Gene Symbol: Igf1
Description: insulin-like growth factor 1
Alias: IGF, insulin-like growth factor I, IGF-I, somatomedin
Species: rat
Products:     Igf1

Top Publications

  1. Song K, Cornelius S, Reiss M, Danielpour D. Insulin-like growth factor-I inhibits transcriptional responses of transforming growth factor-beta by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent suppression of the activation of Smad3 but not Smad2. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:38342-51 pubmed
    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) have been shown to be oncogenic and tumor suppressive, respectively, on prostate epithelial cells...
  2. Shan Z, Lin Q, Fu Y, Deng C, Zhou Z, Zhu J, et al. Upregulated expression of miR-1/miR-206 in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;381:597-601 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-1 and miR-206 expression were significantly increased, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) protein was markedly reduced without obvious change of its mRNA level after MI induction...
  3. Woelfle J, Billiard J, Rotwein P. Acute control of insulin-like growth factor-I gene transcription by growth hormone through Stat5b. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:22696-702 pubmed
    Many of the effects of growth hormone (GH) are mediated by insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a secreted peptide whose gene transcription is induced by GH by unknown mechanisms...
  4. Homma K, Koriyama Y, Mawatari K, Higuchi Y, Kosaka J, Kato S. Early downregulation of IGF-I decides the fate of rat retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury. Neurochem Int. 2007;50:741-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, amount of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), an activator of the phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt system, was initially decreased from RGCs 1-2 ..
  5. Watanabe T, Miyazaki A, Katagiri T, Yamamoto H, Idei T, Iguchi T. Relationship between serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels and Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53:1748-53 pubmed
    To determine whether decreased serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels could be a risk factor for dementia in older people. Case control study. Showa University Karasuyama Hospital, Tokyo, Japan...
  6. Li J, Wang C, Chen J, Feng Z, Ma H. Expression of liver insulin-like growth factor 1 gene and its serum level in patients with diabetes. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:255-9 pubmed
    To explore the effect of diabetic duration and blood glucose level on insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene expression and serum IGF-1 level...
  7. Cohen A, Tong M, Wands J, de la Monte S. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor resistance with neurodegeneration in an adult chronic ethanol exposure model. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31:1558-73 pubmed
    ..analysis demonstrated that the chronic ethanol-fed rats had significantly reduced insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-II receptor expression in all 3 regions and reduced insulin receptor expression in the temporal lobe...
  8. Lin S, Fan L, Rhodes P, Cai Z. Intranasal administration of IGF-1 attenuates hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats. Exp Neurol. 2009;217:361-70 pubmed publisher
    ..rhIGF-1 enhanced proliferation of neuronal and oligodendroglial progenitors after cerebral HI as well. These data suggest that iN administration of IGF-1 has the potential to be used for clinical treatment.
  9. Nunez A, Carro E, Torres Aleman I. Insulin-like growth factor I modifies electrophysiological properties of rat brain stem neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2003;89:3008-17 pubmed
    On systemic injection, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) elicits a prolonged increase in the excitability of dorsal column nuclei (DCN) cells in the brain stem as well as other target neurons within the brain...

More Information


  1. Soscia S, Tong M, Xu X, Cohen A, Chu J, Wands J, et al. Chronic gestational exposure to ethanol causes insulin and IGF resistance and impairs acetylcholine homeostasis in the brain. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63:2039-56 pubmed
    ..dose-effects on cerebellar development, expression of genes required for insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling, and the upstream mechanisms and downstream consequences of impaired signaling in relation to ..
  2. Ding Q, Vaynman S, Akhavan M, Ying Z, Gomez Pinilla F. Insulin-like growth factor I interfaces with brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated synaptic plasticity to modulate aspects of exercise-induced cognitive function. Neuroscience. 2006;140:823-33 pubmed
    ..Our results illustrate a possible mechanism by which insulin-like growth factor-I interfaces with the brain-derived neurotrophic factor system to mediate exercise-induced synaptic and cognitive plasticity. ..
  3. Bains M, Florez McClure M, Heidenreich K. Insulin-like growth factor-I prevents the accumulation of autophagic vesicles and cell death in Purkinje neurons by increasing the rate of autophagosome-to-lysosome fusion and degradation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:20398-407 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) completely blocked the autophagy-associated cell death of Purkinje neurons...
  4. Yan Y, Sailor K, Vemuganti R, Dempsey R. Insulin-like growth factor-1 is an endogenous mediator of focal ischemia-induced neural progenitor proliferation. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:45-54 pubmed
    ..Of these, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) showed increased protein expression in the activated astrocytes in the ischemic penumbra...
