Gene Symbol: Igf1r
Description: insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor
Alias: IGF-1 receptor, IGFIRC, Igfr1, JTK13, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, IGF-I receptor, insulin-like growth factor I receptor, type-I IGF receptor
Species: rat
Products:     Igf1r

Top Publications

  1. Romanelli R, LeBeau A, Fulmer C, Lazzarino D, Hochberg A, Wood T. Insulin-like growth factor type-I receptor internalization and recycling mediate the sustained phosphorylation of Akt. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:22513-24 pubmed
    ..Mathematical modeling of receptor trafficking further supports these results and predicts an additional kinetic state of the receptor consistent with sustained Akt phosphorylation. ..
  2. Du J, Delafontaine P. Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell growth through antisense transcription of a rat insulin-like growth factor I receptor cDNA. Circ Res. 1995;76:963-72 pubmed
    ..Specifically, they suggest that modulation of VSMC IGF IR density may be an important mechanism whereby growth of these cells is controlled. ..
  3. Hayati A, Cheah F, Tan A, Tan G. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression in the placentae of diabetic and normal pregnancies. Early Hum Dev. 2007;83:41-6 pubmed
    ..Weaker placental IGF-1R staining in the placentae of diabetic pregnancies associated with sHCM suggests reduced expression of IGF-1R. This may be a down-regulatory response to elevated maternal IGF with neonatal sHCM outcome. ..
  4. Li M, Chiu J, Gagne J, Fukagawa N. Age-related differences in insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor signaling regulates Akt/FOXO3a and ERK/Fos pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Cell Physiol. 2008;217:377-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, activation of IGF-1R signaling influences VSMC function in old rats and may contribute to the increased risk for atherosclerosis. ..
  5. Lambooij A, van Wely K, Lindenbergh Kortleve D, Kuijpers R, Kliffen M, Mooy C. Insulin-like growth factor-I and its receptor in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:2192-8 pubmed
  6. Sosa L, Dupraz S, Laurino L, Bollati F, Bisbal M, Caceres A, et al. IGF-1 receptor is essential for the establishment of hippocampal neuronal polarity. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:993-5 pubmed
  7. Freude S, Hettich M, Schumann C, Stöhr O, Koch L, Kohler C, et al. Neuronal IGF-1 resistance reduces Abeta accumulation and protects against premature death in a model of Alzheimer's disease. FASEB J. 2009;23:3315-24 pubmed publisher
    ..However, neuronal IR deletion had no influence on lethality of Tg2576 mice. Thus, impaired IGF-1/IRS-2 signaling prevents premature death and delays amyloid accumulation in a model of AD. ..
  8. Cohen A, Tong M, Wands J, de la Monte S. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor resistance with neurodegeneration in an adult chronic ethanol exposure model. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31:1558-73 pubmed
    ..The reductions in ChAT gene expression most likely contribute to the cognitive and motor deficits that occur with chronic alcohol abuse. ..
  9. Moloney A, Griffin R, Timmons S, O Connor R, Ravid R, O Neill C. Defects in IGF-1 receptor, insulin receptor and IRS-1/2 in Alzheimer's disease indicate possible resistance to IGF-1 and insulin signalling. Neurobiol Aging. 2010;31:224-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that IGF-1R and IR signalling is compromised in AD neurons and suggest that neurons that degenerate in AD may be resistant to IGF-1R/IR signalling. ..

More Information


  1. Soscia S, Tong M, Xu X, Cohen A, Chu J, Wands J, et al. Chronic gestational exposure to ethanol causes insulin and IGF resistance and impairs acetylcholine homeostasis in the brain. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63:2039-56 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, cerebellar hypoplasia in FAS is mediated by insulin/IGF resistance with attendant impairments in energy production and ACh homeostasis. ..
  2. Topalli I, Etgen A. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor and estrogen receptor crosstalk mediates hormone-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Brain Res. 2004;1030:116-24 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that receptor crosstalk between IGF-I receptors and ER alpha has an important role in neurite formation and extension even in a single-cell system. ..
  3. Pandini G, Frasca F, Mineo R, Sciacca L, Vigneri R, Belfiore A. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor I hybrid receptors have different biological characteristics depending on the insulin receptor isoform involved. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:39684-95 pubmed
    ..The relative abundance of IR isoforms therefore affects IGF system activation through Hybrid-Rs, with important consequences for tissue-specific responses to both insulin and IGFs. ..
