Gene Symbol: Il1a
Description: interleukin 1 alpha
Alias: IL-1 alpha, IL-1F1, interleukin-1 alpha
Species: rat
Products:     Il1a

Top Publications

  1. Chen Y, Williams J, Ding I, Hernady E, Liu W, Smudzin T, et al. Radiation pneumonitis and early circulatory cytokine markers. Semin Radiat Oncol. 2002;12:26-33 pubmed
    ..Analysis of a panel of circulating cytokines with different putative functions in radiation pulmonary injury identified IL-1alpha and IL-6 as early circulating cytokine markers for radiation pneumonitis. ..
  2. Babu R, Chatterjee A, Singh M. Assessment of skin irritation and molecular responses in rat skin exposed to nonane, dodecane and tetradecane. Toxicol Lett. 2004;153:255-66 pubmed
    ..The expression of TNF-alpha in skin due to tetradecane support the fact that visually indistinguishable skin irritation reactions can induce significant changes in the biological marker profile. ..
  3. Li R, Xi Y, Liu X, Chen G, Wang B, Jiang L, et al. Expression of IL-1alpha, IL-6, TGF-beta, FasL and ZNF265 during sertoli cell infection by ureaplasma urealyticum. Cell Mol Immunol. 2009;6:215-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The trend of varied expression of ZNF265 was similar to those of TGF-beta and FasL in vitro and in vivo for Sertoli cells infected with UU. ..
  4. O Shaughnessy R, Choudhary I, Harper J. Interleukin-1 alpha blockade prevents hyperkeratosis in an in vitro model of lamellar ichthyosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:2594-605 pubmed publisher
    ..Interleukin-1 alpha (IL1A) expression was increased and there was a lack of loricrin cross-linking...
  5. March C, Mosley B, Larsen A, Cerretti D, Braedt G, Price V, et al. Cloning, sequence and expression of two distinct human interleukin-1 complementary DNAs. Nature. 1985;315:641-7 pubmed
    ..The primary translation products of the genes are 271 and 269 amino acids long, although expression in Escherichia coli of the carboxy-terminal 159 and 153 amino acids produces IL-1 biological activity. ..
  6. Sims J, Smith D. The IL-1 family: regulators of immunity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2010;10:89-102 pubmed publisher
    ..This Review provides an overview of both the long-established and more recently characterized members of the IL-1 family. In addition to their effects on immune cells, their involvement in human disease and disease models is discussed. ..
  7. Rosenkranz K, Tenbusch M, May C, Marcus K, Meier C. Changes in Interleukin-1 alpha serum levels after transplantation of umbilical cord blood cells in a model of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Ann Anat. 2013;195:122-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Creation of a regenerative environment with reduced inflammation might account for the functional regeneration observed upon hUCB cell treatment in lesioned animals. ..
  8. Vary T, Deiter G, Lang C. Cytokine-triggered decreases in levels of phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4G in skeletal muscle during sepsis. Shock. 2006;26:631-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the findings support a role of IL-1 as the proinflammatory mediator responsible for the reduced level of phosphorylated eIF4G. ..
  9. Towle C, Hung H, Bonassar L, Treadwell B, Mangham D. Detection of interleukin-1 in the cartilage of patients with osteoarthritis: a possible autocrine/paracrine role in pathogenesis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 1997;5:293-300 pubmed
    ..The results of this study indicate increased IL-1 alpha in cartilage showing early degenerative changes, suggesting an autocrine/paracrine role for this cytokine in OA pathogenesis. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Kim S, Mok J, Kim H, Joo C. Association of -31T>C and -511 C>T polymorphisms in the interleukin 1 beta (IL1B) promoter in Korean keratoconus patients. Mol Vis. 2008;14:2109-16 pubmed
    To investigate the genetic association between unrelated Korean keratoconus patients and interleukin 1 alpha (IL1A), interleukin 1 beta (IL1B), and IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) gene polymorphisms...