  5. Carro E, Trejo J, Gomez Isla T, LeRoith D, Torres Aleman I. Serum insulin-like growth factor I regulates brain amyloid-beta levels. Nat Med. 2002;8:1390-7 pubmed
    Levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), a neuroprotective hormone, decrease in serum during aging, whereas amyloid-beta (Abeta), which is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, accumulates in the brain...
  6. Zheng W, Kar S, Quirion R. Insulin-like growth factor-1-induced phosphorylation of transcription factor FKHRL1 is mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt kinase and role of this pathway in insulin-like growth factor-1-induced survival of cultured hippocampal neurons. Mol Pharmacol. 2002;62:225-33 pubmed
    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a trophic factor promoting cell survival by activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt kinase pathway...
  7. Liang G, Cline G, Macica C. IGF-1 stimulates de novo fatty acid biosynthesis by Schwann cells during myelination. Glia. 2007;55:632-41 pubmed
    ..Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been identified as a growth factor that stimulates the early events of myelination in SCs that signals via ..
  8. Scott A, Cook J, Hart D, Walker D, Duronio V, Khan K. Tenocyte responses to mechanical loading in vivo: a role for local insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling in early tendinosis in rats. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:871-81 pubmed
    ..To investigate tenocyte regulatory events during the development of overuse supraspinatus tendinosis in rats...
  9. Adams M, Elizabeth Forbes M, Constance Linville M, Riddle D, Sonntag W, Brunso Bechtold J. Stability of local brain levels of insulin-like growth factor-I in two well-characterized models of decreased plasma IGF-I. Growth Factors. 2009;27:181-8 pubmed publisher
    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a functionally important neurotrophic factor, impacts tissues throughout the body including the central nervous system...
  10. Chia D, Ono M, Woelfle J, Schlesinger Massart M, Jiang H, Rotwein P. Characterization of distinct Stat5b binding sites that mediate growth hormone-stimulated IGF-I gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:3190-7 pubmed
    A key agent in the anabolic actions of growth hormone (GH) is insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a 70-amino acid secreted protein with direct effects on somatic growth and tissue maintenance and repair...
  11. Woelfle J, Chia D, Rotwein P. Mechanisms of growth hormone (GH) action. Identification of conserved Stat5 binding sites that mediate GH-induced insulin-like growth factor-I gene activation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:51261-6 pubmed
    ..of growth hormone (GH) on somatic growth and tissue maintenance are mediated by insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a secreted protein whose gene expression is rapidly and potently induced by GH by unknown mechanisms...
  12. Chia D, Varco Merth B, Rotwein P. Dispersed Chromosomal Stat5b-binding elements mediate growth hormone-activated insulin-like growth factor-I gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:17636-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that GH stimulates recruitment of Stat5b to multiple dispersed regions within the igf1 locus, including several with properties consistent with long range transcriptional enhancers that collectively ..
  13. Guan J, Gluckman P. IGF-1 derived small neuropeptides and analogues: a novel strategy for the development of pharmaceuticals for neurological conditions. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;157:881-91 pubmed publisher
    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is neuroprotective and improves long-term function after brain injury...
  14. Rietveld I, Ikram M, Vingerling J, Hofman A, Pols H, Lamberts S, et al. An igf-I gene polymorphism modifies the risk of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes. 2006;55:2387-91 pubmed
    The role of IGF-I in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy is unclear...
  15. Elia L, Contu R, Quintavalle M, Varrone F, Chimenti C, Russo M, et al. Reciprocal regulation of microRNA-1 and insulin-like growth factor-1 signal transduction cascade in cardiac and skeletal muscle in physiological and pathological conditions. Circulation. 2009;120:2377-85 pubmed publisher
    ..bioinformatics tools, biochemical assays, and in vivo models, we demonstrate that (1) insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-1 receptor are targets of miR-1; (2) miR-1 and IGF-1 protein levels are correlated inversely in models ..
  16. Pérez Muñuzuri A, Fernandez Lorenzo J, Couce Pico M, Blanco Teijeiro M, Fraga Bermúdez J. Serum levels of IGF1 are a useful predictor of retinopathy of prematurity. Acta Paediatr. 2010;99:519-25 pubmed publisher
    To ascertain whether insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and is a useful predictor of the disease...
  17. Lambooij A, van Wely K, Lindenbergh Kortleve D, Kuijpers R, Kliffen M, Mooy C. Insulin-like growth factor-I and its receptor in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:2192-8 pubmed
    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I protein is a growth-promoting polypeptide that can act as an angiogenic agent in the eye...