  4. Gatchel J, Watase K, Thaller C, Carson J, Jafar Nejad P, Shaw C, et al. The insulin-like growth factor pathway is altered in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 and type 7. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1291-6 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanism and was concomitant with activation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway and the type I IGF receptor on Purkinje cells...
  5. Engberding N, San Martin A, Martin Garrido A, Koga M, Pounkova L, Lyons E, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression masks the antiinflammatory and glucose uptake capacity of insulin in vascular smooth muscle cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:408-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus we hypothesized that regulation of IGF1R expression may impact cellular insulin sensitivity. IGF1R expression was increased in aortas from diabetic mice...
  6. Chung Y, Shin C, Joo K, Kim M, Cha C. Age-related upregulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor type I in rat cerebellum. Neurosci Lett. 2002;330:65-8 pubmed
    ..The first demonstration of upregulation of IGF-I receptor in aged rat cerebellum suggests that IGF-I may promote the survival of a degenerated population of the Purkinje neurons by increases in IGF-I receptor expression during aging. ..
  7. Burfeind P, Chernicky C, Rininsland F, Ilan J. Antisense RNA to the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor suppresses tumor growth and prevents invasion by rat prostate cancer cells in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:7263-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate an important role for the IGF/IGF-IR pathway in metastasis and provide a basis for targeting IGF-IR as a potential treatment for prostate cancer. ..
  8. Zhao W, Lacor P, Chen H, Lambert M, Quon M, Krafft G, et al. Insulin receptor dysfunction impairs cellular clearance of neurotoxic oligomeric a{beta}. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:18742-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that dysfunctions of brain insulin and IGF-1 receptors contribute to Abeta aggregation and subsequent synaptic loss. ..
  9. Craddock B, Cotter C, Miller W. Autoinhibition of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor by the juxtamembrane region. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:3235-40 pubmed
    ..In this report, we show that the JM region of the human insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF1R) plays a role in kinase regulation...
  10. Ueki K, Okada T, Hu J, Liew C, Assmann A, Dahlgren G, et al. Total insulin and IGF-I resistance in pancreatic beta cells causes overt diabetes. Nat Genet. 2006;38:583-8 pubmed
    ..We propose that therapeutic improvement of insulin and IGF-I signaling in beta cells might protect against type 2 diabetes. ..
  11. Razuvaev A, Henderson B, Girnita L, Larsson O, Axelson M, Hedin U, et al. The cyclolignan picropodophyllin attenuates intimal hyperplasia after rat carotid balloon injury by blocking insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor signaling. J Vasc Surg. 2007;46:108-15 pubmed
  12. Wang L, Lau J, Patra C, Cao Y, Bhattacharya S, Dutta S, et al. RGS-GAIP-interacting protein controls breast cancer progression. Mol Cancer Res. 2010;8:1591-600 pubmed publisher
  13. Chung Y, Shin C, Joo K, Kim M, Cha C. Region-specific alterations in insulin-like growth factor receptor type I in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of aged rats. Brain Res. 2002;946:307-13 pubmed
  14. Bueno M, Gonçalves F, Guadagnini D, Barini R, Saad M, Gallindo R, et al. The role of gut-liver axis in the restriction of intrauterine growth in a model of experimental gastroschisis. Acta Cir Bras. 2013;28 Suppl 1:3-7 pubmed
    ..01). The axis of the intestine liver has an important role in inflammation, with consequent changes in the metabolic pathway of glucose can contribute to the IUGR in fetuses with gastroschisis. ..
  15. Craparo A, O Neill T, Gustafson T. Non-SH2 domains within insulin receptor substrate-1 and SHC mediate their phosphotyrosine-dependent interaction with the NPEY motif of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:15639-43 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the interactions of SHC and IRS-1 with the IGFIR are similar to those which we have previously defined with the insulin receptor. ..
  16. Mincione G, Esposito D, Di Marcantonio M, Piccirelli A, Cama A, Colletta G. TGF-beta 1 modulation of IGF-I signaling pathway in rat thyroid epithelial cells. Exp Cell Res. 2003;287:411-23 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings provide a molecular basis for the growth-inhibitory action of TGF-beta 1 on the IGF-I-induced mitogenic effect. ..
  17. Duan C, Xu Q. Roles of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins in regulating IGF actions. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2005;142:44-52 pubmed
    ..In this article, we provide a brief overview of our current understanding of the IGF signaling system with particular reference to IGFBPs. ..
