulates aquaporin 5 in the nasal mucosa of rats with allergic rhinitis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2011;268:73-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that the NF-?B pathway could down-regulate AQP5 by interleukin-1? which inhibited CREB phosphorylation or by NF-?Bp65 which competitively bound CBP. ..
  18. Shi L, Banerjee D, Dobierzewska A, Sathishkumar S, Karakashian A, Giltiay N, et al. Direct regulation of IGF-binding protein 1 promoter by interleukin-1β via an insulin- and FoxO-1-independent mechanism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2016;310:E612-E623 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the IL-1β effects on IGFBP1 mRNA production and protein secretion could be abolished by the addition of insulin, either at very late time points or at very high doses. ..
  19. de Jesus J, Spadacci Morena D, Dos Anjos Rabelo N, Pinfildi C, Fukuda T, Plapler H. Low-level laser therapy in IL-1?, COX-2, and PGE2 modulation in partially injured Achilles tendon. Lasers Med Sci. 2015;30:153-8 pubmed publisher
    ..4). COX-2 and PGE2 exhibited near-normal levels (p?>?0.05) at LASER 3 (COX-2: 176.9?±?75.4 / PGE2: 297.2?±?259.6) and LASER 7 (COX-2: 259.2?±?190.4 / PGE2: 587.1?±?409.7). LLLT decreased Achilles tendon's inflammatory process. ..
  20. Hamamoto H, Miyamoto H, Doita M, Takada T, Nishida K, Kurosaka M. Capability of nondegenerated and degenerated discs in producing inflammatory agents with or without macrophage interaction. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012;37:161-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest PGE2 and IL-6 play a pivotal role in the interaction between degenerated discs and macrophages. ..
  21. Lu L, Faubel S, He Z, Andres Hernando A, Jani A, Kedl R, et al. Depletion of macrophages and dendritic cells in ischemic acute kidney injury. Am J Nephrol. 2012;35:181-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Protection against AKI in LEC-treated compared to CD11b-DTR or CD11c-DTR mice may be partially explained by differences in proinflammatory cytokine profiles. ..
  22. Gui M, Li Y, Wu T, Li Y, Huang Y, Zhang H. [Effect of glycyrrhetinic acid on the expression of inflammatory factors in fibroblast-like synovial cells from collagen induced arthritis rats]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2012;28:915-9 pubmed
    ..GA, MTX, GA+MTX suppress the expression of TNF-? and IL-1? in CIA-FLS cells in a time-dependent manner, and the suppressing effect is GA+MTX>MTX>GA. ..
  23. Aimbire F, Ligeiro de Oliveira A, Albertini R, Correa J, Ladeira de Campos C, Lyon J, et al. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) decreases pulmonary microvascular leakage, neutrophil influx and IL-1beta levels in airway and lung from rat subjected to LPS-induced inflammation. Inflammation. 2008;31:189-97 pubmed publisher
    ..LLLT reduced the lung permeability by a mechanism in which the IL-1beta seems to have an important role. ..
  24. Wang Z, Kong L, Kang J, Vaughn D, Bush G, Walding A, et al. Interleukin-l? induces migration of rat arterial smooth muscle cells through a mechanism involving increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. J Surg Res. 2011;169:328-36 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-l? increases MMP-2 activity in VSMC through increased protein synthesis and activation of pro-MMP-2. VSMC migration induced by IL-l? requires active MMP-2. IL-l? may play a role in arterial remodeling following injury. ..
  25. Schramme A, Abdel Bakky M, Kämpfer Kolb N, Pfeilschifter J, Gutwein P. The role of CXCL16 and its processing metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17 in the proliferation and migration of human mesangial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;370:311-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding could be important to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to treat mesangial proliferative kidney diseases. ..
  26. Kadota R, Koda M, Kawabe J, Hashimoto M, Nishio Y, Mannoji C, et al. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) protects oligodendrocyte and promotes hindlimb functional recovery after spinal cord injury in rats. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50391 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, G-CSF attenuates white matter loss and promotes hindlimb functional recovery. ..
  27. Chi Y, Liu X, Wang H, Li Y. [The expression of mucosal IL-1?, TNF? and serotonin transporter in chronic visceral hypersensitivity rats]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 2010;49:781-4 pubmed
  28. Liu M, Dong H, Zhang B, Zheng W, Zhao P, Liu Y, et al. Insulin reduces LPS-induced lethality and lung injury in rats. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2012;25:472-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data provided information that insulin attenuated LPS-induced ALI may attribute partly to the inhibition of the production of cytokines, and the expression of TLR2, TLR4 and NF-?B. ..