  2. Yoshida M, Yoshimura N, Hangai M, Tanihara H, Honda Y. Interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor gene expression in endotoxin-induced uveitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994;35:1107-13 pubmed
    ..Expression of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and TNF genes was dramatically up-regulated in the process of EIU. These genes were found to be expressed in "histiocyte-like" cells in the ICB, and may have an important role in EIU. ..
  3. Sugawara Y, Harihara Y, Takayama T, Makuuchi M. Suppression of cytokine production by thromboxane A2 inhibitor in liver ischemia. Hepatogastroenterology. 1998;45:1781-6 pubmed
    ..Dose-dependent inhibition by SO of the production of TXB2, TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha was observed. Regulation of TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha by SO is possibly associated with the hepatoprotective effect of SO. ..
  4. Oliver S, Firestein G, Arsenault L, Cruz T, Cheng T, Banquerigo M, et al. Vanadate, an inhibitor of stromelysin and collagenase expression, suppresses collagen induced arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2007;34:1802-9 pubmed
    ..This is the first study of vanadate as a potential antirheumatic agent. Further study of this AP-1 and MMP inhibitor may lead to new treatment options in RA. ..
  5. Mahdaviani S, Rezaei N, Moradi B, Dorkhosh S, Amirzargar A, Movahedi M. Proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms among Iranian patients with asthma. J Clin Immunol. 2009;29:57-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering the high frequency of presence of TNF-alpha AG genotype (-308), it seems that the production of TNF-alpha in the asthmatic patients could be higher than normal subjects. ..
  6. Shiwa M, Kojima H, Kamide Y, Moriyama H. Involvement of interleukin-1 in middle ear cholesteatoma. Am J Otolaryngol. 1995;16:319-24 pubmed
    ..We directed our attention to interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and demonstrated localization of IL-1 alpha in the epidermis of cholesteatoma...
  7. Clinton S, Underwood R, Hayes L, Sherman M, Kufe D, Libby P. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene expression in vascular cells and in experimental and human atherosclerosis. Am J Pathol. 1992;140:301-16 pubmed
    ..The local production of MCSF during atherogenesis may contribute to macrophage survival and proliferation or activate specific macrophage functions such as expression of the scavenger receptor and secretion of apo E. ..
  8. Groves R, Mizutani H, Kieffer J, Kupper T. Inflammatory skin disease in transgenic mice that express high levels of interleukin 1 alpha in basal epidermis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:11874-8 pubmed
  9. Sinniah R, Rui Mei L, Kara A. Up-regulation of cytokines in glomerulonephritis associated with murine malaria infection. Int J Exp Pathol. 1999;80:87-95 pubmed
    ..Our findings show that there is up-regulation of cytokines in the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis associated with murine malaria infection. ..
  10. Rosa J, Flores R, Oliver S, Pontello A, Zaldivar F, Galassetti P. Sustained IL-1alpha, IL-4, and IL-6 elevations following correction of hyperglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatr Diabetes. 2008;9:9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, aside from glycemic control, additional therapeutic measures against elevated proinflammatory signals may be necessary for preventing vascular complications in children with hyperglycemic diabetes. ..
  11. Westphal E, Li Chen -, Pilowski C, Koch S, Ebelt H, Muller Werdan U, et al. Endotoxin-activated cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes express functional surface-associated interleukin-1alpha. J Endotoxin Res. 2007;13:25-34 pubmed
  12. Nakae S, Komiyama Y, Yokoyama H, Nambu A, Umeda M, Iwase M, et al. IL-1 is required for allergen-specific Th2 cell activation and the development of airway hypersensitivity response. Int Immunol. 2003;15:483-90 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that IL-1 plays important roles in the development of AHR. ..