  18. Hie M, Iitsuka N, Otsuka T, Tsukamoto I. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus decreases osteoblastogenesis associated with the inhibition of Wnt signaling through increased expression of Sost and Dkk1 and inhibition of Akt activation. Int J Mol Med. 2011;28:455-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that insulin-deficiency in IDDM decreases osteoblastogenesis associated with inhibition of Wnt signaling through the increased expression of Sost and Dkk1 and the inhibition of Akt activation. ..
  19. Quesada A, Romeo H, Micevych P. Distribution and localization patterns of estrogen receptor-beta and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors in neurons and glial cells of the female rat substantia nigra: localization of ERbeta and IGF-1R in substantia nigra. J Comp Neurol. 2007;503:198-208 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the localization of ERbeta and IGF-1R on SNpc DA neurons and astrocytes suggests a modulatory role of E2 on IGF-1R, and this modulation may affect neuroprotection. ..
  20. Xu D, Liang G, Yan Y, He W, Liu Y, Chen L, et al. Nicotine-induced over-exposure to maternal glucocorticoid and activated glucocorticoid metabolism causes hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic alterations in fetal rats. Toxicol Lett. 2012;209:282-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Prenatal nicotine exposure causes HPA axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic alterations in fetal rats. The underlying mechanism may involve activated glucocorticoid metabolism in various fetal tissues...
  21. Ruttenstock E, Doi T, Dingemann J, Puri P. Prenatal administration of retinoic acid upregulates insulin-like growth factor receptors in the nitrofen-induced hypoplastic lung. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2011;92:148-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Upregulation of pulmonary gene and protein expression of IGFRs after prenatal RA treatment in the nitrofen model suggests that RA may promote lung growth by stimulating IGFRs mediated alveologenesis. ..
  22. Jiang Y, Walker R, Steinle J. Age-associated increase in cleaved caspase 3 despite phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptor in the rat retina. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2009;64:1154-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that regulation of IRS-1 phosphorylation may modulate apoptotic rates in the aging retina, potentially preventing activation of vascular endothelial cell growth factor. ..
  23. Hami J, Sadr Nabavi A, Sankian M, Haghir H. Sex differences and left-right asymmetries in expression of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors in developing rat hippocampus. Brain Struct Funct. 2012;217:293-302 pubmed publisher
  24. Zheng D, Golubovskaya V, Kurenova E, Wood C, Massoll N, Ostrov D, et al. A novel strategy to inhibit FAK and IGF-1R decreases growth of pancreatic cancer xenografts. Mol Carcinog. 2010;49:200-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study demonstrates the importance of dual inhibition of both these signaling pathways as a novel strategy to decrease both in vitro and in vivo growth of human pancreatic cancer. ..
  25. Zheng W, Quirion R. Glutamate acting on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors attenuates insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor tyrosine phosphorylation and its survival signaling properties in rat hippocampal neurons. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:855-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also suggest a novel mechanism by which glutamate can reduce cell viability and induce neurotoxicity. ..
  26. Economou M, Wu J, Vasilcanu D, Rosengren L, All Ericsson C, van der Ploeg I, et al. Inhibition of VEGF secretion and experimental choroidal neovascularization by picropodophyllin (PPP), an inhibitor of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. Acta Ophthalmol. 2008;86 Thesis 4:42-9 pubmed publisher
    ..PPP reduces IGF-1 dependent VEGF expression and CNV in vivo. Accordingly, IGF-1R inhibitors may be useful tools in the therapy of conditions associated with CNV including neovascular AMD. ..
  27. Ning H, Lin G, Fandel T, Banie L, Lue T, Lin C. Insulin growth factor signaling mediates neuron-like differentiation of adipose-tissue-derived stem cells. Differentiation. 2008;76:488-94 pubmed
    ..This effect was also abrogated by PPP. Thus, the IBMX-induced neuron-like differentiation of ADSC is mediated by IGF signaling through the phosphorylation of IGF-IR at Y1136. ..
  28. Velázquez E, Blazquez E, Ruiz Albusac J. Synergistic effect of glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) and of key growth factors on the proliferation of cultured rat astrocytes. Evidence for reciprocal upregulation of the mRNAs for GLP-2 and IGF-I receptors. Mol Neurobiol. 2009;40:183-93 pubmed publisher
  29. Hakam A, Fang Q, Karl R, Coppola D. Coexpression of IGF-1R and c-Src proteins in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Dig Dis Sci. 2003;48:1972-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our data support the role of IGF-1R and c-Src in human pancreatic carcinogenesis; the coexpression of both these molecules may play an important role in transformation of pancreatic ductal cells. ..