  29. Makhmudova S. [Comparative estimation of cytokine profile among patients with exogenous allergic and idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis]. Georgian Med News. 2009;:54-6 pubmed
    ..8% cases of IL-8. in II group among 25 patients with subacute disease high level of IL-1beta marked in 56.0%, Il-8 in 84% cases; patients in III group high concentration of IL-1beta registered in 51.2%; Il-8 in 81.4% of patients. ..
  30. Kuwata H, Yoshimura M, Sasaki Y, Yoda E, Nakatani Y, Kudo I, et al. Role of long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases in the regulation of arachidonic acid metabolism in interleukin 1?-stimulated rat fibroblasts. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1841:44-53 pubmed publisher
  31. Sama M, Mathis D, Furman J, Abdul H, Artiushin I, Kraner S, et al. Interleukin-1beta-dependent signaling between astrocytes and neurons depends critically on astrocytic calcineurin/NFAT activity. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:21953-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results have potentially important implications for the propagation and maintenance of neuroinflammatory signaling processes associated with many neurodegenerative conditions and diseases. ..
  32. Zhang Y, Wang F, Lan Y, Zhou D, Ren X, Zhao L, et al. Roles of microRNA-146a and microRNA-181b in regulating the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in silicon dioxide-induced NR8383 rat macrophages. Mol Med Rep. 2015;12:5587-93 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The results of the present study provide evidence supporting the roles of miR‑146a and miR‑181b in the pathogenesis of silicosis, and suggest that they may be candidate therapeutic target in this disease. ..
  33. Diao L, Li N, Brayman T, Hotz K, Lai Y. Regulation of MRP2/ABCC2 and BSEP/ABCB11 expression in sandwich cultured human and rat hepatocytes exposed to inflammatory cytokines TNF-{alpha}, IL-6, and IL-1{beta}. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:31185-92 pubmed publisher
  34. Zhou L, Yao X, Chen Y. Dexamethasone pretreatment attenuates lung and kidney injury in cholestatic rats induced by hepatic ischemia/reperfusion. Inflammation. 2012;35:289-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in cholestatic rats induced lung and kidney injuries. Pretreatment with dexamethasone reduced the IR-induced injury in addition to cholestasis. ..
  35. Skalniak L, Gurgul Convey E, Okreglicka K, Skalniak A, Jura J. Limited GADD45? expression and function in IL-1? toxicity towards insulin-producing cells. Acta Biochim Pol. 2013;60:595-602 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the potential engagement of GADD45? in IL-1? toxicity towards beta cells is limited to the effects induced by the basal expression level of this protein. ..
  36. Han S, Li H, Ma X, Zhang K, Ma Z, Jiang Y, et al. Evaluation of the anti-myocardial ischemia effect of individual and combined extracts of Panax notoginseng and Carthamus tinctorius in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;145:722-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The cardio-protective effect of this combination was achieved partially by decreasing oxidative stress and repressing inflammatory cascade. ..
  37. Badowska Szalewska E, Ludkiewicz B, Sidor Kaczmarek J, Lietzau G, Spodnik J, Swietlik D, et al. Hippocampal interleukin-1beta in the juvenile and middle-aged rat: response to chronic forced swim or high-light open-field stress stimulation. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2013;73:364-78 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that chronic HL-OF stimulation was the factor inducing changes in the IL-1beta protein levels in P28 and P360 rats and in the percentage of IL-1beta/NeuN-ir cells in the hippocampus of P360 animals. ..
  38. Zheng H, Zhu W, Zhao H, Wang X, Wang W, Li Z. Kainic acid-activated microglia mediate increased excitability of rat hippocampal neurons in vitro and in vivo: crucial role of interleukin-1beta. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2010;17:31-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides evidence that KA-activated microglia mediate increased excitability of hippocampal neurons in vitro and in vivo and that IL-1beta may be one of the main causes of this event. ..
  39. Shirazi R, Palsdottir V, Collander J, Anesten F, Vogel H, Langlet F, et al. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor induced suppression of food intake, and body weight is mediated by central IL-1 and IL-6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:16199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..These data outline a previously unidentified role of the central IL-1 and IL-6 in mediating the anorexic and body weight loss effects of GLP-1 receptor activation. ..
  40. Wang J, Bao L, Yu B, Liu Z, Han W, Deng C, et al. Interleukin-1β Promotes Epithelial-Derived Alveolar Elastogenesis via αvβ6 Integrin-Dependent TGF-β Activation. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015;36:2198-216 pubmed publisher
  41. Lü B, Zhang J, Huang X, Xiao S, Zhang M, Cai Z. Expression of Interleukin-1β and Matrix Metalloproteinase-8 in Cytolytic and Noncytolytic Enterococcus faecalis-induced Persistent Apical Periodontitis: A Comparative Study in the Rat. J Endod. 2015;41:1288-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Both E. faecalis strains could induce local IL-1β and MMP-8 expression in persistent AP. Compared with noncytolytic E. faecalis, cytolytic E. faecalis may cause more severe local inflammation and tissue destruction in persistent AP. ..