  13. Mbow M, Rutti B, Brossard M. Infiltration of CD4+ CD8+ T cells, and expression of ICAM-1, Ia antigens, IL-1 alpha and TNF-alpha in the skin lesion of BALB/c mice undergoing repeated infestations with nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks. Immunology. 1994;82:596-602 pubmed
    ..Importantly, this cutaneous reaction was not sufficient to protect the mouse against tick re-infestation. Furthermore, ICAM-1 could mediate, at least in part, the extravasation of inflammatory cells into the skin of infested mice. ..
  14. Skoff A, Zhao C, Adler J. Interleukin-1alpha regulates substance P expression and release in adult sensory neurons. Exp Neurol. 2009;217:395-400 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, IL-1alpha was significantly more efficient than IL-1beta at up-regulating SP expression than IL-1beta. Taken together, these observations suggest an important role for IL-1alpha in the events following nerve injury. ..
  15. Sarkar O, Mathur P, Cheng C, Mruk D. Interleukin 1 alpha (IL1A) is a novel regulator of the blood-testis barrier in the rat. Biol Reprod. 2008;78:445-54 pubmed
    ..However, the mechanism underlying BTB restructuring remains somewhat elusive. In this study, interleukin 1 alpha (IL1A) was administered intratesticularly to adult rats in order to assess its effects on spermatogenesis...
  16. Reyes L, Reinhard M, Brown M. Different inflammatory responses are associated with Ureaplasma parvum-induced UTI and urolith formation. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:9 pubmed publisher
    ..Animals were inoculated with sterile broth, 10(1), 10(3), 10(5), 10(7), or 10(9) log CFU of a rat-adapted strain of Ureaplasma parvum...
  17. Rhodus N, Cheng B, Bowles W, Myers S, Miller L, Ondrey F. Proinflammatory cytokine levels in saliva before and after treatment of (erosive) oral lichen planus with dexamethasone. Oral Dis. 2006;12:112-6 pubmed
    ..These preliminary results indicate that salivary analysis of NF-kappaB-dependent cytokines may be applied to monitoring the therapeutic response of OLP. ..
  18. Bensen J, Langefeld C, Li L, McCall C, Cousart S, Dryman B, et al. Association of an IL-1A 3'UTR polymorphism with end-stage renal disease and IL-1 alpha expression. Kidney Int. 2003;63:1211-9 pubmed
    ..The association of the TN7(delTTCA)A haplotype with higher levels of IL-1 alpha expression and reduced risk for ESRD is consistent with involvement of cytokines in risk for developing nephropathy. ..
  19. Sultana T, Wahab Wahlgren A, Assmus M, Parvinen M, Weber G, Soder O. Expression and regulation of the prointerleukin-1alpha processing enzymes calpain I and II in the rat testis. Int J Androl. 2003;26:37-45 pubmed
    ..In summary, there is a differential expression of calpain I and II under pathological conditions induced either by endotoxin stimuli or Leydig cell depletion, which may produce a differential effect on IL-1alpha processing. ..
  20. Jafarinaveh H, Allahtavakoli M, Rezazadeh H, Kazemi Arababadi M, Taghavi M, Shamsizadeh A, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines in the embolic model of cerebral ischemia in rat. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014;13:125-30 pubmed
    ..044) were significantly increased compared to sham treated animals. The findings of the present study suggest that part of ischemic injury in the embolic stroke may be mediated through the increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. ..
  21. Opara E, Laviano A, Meguid M. Correlation between food intake and cerebrospinal fluid interleukin 1 alpha in anorectic tumor-bearing rats. Nutrition. 1995;11:678-9 pubmed
    ..To test our hypothesis we determined whether central interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) was related to anorexia in tumor-bearing (TB) rats...
  22. Turquier V, Vaudry H, Yon L, Hsu C, Ait Ali D, Grumolato L, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha stimulate neuropeptide gene expression in adrenochromaffin cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;971:45-8 pubmed
  23. Morita Y, Maravei D, Bergeron L, Wang S, Perez G, Tsutsumi O, et al. Caspase-2 deficiency prevents programmed germ cell death resulting from cytokine insufficiency but not meiotic defects caused by loss of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (Atm) gene function. Cell Death Differ. 2001;8:614-20 pubmed
    ..Thus, genetically distinct mechanisms exist for developmental deletion of oocytes via programmed cell death, one of which probably functions as a meiotic quality-control checkpoint that cannot be overridden. ..