  30. Li J, Masood A, Yi M, Lau M, Belcastro R, Ivanovska J, et al. The IGF-I/IGF-R1 pathway regulates postnatal lung growth and is a nonspecific regulator of alveologenesis in the neonatal rat. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2013;304:L626-37 pubmed publisher
  31. Huffman D, Farias Quipildor G, Mao K, Zhang X, Wan J, Apontes P, et al. Central insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) restores whole-body insulin action in a model of age-related insulin resistance and IGF-1 decline. Aging Cell. 2016;15:181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we propose that strategies aimed at 'tipping the balance' of IGF-1 action centrally are the optimal approach to achieve healthy aging and longevity in humans. ..
  32. Dal Pozzo C, Kido L, Montico F, Gonçalves M, Cagnon V. Morphology and MMP-9, AR and IGFR-1 responses of the seminal vesicle in TRAMP mice model. Tissue Cell. 2016;48:217-23 pubmed publisher
    ..TRAMP mice could be indicated as a good model to study alterations of the seminal vesicle in association to prostate cancer. ..
  33. Heckman B, Chakravarty G, Vargo Gogola T, Gonzales Rimbau M, Hadsell D, Lee A, et al. Crosstalk between the p190-B RhoGAP and IGF signaling pathways is required for embryonic mammary bud development. Dev Biol. 2007;309:137-49 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that IGF signaling through p190-B and IRS proteins is critical for mammary bud formation and ensuing epithelial-mesenchymal interactions necessary to sustain mammary bud morphogenesis. ..
  34. Broyl A, Corthals S, Jongen J, van der Holt B, Kuiper R, de Knegt Y, et al. Mechanisms of peripheral neuropathy associated with bortezomib and vincristine in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a prospective analysis of data from the HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11:1057-65 pubmed publisher
  35. Anversa P, Reiss K, Kajstura J, Cheng W, Li P, Sonnenblick E, et al. Myocardial infarction and the myocyte IGF1 autocrine system. Eur Heart J. 1995;16 Suppl N:37-45 pubmed
    ..Since insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) and its receptor (IGF1R) are required for cell growth in vitro, the possibility was raised that an autocrine IGF1-IGF1R system may be ..
  36. Werner H, Stannard B, Bach M, LeRoith D, Roberts C. Cloning and characterization of the proximal promoter region of the rat insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990;169:1021-7 pubmed
    ..The rat IGF-I receptor gene promoter region appears to have some sequences similar to both "housekeeping" and highly regulated promoters and may be an example of an intermediary class of regulatory region. ..
  37. Jiang G, Wang W, Cao Q, Gu J, Mi X, Wang K, et al. Insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) enhances hippocampal excitatory and seizure activity through IGF-1 receptor-mediated mechanisms in the epileptic brain. Clin Sci (Lond). 2015;129:1047-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study presents a previously unappreciated role of IGF-1R in the development of seizure activity. ..
  38. Arabkhari M, Bunda S, Wang Y, Wang A, Pshezhetsky A, Hinek A. Desialylation of insulin receptors and IGF-1 receptors by neuraminidase-1 controls the net proliferative response of L6 myoblasts to insulin. Glycobiology. 2010;20:603-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore conclude that desialylation of both IR and IGF-1R by Neu1 controls the net proliferative response of skeletal myoblasts to insulin. ..
  39. Houde D, Demarest S. Fine details of IGF-1R activation, inhibition, and asymmetry determined by associated hydrogen /deuterium-exchange and peptide mass mapping. Structure. 2011;19:890-900 pubmed publisher
    ..The dual-exchange behavior of these peptides was enhanced on ligand binding and eliminated on inhibitor binding, clearly associating these regions with active state asymmetry and enabling them to serve as reporters of receptor activity. ..
  40. Zakaria R, Rajikin M, Yaacob N, Nor N. Immunolocalization of insulin-like growth factors and their receptors in the diabetic mouse oviduct and uterine tissues during the preimplantation period. Acta Histochem. 2009;111:52-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the oviductal immunolabelling for IGFs and their receptors was significantly altered by maternal diabetes, which may be of importance in the pathogenesis of preimplantation diabetic embryopathy. ..
  41. Werner H, Woloschak M, Adamo M, Shen Orr Z, Roberts C, LeRoith D. Developmental regulation of the rat insulin-like growth factor I receptor gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:7451-5 pubmed
    ..The molecular mechanisms underlying this apparent divergent transcriptional control of the IGF-I and IGF-I receptor genes warrant further study. ..