  18. Yu X, Song Y, Geng Y, Lin Q, Shan Z, Lin S, et al. Glucose induces apoptosis of cardiomyocytes via microRNA-1 and IGF-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;376:548-52 pubmed publisher
    ..could induce apoptosis of rat cardiomyocyte cell line H9C2 through microRNA regulated insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) signaling pathway...
  19. Metlapally R, Ki C, Li Y, Tran Viet K, Abbott D, Malecaze F, et al. Genetic association of insulin-like growth factor-1 polymorphisms with high-grade myopia in an international family cohort. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:4476-9 pubmed publisher
    ..modulated animal models, and observations of glycemic control in humans suggests that insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 plays a role in the control of eye growth...
  20. Ruan W, Powell Braxton L, Kopchick J, Kleinberg D. Evidence that insulin-like growth factor I and growth hormone are required for prostate gland development. Endocrinology. 1999;140:1984-9 pubmed
    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been implicated as a factor that may predispose one to prostate cancer. However, no specific relationship between IGF-I and prostate development or cancer in vivo has been established...
  21. Teglund S, McKay C, Schuetz E, van Deursen J, Stravopodis D, Wang D, et al. Stat5a and Stat5b proteins have essential and nonessential, or redundant, roles in cytokine responses. Cell. 1998;93:841-50 pubmed
    ..Conversely, the responses to a variety of cytokines that activate the Stat5 proteins, including erythropoietin, are largely unaffected. ..
  22. Podcheko A, Northcott P, Bikopoulos G, Lee A, Bommareddi S, Kushner J, et al. Identification of a WD40 repeat-containing isoform of PHIP as a novel regulator of beta-cell growth and survival. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:6484-96 pubmed
    ..We suggest that PHIP1 may be involved in the induction of long-term gene expression programs to promote beta-cell mitogenesis and survival. ..
  23. Gårdebjer E, Cuffe J, Pantaleon M, Wlodek M, Moritz K. Periconceptional alcohol consumption causes fetal growth restriction and increases glycogen accumulation in the late gestation rat placenta. Placenta. 2014;35:50-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Junctional Glut1 and Igf2 mRNA levels were increased. Labyrinth Igf1 mRNA levels were decreased in placentas from both sexes, but protein IGF1R levels were decreased in placentas from ..
  24. Bjarnegård N, Arnqvist H, Lindstrom T, Jonasson L, Jonsson A, Länne T. Long-term hyperglycaemia impairs vascular smooth muscle cell function in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2009;6:25-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Lumen diameter, intima-media thickness and distensibility were similar in DM and C. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) was lower in DM than C, 231+/-65 vs. 349+/-68 ng/ml (p<0.001)...
  25. Rydzanicz M, Nowak D, Karolak J, Frajdenberg A, Podfigurna Musielak M, Mrugacz M, et al. IGF-1 gene polymorphisms in Polish families with high-grade myopia. Mol Vis. 2011;17:2428-39 pubmed
    Recent work has suggested that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene polymorphisms are genetically linked with high-grade myopia (HM), which is a complex-trait eye disorder in which numerous candidate loci and genes are thought to ..
  26. Pereira F, Facincani I, Jorgetti V, Ramalho L, Volpon J, dos Reis L, et al. Etiopathogenesis of hepatic osteodystrophy in Wistar rats with cholestatic liver disease. Calcif Tissue Int. 2009;85:75-83 pubmed publisher
    ..histomorphometry, biomechanical properties, and the role of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) system in the onset of this disorder...
  27. Pi Chieh Wang K, Lee L, Lin T, Sheen Chen S, Lin J, Chiu W, et al. Gene transfer of IGF1 attenuates hepatocellular apoptosis after bile duct ligation. J Surg Res. 2011;167:237-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) acts in an autocrine and paracrine manner to promote glucose utilization, using phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3 ..
  28. Uysal N, Agilkaya S, Sisman A, Camsari U, Gencoglu C, Dayi A, et al. Exercise increases leptin levels correlated with IGF-1 in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of adolescent male and female rats. J Chem Neuroanat. 2017;81:27-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously have been able to demonstrate that aerobic exercise increased IGF-1 in hippocampus...
  29. Hou J, Chen E, Wei S, Lin F, Lin Q, Lan X, et al. Lactoferrin inhibits apoptosis through insulin-like growth factor I in primary rat osteoblasts. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2014;35:523-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) was measured uisng RT-PCR and Western blotting...