  24. Greally P, Hussain M, Vergani D, Price J. Serum interleukin-1 alpha and soluble interleukin-2 receptor concentrations in cystic fibrosis. Arch Dis Child. 1993;68:785-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that these cytokines may contribute to enhanced immunoglobulin synthesis and silent inflammatory activity in clinically stable patients with cystic fibrosis. ..
  25. Asada K, Ogushi F, Tani K, Maniwa K, Ichikawa W, Endo T, et al. The role of cell-associated interleukin-1 in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Tokushima J Exp Med. 1996;43:79-86 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that cell-associated IL-1 (IL-1 alpha) is produced continuously in AM from rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and may be important in regulation of this disorder by inhibiting fibroblast growth. ..
  26. Anaya Prado R, Toledo Pereyra L, Walsh J, Guo R, Reuben J, Ward P. Exogenous nitric oxide donor and related compounds protect against lung inflammatory response after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. J Trauma. 2004;57:980-8 pubmed
    ..L-arginine and L-NIL also had a beneficial effect on lung function and structure. ..
  27. Svechnikov K, Petersen C, Sultana T, Wahlgren A, Zetterstrom C, Colon E, et al. The paracrine role played by interleukin-1 alpha in the testis. Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord. 2004;4:67-74 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our findings suggest that isoforms of IL-1alpha may serve as paracrine mediators, alone or in concert with other factors, that support proper testicular cell functioning and, thereby, reproduction and fertility. ..
  28. Joki Erkkilä V, Karjalainen J, Hulkkonen J, Pessi T, Nieminen M, Aromaa A, et al. Allergic rhinitis and polymorphisms of the interleukin 1 gene complex. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003;91:275-9 pubmed
    ..Population-based, cross-sectional study. We studied the polymorphisms of 3 IL-1 gene complex genes, IL1A (+4845G>T), IL1B (-511 degrees C>T), and IL1RN (variable number of tandem repeats; IVS2, 86 bp, duplicates 2 ..
  29. Linares J, Campos M, Goldraij A. Effect of interleukin 1alpha and interleukin 2 over glucose metabolism in isolated uterus of restricted diet rats. Influence of NO and COX-2. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2003;69:39-43 pubmed
    ..Nitric oxide produced by the inducible form of NOS mediates the interleukins-induced glucose metabolism stimulation with the participation of inducible COX. ..
  30. Bhalla D, Reinhart P, Bai C, Gupta S. Amelioration of ozone-induced lung injury by anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Toxicol Sci. 2002;69:400-8 pubmed
    ..The significance of TNF-alpha in the inflammation and epithelial injury produced by ozone exposure reflects its overall contribution through modulation of other cytokines. ..
  31. Pirnik Z, Bundzikova J, Francisty T, Cibulova E, Lackovicova L, Mravec B, et al. Effect of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury on the activity of neurons in the rat brain. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2009;29:951-60 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the anatomical distribution of Fos occurrence detected after LIRIs gives great opportunity to perform a targeted phenotypic identification of the activated neurons by LIRIs in the subsequent experiments. ..
  32. Samareh Fekri M, Poursalehi H, Najafipour H, Shahouzahi B, Bazargan Harandi N. Chronic aspiration of gastric and duodenal contents and their effects on inflammatory cytokine production in respiratory system of rats. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014;13:40-6 pubmed
    ..It can be concluded that GERD with increased cytokines and inflammatory cells in lung could cause or exacerbate asthma and pulmonary fibrosis. ..
  33. Mika J, Korostynski M, Kaminska D, Wawrzczak Bargiela A, Osikowicz M, Makuch W, et al. Interleukin-1 alpha has antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic activities in a rat neuropathic pain model. Pain. 2008;138:587-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects observed after IL-1alpha administration, this finding indicates an important role for IL-1alpha in the development of neuropathic pain symptoms. ..
