Gene Symbol: Ifng
Description: interferon gamma
Alias: IFNG2, interferon gamma, IFN-gamma
Species: rat
Products:     Ifng

Top Publications

  1. Hayes M, Wang J, Norcross M. Regulation of interleukin-12 expression in human monocytes: selective priming by interferon-gamma of lipopolysaccharide-inducible p35 and p40 genes. Blood. 1995;86:646-50 pubmed
    ..The selectivity of priming by IFN-gamma is in accord with a putative role for IL-12 in the initiation and amplification of TH1-type responses. ..
  2. Deiss L, Feinstein E, Berissi H, Cohen O, Kimchi A. Identification of a novel serine/threonine kinase and a novel 15-kD protein as potential mediators of the gamma interferon-induced cell death. Genes Dev. 1995;9:15-30 pubmed
    ..Altogether, it is suggested that these two novel genes are candidates for positive mediators of programmed cell death that is induced by IFN-gamma. ..
  3. Yamashita M, Ukai Tadenuma M, Miyamoto T, Sugaya K, Hosokawa H, Hasegawa A, et al. Essential role of GATA3 for the maintenance of type 2 helper T (Th2) cytokine production and chromatin remodeling at the Th2 cytokine gene loci. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26983-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, GATA3 plays important roles in the maintenance of the Th2 phenotype and continuous chromatin remodeling of the specific Th2 cytokine gene locus through cell division. ..
  4. Amsen D, Antov A, Jankovic D, Sher A, Radtke F, Souabni A, et al. Direct regulation of Gata3 expression determines the T helper differentiation potential of Notch. Immunity. 2007;27:89-99 pubmed
    ..Moreover, absence of GATA-3 turned Notch from a Th2 inducer into a powerful inducer of Th1 differentiation. Therefore, Gata3 is a critical element determining inductive Th2 differentiation and limiting Th1 differentiation by Notch. ..
  5. Miljkovic D, Momcilovic M, Stojanovic I, Stosic Grujicic S, Ramic Z, Mostarica Stojkovic M. Astrocytes stimulate interleukin-17 and interferon-gamma production in vitro. J Neurosci Res. 2007;85:3598-606 pubmed
    ..These results suggest one more way in which astrocytes could contribute to the complex interactions during CNS inflammation. ..
  6. Nishimoto M, Akashi A, Kuwano K, Tseng C, Ohizumi K, Arai S. Gene expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma in the lungs of Mycoplasma pulmonis-infected mice. Microbiol Immunol. 1994;38:345-52 pubmed
    ..reproducibility the expressions of messenger RNAs of cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN gamma) in the lung tissue of M...
  7. Kobayashi K, Inohara N, Hernandez L, Galan J, Nunez G, Janeway C, et al. RICK/Rip2/CARDIAK mediates signalling for receptors of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Nature. 2002;416:194-9 pubmed
    ..Rip2 is therefore a signal transducer and integrator of signals for both the innate and adaptive immune systems. ..
  8. Lee Y, Kim I, Kim J, Bae J, Kwon J, Shin D, et al. Impact of cytokine gene polymorphisms on risk and treatment outcomes of aplastic anemia. Ann Hematol. 2011;90:515-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We genotyped ten polymorphisms in three cytokine genes (IFNG, TNF, and TGFB1) and FAS gene...
  9. Yagi R, Junttila I, Wei G, Urban J, Zhao K, Paul W, et al. The transcription factor GATA3 actively represses RUNX3 protein-regulated production of interferon-gamma. Immunity. 2010;32:507-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we found that Runx3 directly bound to multiple regulatory elements of the Ifng gene and that blocking Runx3 function in either Th1 or GATA3-deficient "Th2" cells results in diminished IFN-gamma ..