  30. Song K, Shankar E, Yang J, Bane K, Wahdan Alaswad R, Danielpour D. Critical role of a survivin/TGF-?/mTORC1 axis in IGF-I-mediated growth of prostate epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61896 pubmed publisher
    ..One such mechanism may be through constitutive activation of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling pathway, implicated in the development and progression of prostate cancer...
  31. Schmidt R, Dorsey D, Beaudet L, Peterson R. Analysis of the Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) type 2 diabetic rat model suggests a neurotrophic role for insulin/IGF-I in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Am J Pathol. 2003;163:21-8 pubmed
    ..Recent studies have suggested that loss of the neurotrophic effects of insulin and/or IGF-I on sympathetic neurons and not hyperglycemia per se, may underlie the development of sympathetic NAD...
  32. Gao L, Blair L, Salinas G, Needleman L, Marshall J. Insulin-like growth factor-1 modulation of CaV1.3 calcium channels depends on Ca2+ release from IP3-sensitive stores and calcium/calmodulin kinase II phosphorylation of the alpha1 subunit EF hand. J Neurosci. 2006;26:6259-68 pubmed
    ..We find that CaV1.3 channels are modulated by the insulin-like growth factor-1/receptor tyrosine kinase (IGF-1/RTK) through a signaling pathway that involves phospholipase C, calcium release from IP3-sensitive internal ..
  33. Hunt K, Lukanova A, Rinaldi S, Lundin E, Norat T, Palmqvist R, et al. A potential inverse association between insulin-like growth factor I and hypertension in a cross-sectional study. Ann Epidemiol. 2006;16:563-71 pubmed
    Elevated circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels increasingly are being implicated as a potential risk factor for the development of some cancers; however, relatively few epidemiologic studies have focused on potential ..
  34. Palin K, Moreau M, Orcel H, Duvoid Guillou A, Rabie A, Kelley K, et al. Age-impaired fluid homeostasis depends on the balance of IL-6/IGF-I in the rat supraoptic nuclei. Neurobiol Aging. 2009;30:1677-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, known to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties, decreases with age...
  35. Siqueira F, Furukawa L, Oliveira I, Heimann J. Glucose metabolism and hepatic Igf1 DNA methylation are altered in the offspring of dams fed a low-salt diet during pregnancy. Physiol Behav. 2016;154:68-75 pubmed publisher
    ..tolerance test, HOMA-IR, gene expression analysis and DNA methylation measurements were conducted for the Insr, Igf1, Igf1r, Ins1 and Ins2 genes in the livers of neonates and in the liver, white adipose tissue and muscle of 20-week-..
  36. Neal Perry G, Yao D, Shu J, Sun Y, Etgen A. Insulin-like growth factor-I regulates LH release by modulation of kisspeptin and NMDA-mediated neurotransmission in young and middle-aged female rats. Endocrinology. 2014;155:1827-37 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated potential mechanisms by which age and IGF-I receptor (IGF-Ir) signaling in the neuroendocrine hypothalamus affect estradiol-positive feedback effects on GnRH neuronal activation and on kisspeptin and N-methyl-D-..
  37. Suzuki H, Li Y, Dong X, Hassan M, Abbruzzese J, Li D. Effect of insulin-like growth factor gene polymorphisms alone or in interaction with diabetes on the risk of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:3467-73 pubmed publisher
    ..of IGF modify pancreatic cancer risk, we compared the frequency of six single nucleotide polymorphisms of IGF1 and IGF2 in a large-scale case control study...
  38. Supeno N, Pati S, Hadi R, Ghani A, Mustafa Z, Abdullah J, et al. IGF-1 acts as controlling switch for long-term proliferation and maintenance of EGF/FGF-responsive striatal neural stem cells. Int J Med Sci. 2013;10:522-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized, that IGF-1-treatment can provide an optimal niche for long-term maintenance and proliferation of EGF/FGF-responsive NSCs...
  39. Katsuragawa Y, Saitoh K, Tanaka N, Wake M, Ikeda Y, Furukawa H, et al. Changes of human menisci in osteoarthritic knee joints. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2010;18:1133-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was markedly enhanced in OA menisci, which was considered to be responsible, at least partly, for the increase ..
  40. Ito S, Menard M, Atkinson T, Gaudet C, Brown L, Whitfield J, et al. Involvement of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling in the amyloid-? peptide oligomers-induced p75 neurotrophin receptor protein expression in mouse hippocampus. J Alzheimers Dis. 2012;31:493-506 pubmed publisher
    ..A?-derived diffusible ligands) induce p75NTR protein expression through insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells...