  34. Barmeyer C, Amasheh S, Tavalali S, Mankertz J, Zeitz M, Fromm M, et al. IL-1beta and TNFalpha regulate sodium absorption in rat distal colon. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;317:500-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and TNFalpha inhibit electrogenic sodium absorption in rat distal colon by mRNA expression regulation of the beta- and gamma-ENaC subunits. ..
  35. Denes A, Pradillo J, Drake C, Sharp A, Warn P, Murray K, et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae worsens cerebral ischemia via interleukin 1 and platelet glycoprotein Ib?. Ann Neurol. 2014;75:670-83 pubmed publisher
    ..S. pneumoniae infection augments atherosclerosis and exacerbates ischemic brain injury via IL-1 and platelet-mediated systemic inflammation. These mechanisms may contribute to diverse cardio- and cerebrovascular pathologies in humans. ..
  36. Bensen J, Langefeld C, Hawkins G, Green L, Mychaleckyj J, Brewer C, et al. Nucleotide variation, haplotype structure, and association with end-stage renal disease of the human interleukin-1 gene cluster. Genomics. 2003;82:194-217 pubmed
    A dense gene-based SNP map was constructed across a 360-kb region containing the interleukin-1 gene cluster (IL1A, IL1B, and IL1RN), focusing on IL1RN. In total, 95 polymorphisms were confirmed or identified primarily by direct sequencing...
  37. Sredni B, Albeck M, Tichler T, Shani A, Shapira J, Bruderman I, et al. Bone marrow-sparing and prevention of alopecia by AS101 in non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with carboplatin and etoposide. J Clin Oncol. 1995;13:2342-53 pubmed
    ..These effects are probably due to increased production of IL-1 alpha, IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF. ..
  38. Basso D, Plebani M, Fogar P, Panozzo M, Meggiato T, De Paoli M, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-I, interleukin-1 alpha and beta in pancreatic cancer: role in tumor invasiveness and associated diabetes. Int J Clin Lab Res. 1995;25:40-3 pubmed
    ..Interleukin-1 alpha increased, while interleukin-1 beta decreased in pancreatic cancer patients with metastases, suggesting a different involvement of these two substances in pancreatic cancer spread. ..
  39. Lee J, Nam W, Han M, Shin J, Kim J, Kim S, et al. Role of IL-1? in cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in mice. Korean J Intern Med. 2011;26:187-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The lack of IL-1? may explain, at least in part, the protection against cisplatin-induced ARF observed in caspase-1 -/- mice. Investigation of the protective mechanism (s) in IL-1? -/- mice in cisplatin-induced ARF merits further study. ..
  40. Vasakova M, Striz I, Slavcev A, Jandova S, Dutka J, Terl M, et al. Correlation of IL-1alpha and IL-4 gene polymorphisms and clinical parameters in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Scand J Immunol. 2007;65:265-70 pubmed
  41. Buckham T, McKnight A, Benevente D, Courtney A, Patterson C, Simmonds M, et al. Evaluation of five interleukin genes for association with end-stage renal disease in white Europeans. Am J Nephrol. 2010;32:103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have not been consistently replicated. No study has yet reported the comprehensive investigation of IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN,IL6 and IL10 genes...
  42. Bletsa A, Heyeraas K, Haug S, Berggreen E. IL-1 alpha and TNF-alpha expression in rat periapical lesions and dental pulp after unilateral sympathectomy. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2004;11:376-84 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that sympathetic nerves have an inhibitory effect on IL-1 alpha in periapical lesions and a stimulatory effect on TNF-alpha in the intact rat pulp. ..