More Information


  1. Tosca M, Cosentino C, Pallestrini E, Riccio A, Milanese M, Canonica G, et al. Medical treatment reverses cytokine pattern in allergic and nonallergic chronic rhinosinusitis in asthmatic children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2003;14:238-41 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the medical treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis reversed the cytokine pattern from a Th2 towards a Th1 profile both in allergic and nonallergic children. ..
  2. Wang H, Yang Y, Sharma N, Tarasova N, Timofeeva O, Winkler Pickett R, et al. STAT1 activation regulates proliferation and differentiation of renal progenitors. Cell Signal. 2010;22:1717-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that both metanephric progenitors and renal tumor cells utilize a STAT1-dependent mechanism for growth or survival. ..
  3. Liversidge J, Sewell H, Thomson A, Forrester J. Lymphokine-induced MHC class II antigen expression on cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells and the influence of cyclosporin A. Immunology. 1988;63:313-7 pubmed
  4. Shang L, Tomasi T. The heat shock protein 90-CDC37 chaperone complex is required for signaling by types I and II interferons. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:1876-84 pubmed
    ..We conclude that JAK1/2 are client proteins of Hsp90 and that Hsp90 and CDC37 play a critical role in types I and II interferon pathways. ..
  5. Lindley A, Crapster Pregont M, Liu Y, Kuperman D. 12/15-lipoxygenase is an interleukin-13 and interferon-? counterregulated-mediator of allergic airway inflammation. Mediators Inflamm. 2010;2010: pubmed publisher
    ..Interleukin-13 and interferon-? counterregulate 12/15-lipoxygenase potentially contributing to the effects of these cytokines on allergic airway inflammation. ..
  6. Raile K, Berthold A, Banning U, Horn F, Pfeiffer G, Kiess W. IGFs, basic FGF, and glucose modulate proliferation and apoptosis induced by IFNgamma but not by IL-1beta in rat INS-1E beta-cells. Horm Metab Res. 2003;35:407-14 pubmed
    ..The cytokines IFNg and IL-1beta, but not TNFalpha strongly induced INS-1E beta-cell apoptosis...
  7. Lacomba M, Martin C, Chamond R, Galera J, Omar M, Estevez E. Aqueous and serum interferon gamma, interleukin (IL) 2, IL-4, and IL-10 in patients with uveitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118:768-72 pubmed
    ..Elevated serum IFN-gamma level seems to predispose the patient to more serious loss of vision. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118:768-772 ..
  8. Mittal N, Sanyal S. In vivo effect of surfactant on inflammatory cytokines during endotoxin-induced lung injury in rodents. J Immunotoxicol. 2011;8:274-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Last, the studies here clearly indicated that in this aspect, natural surfactant appears to be more beneficial compared to synthetic surfactant. ..
  9. Vouldoukis I, Riveros Moreno V, Dugas B, Ouaaz F, Becherel P, Debre P, et al. The killing of Leishmania major by human macrophages is mediated by nitric oxide induced after ligation of the Fc epsilon RII/CD23 surface antigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:7804-8 pubmed
    ..A similar NO-dependent effect was observed with interferon gamma-treated cells...
  10. Parr M, Parr E. The role of gamma interferon in immune resistance to vaginal infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 in mice. Virology. 1999;258:282-94 pubmed
    We investigated the role of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) in a mouse model of immunity to vaginal infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)...
  11. Wiesenberg I, van der Meide P, Schellekens H, Alkan S. Suppression and augmentation of rat adjuvant arthritis with monoclonal anti-interferon-gamma antibody. Clin Exp Immunol. 1989;78:245-9 pubmed
    ..Therapeutic treatment with the MoAb DB-1 starting 8 days after arthritis induction caused only slight and short-lived inhibitory effects. IFN-gamma appears to be a critical lymphokine for the development of adjuvant arthritis. ..
  12. Wang C, Wang R, Xie H, Sun Y, Tao R, Liu W, et al. Effect of acetazolamide on cytokines in rats exposed to high altitude. Cytokine. 2016;83:110-117 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism that ACZ protected hypoxia rats might be related to changes in cytokine content. The reducing of the pro-inflammatory cytokines in rat lung might be other reason to explain ACZ against the acute mountain sickness. ..