  42. Nguyen V, Le T, Tong M, Mellion M, Gilchrist J, de la Monte S. Experimental alcohol-related peripheral neuropathy: role of insulin/IGF resistance. Nutrients. 2012;4:1042-57 pubmed
    ..Therefore, ALPN is likely mediated by molecular and signal transduction abnormalities similar to those identified in alcoholic liver and brain degeneration. ..
  43. Gong X, Ma M, Fan X, Li M, Liu Q, Liu X, et al. Down-regulation of IGF-1/IGF-1R in hippocampus of rats with vascular dementia. Neurosci Lett. 2012;513:20-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that down-regulation of IGF-1 and p-Akt may contribute to the impairments of learning and memory functions after 2-VO. IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling system may involved in the onset and development of VaD. ..
  44. Arroba A, Frago L, Argente J, Chowen J. Oestrogen requires the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor for stimulation of prolactin synthesis via mitogen-activated protein kinase. J Neuroendocrinol. 2005;17:97-104 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that, to stimulate prolactin synthesis, E(2) activates the MAPK cascade and that this requires the presence of both oestrogen and IGF-I receptors. ..
  45. Kim J, Wende A, Sena S, Theobald H, Soto J, Sloan C, et al. Insulin-like growth factor I receptor signaling is required for exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:2531-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These signaling events antagonize Akt signaling, which although necessary for mediating physiological cardiac hypertrophy, is insufficient to promote cardiac hypertrophy in the absence of myocardial IGF-I signaling. ..
  46. Schubert M, Brazil D, Burks D, Kushner J, Ye J, Flint C, et al. Insulin receptor substrate-2 deficiency impairs brain growth and promotes tau phosphorylation. J Neurosci. 2003;23:7084-92 pubmed
    ..Thus, dysregulation of the Irs2 branch of the insulin-Igf-signaling cascade reveals a molecular link between diabetes and neurodegenerative disease. ..
  47. Wang X, Chen Z, Zhang L, Chen Y, Li D, Chen F, et al. Expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and its intervention by interleukin-10 in experimental hepatic fibrosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2003;9:1287-91 pubmed
    ..The expression of IGF-1 and IGF-1R immunoreactivities in liver tissue seems to be up-regulated during development of hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl(4), and exogenic IL-10 inhibits the responses. ..
  48. Rotem Yehudar R, Galperin E, Horowitz M. Association of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor with EHD1 and SNAP29. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:33054-60 pubmed
  49. Han S, Studer E, Gupta S, Fang Y, Qiao L, Li W, et al. Bile acids enhance the activity of the insulin receptor and glycogen synthase in primary rodent hepatocytes. Hepatology. 2004;39:456-63 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these findings suggest that bile acids and insulin may cooperate to regulate glucose storage in hepatocytes. ..
  50. Kido Y, Nakae J, Hribal M, Xuan S, Efstratiadis A, Accili D. Effects of mutations in the insulin-like growth factor signaling system on embryonic pancreas development and beta-cell compensation to insulin resistance. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:36740-7 pubmed
    ..Combined inactivation of insulin receptor (Insr) and Igf1 receptor (Igf1r), but not of either receptor alone, resulted in a 90% decrease in the size of the exocrine pancreas, because of ..
  51. Oberbauer A, Peng R. Fractionation of growth plate chondrocytes: differential expression of IGF-I and growth hormone and IGF-I receptor mRNA in purified populations. Connect Tissue Res. 1995;31:179-87 pubmed
    ..The growth plate distribution of IGF-IR and GHR mRNA implies distinct roles for circulating IGF-I vs. paracrine produced IGF-I. ..
  52. Verschure P, Marle J, Joosten L, Helsen M, Lafeber F, Berg W. Localization of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in human normal and osteoarthritic cartilage in relation to proteoglycan synthesis and content. Br J Rheumatol. 1996;35:1044-55 pubmed
    ..Clear zonal correlation is lost in OA cartilage, and patterns of chondrocyte IGF-1 receptor expression and PG synthesis vary with the stage of OA. ..
  53. Kawaguchi N, Smith A, Waring C, Hasan M, Miyamoto S, Matsuoka R, et al. c-kitpos GATA-4 high rat cardiac stem cells foster adult cardiomyocyte survival through IGF-1 paracrine signalling. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14297 pubmed publisher
    ..c-kitpos GATA-4 high cCSCs exert a paracrine survival effect on cardiomyocytes through induction of the IGF-1R and signalling pathway. ..