  43. Johnson C, Chang M, Thurlow S, Pourbohloul S, Furmanski P. Immunotherapeutic approaches to leukemia: the use of the Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia model system. Cancer Res. 1990;50:5682S-5686S pubmed
    ..The helper T-cell component of CTL/RFB was implicated in causing leukemia regression. Interleukin 1 alpha and tumor necrosis factor alpha, multifunctional cytokines with similar biological activities, were ..
  44. Abazis Stamboulieh D, Oikonomou P, Papadoulis N, Panayiotidis P, Vrakidou E, Tsezou A. Association of interleukin-1A, interleukin-1B and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphisms with multiple myeloma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2007;48:2196-203 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the correlation between the single nucleotide polymorphisms IL1A -889, IL1B -511, IL1B +3954, IL1RN Mspa1 +11100 and susceptibility to MM in 74 patients and 160 controls...
  45. Erbek S, Yurtcu E, Erbek S, Atac F, Sahin F, Cakmak O. Proinflammatory cytokine single nucleotide polymorphisms in nasal polyposis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;133:705-9 pubmed
    ..polyposis (NP) and single nucleotide polymorphisms of the proinflammatory cytokines IL (interleukin) 1alpha (the IL1A gene), IL-1beta (the IL1B gene), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (the TNFA gene). Prospective case-control trial...
  46. Konstantinos A, Sheridan J. Stress and influenza viral infection: modulation of proinflammatory cytokine responses in the lung. Respir Physiol. 2001;128:71-7 pubmed
    ..The mechanism underlying suppression of the lung IL-1alpha in stressed mice is currently unknown; its downregulation may contribute to increased viral pathogenesis in stressed individuals. ..
  47. Esser R, Eyerman M, Port C, Anderson W. Proinflammatory effects of interleukin 1 in the rat air pouch. Int J Tissue React. 1989;11:291-300 pubmed
    ..Injection of either recombinant human interleukin 1 alpha (rIL-1 alpha) or interleukin 1 beta (rIL-1 beta) directly into preformed air pouches caused a 10- to 100-..
  48. Lotem J, Sachs L. In vivo control of differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells by cyclosporine A and recombinant interleukin-1 alpha. Blood. 1988;72:1595-601 pubmed
  49. Coban S, Yildiz F, Terzi A, Al B, Ozgor D, Ara C, et al. The effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) against cholestatic liver injury in rats. J Surg Res. 2010;159:674-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CAPE seems to be a promising agent for the attenuation of cholestatic liver injury. ..
  50. Yoon H, Zhu Z, Gwaltney J, Elias J. Rhinovirus regulation of IL-1 receptor antagonist in vivo and in vitro: a potential mechanism of symptom resolution. J Immunol. 1999;162:7461-9 pubmed
    ..IL-1ra may play an important role in the resolution of RV respiratory infections. RV stimulates epithelial cell IL-1ra elaboration, at least in part, via a novel translational and/or posttranslational mechanism. ..
  51. Kras J, Dong L, Winkelstein B. Increased interleukin-1? and prostaglandin E2 expression in the spinal cord at 1 day after painful facet joint injury: evidence of early spinal inflammation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014;39:207-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies will help identify functional roles of both spinal IL-1? and PGE2 in loading-induced joint pain. N/A. ..
  52. Kordek R, Nerurkar V, Liberski P, Isaacson S, Yanagihara R, Gajdusek D. Heightened expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 alpha, and glial fibrillary acidic protein in experimental Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:9754-8 pubmed
    ..Neuropathological findings by electron microscopy, as well as expression of interleukin 1 alpha and glial fibrillary acidic protein, were concurrently monitored...
  53. Shi Q, Wang X, Li G, Shah N, Orlowski R, Williams L, et al. Racial/ethnic disparities in inflammatory gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms as predictors of a high risk for symptom burden in patients with multiple myeloma 1 year after diagnosis. Cancer. 2015;121:1138-46 pubmed publisher
    ..36; 95% CI, 1.23-13.64; P = .010). These results support growing evidence showing that inflammation is associated with cancer-related symptoms, and they suggest that racial/ethnic factors contribute to this association. ..