  13. Wang P, Han X, Mo B, Huang G, Wang C. LPS enhances TLR4 expression and IFN‑γ production via the TLR4/IRAK/NF‑κB signaling pathway in rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Mol Med Rep. 2017;16:3111-3116 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR4 signaling pathway is functional in PASMCs, and may be involved in the inflammatory response during the pathogenesis of COPD. ..
  14. Kondo N, Inoue R, Kasahara K, Fukao T, Kaneko H, Tashita H, et al. Reduced expression of the interferon-gamma messenger RNA in IgG2 deficiency. Scand J Immunol. 1997;45:227-30 pubmed
    ..Thus the results suggest that the reduced expression of IFN-gamma messenger RNA may play an important role in the IgG2 deficiency of these patients. ..
  15. de Paiva C, Villarreal A, Corrales R, Rahman H, Chang V, Farley W, et al. Dry eye-induced conjunctival epithelial squamous metaplasia is modulated by interferon-gamma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:2553-60 pubmed
    ..To investigate the role of interferon (IFN)-gamma in the pathogenesis of conjunctival squamous metaplasia in dry eye...
  16. Arjona A, Boyadjieva N, Sarkar D. Circadian rhythms of granzyme B, perforin, IFN-gamma, and NK cell cytolytic activity in the spleen: effects of chronic ethanol. J Immunol. 2004;172:2811-7 pubmed
    ..These findings identify the circadian functions of splenic NK cells and show the vulnerability of these rhythms to chronic ethanol. ..
  17. Celada A, Maki R. The expression of I-A correlates with the uptake of interferon-gamma by macrophages. Eur J Immunol. 1989;19:205-8 pubmed
  18. Onodera A, Yamashita M, Endo Y, Kuwahara M, Tofukuji S, Hosokawa H, et al. STAT6-mediated displacement of polycomb by trithorax complex establishes long-term maintenance of GATA3 expression in T helper type 2 cells. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2493-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, STAT6-mediated displacement of PcG by the TrxG complex establishes subsequent STAT6-independent maintenance of GATA3 expression in Th2 cells via the recruitment of the Menin-TrxG complex. ..
  19. McLoughlin R, Witowski J, Robson R, Wilkinson T, Hurst S, Williams A, et al. Interplay between IFN-gamma and IL-6 signaling governs neutrophil trafficking and apoptosis during acute inflammation. J Clin Invest. 2003;112:598-607 pubmed
    ..These data emphasize a pivotal role for IFN-gamma in regulating innate immunity through control of both the recruitment and clearance phases of PMN trafficking. ..
  20. Bluher M, Krohn K, Wallaschofski H, Braverman L, Paschke R. Cytokine gene expression in autoimmune thyroiditis in BioBreeding/Worcester rats. Thyroid. 1999;9:1049-55 pubmed
    ..Whether the detected IL-12p40 (10 rats) and IFN-gamma (5 rats) gene expression in animals without LT is an early indicator for the development of LT remains to be determined. ..
  21. Xu X, Dai Y, Heidenreich O, Nerenberg M. Adenovirus-mediated interferon-gamma transfer inhibits growth of transplanted HTLV-1 Tax tumors in mice. Hum Gene Ther. 1996;7:471-7 pubmed
    ..This system provides us with a valuable tumor immune therapy model to evaluate the effects of cytokines in induction or inhibition of specific antitumor immunity. ..