  41. Luo L, Sun Z, Zhang L, Li X, Dong Y, Liu T. Effects of low-level laser therapy on ROS homeostasis and expression of IGF-1 and TGF-?1 in skeletal muscle during the repair process. Lasers Med Sci. 2013;28:725-34 pubmed publisher
    ..the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of IGF-1 and TGF-?1 in the gastrocnemius muscles of rats following contusion...
  42. Todd B, Fraley G, Peck A, Schwartz G, Etgen A. Central insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors play distinct roles in the control of reproduction, food intake, and body weight in female rats. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:492-503 pubmed
    ..of the LH surge in ovariectomized female rats requires concurrent activation of brain insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) receptors...
  43. Kwok C, Juan C, Shih K, Hwu C, Jap T, Ho L. Insulin-like growth factor-1 increases endothelin receptor A levels and action in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. J Cell Biochem. 2005;94:1126-34 pubmed
    ..ET-1) receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), but the effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on ET-1 receptor expression is not known...
  44. Yamanaka D, Akama T, Fukushima T, Nedachi T, Kawasaki C, Chida K, et al. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-binding protein, PI3KAP/XB130, is required for cAMP-induced amplification of IGF mitogenic activity in FRTL-5 thyroid cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:1043-55 pubmed publisher
    ..that long-term pretreatment of rat FRTL-5 thyroid cells with TSH or cAMP-generating reagents potentiated IGF-I-dependent DNA synthesis...
  45. Moreno Barriuso N, López Malpartida A, de Pablo F, Pichel J. Alterations in alveolar epithelium differentiation and vasculogenesis in lungs of LIF/IGF-I double deficient embryos. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2040-50 pubmed
    Previous studies on double deficient mice for leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) reported that they died of respiratory failure, with abnormal lung histology and altered expression of pulmonary ..
  46. Baldini S, Restani L, Baroncelli L, Coltelli M, Franco R, Cenni M, et al. Enriched early life experiences reduce adult anxiety-like behavior in rats: a role for insulin-like growth factor 1. J Neurosci. 2013;33:11715-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently found that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a key mediator of early EE or massage on brain development...
  47. Ness J, Wood T. Insulin-like growth factor I, but not neurotrophin-3, sustains Akt activation and provides long-term protection of immature oligodendrocytes from glutamate-mediated apoptosis. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2002;20:476-88 pubmed
    ..Glutamate induced time- and dose-dependent DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation in pro-OLs. IGF-I or NT-3, but not CNTF, prevented apoptosis of pro-OLs by 24 h via a PI3-kinase-dependent pathway; however, only ..
  48. Chu Q, Moreland R, Yew N, Foley J, Ziegler R, Scheule R. Systemic Insulin-like growth factor-1 reverses hypoalgesia and improves mobility in a mouse model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Mol Ther. 2008;16:1400-8 pubmed publisher
    ..characterized by sensory and motor neuron damage and decreased circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Quite often, an early hyperalgesia is followed by hypoalgesia and muscle weakness...
  49. Costelli P, Muscaritoli M, Bossola M, Penna F, Reffo P, Bonetto A, et al. IGF-1 is downregulated in experimental cancer cachexia. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;291:R674-83 pubmed
    ..Muscle atrophy has been suggested to depend on impaired IGF-1 signal transduction pathway...
  50. Zhang B, Xian C, Luo Y, Wang Y. Expression and subcellular localization of mechano-growth factor in osteoblasts under mechanical stretch. Sci China C Life Sci. 2009;52:928-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that cyclic stretching stimulation could induce MGF expression in osteoblasts in a pulsing fashion; and the nuclear distribution of MGF suggested that MGF might act in mechanocytes as an autocrine growth factor. ..
  51. Bisping E, Ikeda S, Sedej M, Wakula P, McMullen J, Tarnavski O, et al. Transcription factor GATA4 is activated but not required for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:9827-34 pubmed publisher
    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) promotes a physiological type of cardiac hypertrophy and has therapeutic effects in heart disease...
  52. Shen L, Liu Z, Gong J, Zhang L, Wang L, Magdalou J, et al. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014;274:263-73 pubmed publisher
    ..programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is "the first programming", and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as "the second programming".
  53. Ergenoglu M, Yildirim N, Yildirim A, Yeniel O, Erbaş O, Yavasoglu A, et al. Effects of Resveratrol on Ovarian Morphology, Plasma Anti-Mullerian Hormone, IGF-1 Levels, and Oxidative Stress Parameters in a Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Reprod Sci. 2015;22:942-7 pubmed publisher
    ..01) following resveratrol treatment. Resveratrol appears to be effective in the treatment of PCOS due to its antioxidant properties. Future clinical studies with different dosages might provide useful implementations to our practice. ..