  42. Aleong R, Blain J, Poirier J. Pro-inflammatory cytokines modulate glial apolipoprotein E secretion. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2008;5:33-7 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the notion that elevated cytokine expression directly modulates immunosuppression and indirectly apoE-mediated neuronal remodeling. ..
  43. Li X, Yuan L, Li J, Li H, Cheng S. Blockade of renin angiotensin system increased resistance to STZ-induced diabetes in rats with long-term high-fat diet. Exp Diabetes Res. 2012;2012:618923 pubmed publisher
    ..01 or P < 0.05). Overall, telmisartan-treated rats were found to have reduced RAS activity, increased resistance to STZ-induced diabetes, reduced inflammatory markers, and improvement of islet cell function and morphology. ..
  44. Lu C, Zhu W, Shen C, Gao W. Green tea polyphenols reduce body weight in rats by modulating obesity-related genes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38332 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, this study revealed the beneficial effects of GTP on body weight via regulating obesity-related genes, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant capacity, and estrogen-related actions in high-fat-induced obese rats. ..
  45. Conway Morris A, Kefala K, Wilkinson T, Moncayo Nieto O, Dhaliwal K, Farrell L, et al. Diagnostic importance of pulmonary interleukin-1beta and interleukin-8 in ventilator-associated pneumonia. Thorax. 2010;65:201-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have potential implications for reduction in unnecessary antibiotic use but require further validation in larger populations. ..
  46. Clark P, Kim R, Pober J, Kluger M. Tumor necrosis factor disrupts claudin-5 endothelial tight junction barriers in two distinct NF-κB-dependent phases. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0120075 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that TNF disrupts TJs in HDMECs in two distinct NF-κB-dependent steps, the first involving Rho-associated kinase and the second likely to involve an as yet unidentified but structurally related protein kinase(s). ..
  47. Gougeon P, Lourenssen S, Han T, Nair D, Ropeleski M, Blennerhassett M. The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and TNF? are neurotrophic for enteric neurons. J Neurosci. 2013;33:3339-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Pro-inflammatory cytokines promote neurite growth through upregulation of GDNF, a novel process that may facilitate re-innervation of smooth muscle cells and a return to homeostasis following initial damage. ..
  48. Yan X, Yadav R, Gao M, Weng H. Interleukin-1 beta enhances endocytosis of glial glutamate transporters in the spinal dorsal horn through activating protein kinase C. Glia. 2014;62:1093-109 pubmed publisher
  49. Rosenkranz K, Tenbusch M, May C, Marcus K, Meier C. Changes in Interleukin-1 alpha serum levels after transplantation of umbilical cord blood cells in a model of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Ann Anat. 2013;195:122-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Creation of a regenerative environment with reduced inflammation might account for the functional regeneration observed upon hUCB cell treatment in lesioned animals. ..
  50. Campuzano O, Castillo Ruiz M, Acarin L, Castellano B, Gonzalez B. Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the aged rat brain attenuate injury-induced cytokine response after excitotoxic damage. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:2484-97 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights the particular inflammatory response of the aged brain and suggests an important role of increased basal levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the reduced ability to induce their expression after damage. ..
  51. Abou Zeid A, El Sayegh H. Toll-like receptor 3 gene expression in Egyptian patients with glomerulonephritis and hepatitis C virus infection. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2011;71:456-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This work shows that TLR3 expression is upregulated in HCV-positive patients with glomerulonephritis. Overexpression is associated with reduced renal function and increased interleukin 1? level. ..
  52. Liu S, Lee H, Hung C, Tsai C, Li T, Tang C. Berberine attenuates CCN2-induced IL-1β expression and prevents cartilage degradation in a rat model of osteoarthritis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2015;289:20-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Berberine was found to inhibit these signaling components in OASFs in vitro and prevent cartilage degradation in vivo. We suggest a novel therapeutic strategy of using berberine for managing OA. ..
  53. Pereira R, Buscariollo B, Correa Costa M, Semedo P, Oliveira C, Reis V, et al. Bradykinin receptor 1 activation exacerbates experimental focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Kidney Int. 2011;79:1217-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that kinin has a crucial role in the pathogenesis of FSGS operating through bradykinin B1 receptor signaling. ..