  22. Li X, Chaudry I, Choudhry M. ERK and not p38 pathway is required for IL-12 restoration of T cell IL-2 and IFN-gamma in a rodent model of alcohol intoxication and burn injury. J Immunol. 2009;183:3955-62 pubmed publisher
  23. Kolla V, Madhavi G, Pulla Reddy B, Srikanth Babu B, Yashovanthi J, Valluri V, et al. Association of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma and interleukin 10 gene polymorphisms with peripheral neuropathy in South Indian patients with type 2 diabetes. Cytokine. 2009;47:173-7 pubmed publisher
    ..three common functional SNPs primarily at the positions on genes of tumor necrosis alpha (TNFalpha) -308G/A, interferon gamma (IFNgamma) +874A/T and interleukin (IL) 10 -1082G/A in order to establish their association with peripheral ..
  24. Fujita H, Teng A, Nozawa R, Takamoto Matsui Y, Katagiri Matsumura H, Ikezawa Z, et al. Production of both IL-27 and IFN-gamma after the treatment with a ligand for invariant NK T cells is responsible for the suppression of Th2 response and allergic inflammation in a mouse experimental asthma model. J Immunol. 2009;183:254-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that production of both IL-27 and IFN-gamma by the alpha-GalCer treatment is responsible for suppression of the Th2 response and allergic inflammation. ..
  25. Kolinska J, Lisa V, Clark J, Kozakova H, Zakostelecka M, Khailova L, et al. Constitutive expression of IL-18 and IL-18R in differentiated IEC-6 cells: effect of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma treatment. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2008;28:287-96 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the addition of IL-18 stimulated production and release of the chemokine IL-8. These data suggest that IEC-6 cells may be not only a source of IL-18 but also a target for its action. ..
  26. Hu J, Meng Q, Roy S, Raha A, Hu J, Zhang J, et al. A novel transactivating factor that regulates interferon-gamma-dependent gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:30253-63 pubmed
    ..Its expression is induced by IFN-gamma treatment. GBF-1 is present in both cytosolic and nuclear compartments. These studies thus identify a novel transactivating factor in IFN signaling pathways. ..
  27. Ahdieh M, Vandenbos T, Youakim A. Lung epithelial barrier function and wound healing are decreased by IL-4 and IL-13 and enhanced by IFN-gamma. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;281:C2029-38 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that IL-4 and IL-13 diminish the capacity of Calu-3 cells to maintain barrier function and repair wounds, whereas IFN-gamma promotes epithelial restitution by enhancing barrier function and wound healing...
  28. Justo G, Bitencourt M, Pasquini R, Castelo Branco M, Rumjanek V. Increased IL10 plasmatic levels in Fanconi anemia patients. Cytokine. 2013;64:486-9 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-10 levels did not appear to be determinant for bone marrow cellularity. These data suggest that IL-10 is also a feature of Fanconi anemia pathophysiology. ..
  29. Sajish M, Zhou Q, Kishi S, Valdez D, Kapoor M, Guo M, et al. Trp-tRNA synthetase bridges DNA-PKcs to PARP-1 to link IFN-? and p53 signaling. Nat Chem Biol. 2012;8:547-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These and further results suggest an unexpected evolutionary expansion of the protein synthesis apparatus to a nuclear role that links major signaling pathways. ..
  30. Uchiyama M, Jin X, Zhang Q, Amano A, Watanabe T, Niimi M. Music exposure induced prolongation of cardiac allograft survival and generated regulatory CD4? cells in mice. Transplant Proc. 2012;44:1076-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, exposure to some types of music may induce prolonged survival of fully allogeneic cardiac allografts and generate CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory cells. ..
  31. Venkatesan N, Roughley P, Ludwig M. Proteoglycan expression in bleomycin lung fibroblasts: role of transforming growth factor-beta(1) and interferon-gamma. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002;283:L806-14 pubmed
    ..Activation of fibroblasts by TGF-beta(1) promotes abnormal deposition of PGs in fibrotic lungs; downregulation of TGF-beta(1) by IFN-gamma may have potential therapeutic benefits in this disease. ..
  32. Janelidze S, Enell K, Visse E, Darabi A, Salford L, Siesjo P. Activation of purified allogeneic CD4(+) T cells by rat bone marrow-derived dendritic cells induces concurrent secretion of IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-10. Immunol Lett. 2005;101:193-201 pubmed
    ..Thus, rat BMDCs effectively internalize antigens and stimulate T cell proliferation but fail to induce an unidirectional polarization of T helper (T(H)) cells and in this respect differ from both human and mouse DCs. ..
  33. Wang P, Li Z, Yu H, Zhang Y, Wang W, Jiang W, et al. Elevated serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in patients with haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. J Int Med Res. 2012;40:648-56 pubmed
    ..Serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines increased in line with disease severity in HFRS patients. ..
  34. Spanier J, Nashold F, Olson J, Hayes C. The Ifng gene is essential for Vdr gene expression and vitamin D?-mediated reduction of the pathogenic T cell burden in the central nervous system in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a multiple sclerosis model. J Immunol. 2012;189:3188-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Sardinian MS patients frequently carry a low Ifng expresser allele, suggesting that inadequate IFN-? may undermine vitamin D3-mediated inhibition of demyelinating ..
  35. Cai X, Castleman W. Increased IFN-gamma protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of anti-IP-10 antibody-treated F344 rats following Sendai viral infection. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2002;22:1175-9 pubmed
    ..This interesting phenomenon suggests that expression of IFN-gamma protein can be modulated by treatment with anti-IP-10 antibody at the posttranscriptional or translational level in this model. ..
  36. Heufelder A, Bahn R. Detection and localization of cytokine immunoreactivity in retro-ocular connective tissue in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Eur J Clin Invest. 1993;23:10-7 pubmed
    ..Although various roles have been suggested for interferon-gamma (IFN gamma), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) in GO, their actual presence in ..
  37. Siegmund T, Usadel K, Donner H, Braun J, Walfish P, Badenhoop K. Interferon-gamma gene microsatellite polymorphisms in patients with Graves' disease. Thyroid. 1998;8:1013-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is likely that the detected microsatellite polymorphisms play only a minor role in the susceptibility to Graves' disease. ..
  38. Liu J, Cao S, Herman L, Ma X. Differential regulation of interleukin (IL)-12 p35 and p40 gene expression and interferon (IFN)-gamma-primed IL-12 production by IFN regulatory factor 1. J Exp Med. 2003;198:1265-76 pubmed
    ..Thus, IRF-1 acts as a critical component of IFN-gamma signaling in the selective activation of IL-12 p35 transcription in synergy with LPS-mediated events. ..
  39. Chen Q, Ghilardi N, Wang H, Baker T, Xie M, Gurney A, et al. Development of Th1-type immune responses requires the type I cytokine receptor TCCR. Nature. 2000;407:916-20 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate the existence of a new cytokine receptor involved in regulating the adaptive immune response and critical to the generation of a Th1 response. ..
  40. Cruz M, Maldonado Bernal C, Mondragón Gonzalez R, Sanchez Barrera R, Wacher N, Carvajal Sandoval G, et al. Glycine treatment decreases proinflammatory cytokines and increases interferon-gamma in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Endocrinol Invest. 2008;31:694-9 pubmed
    ..Treatment with glycine is likely to have a beneficial effect on innate and adaptive immune responses and may help prevent tissue damage caused by chronic inflammation in patients with Type 2 diabetes. ..
  41. Sun Q, Peng J, Xia H, Yang Y, Liu M. Effect on expression of RT1-A and RT1-DM molecules of treatment with interferon-gamma at the maternal--fetal interface of pregnant rats. Hum Reprod. 2005;20:2639-47 pubmed
    ..Their localizaion changed according to the period of pregnancy. IFN-gamma can modulate the expression of these two molecules during the whole pregnancy. ..
  42. Van Opdenbosch N, De Regge N, Van Poucke M, Peelman L, Favoreel H. Effects of interferon on immediate-early mRNA and protein levels in sensory neuronal cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 or pseudorabies virus. Vet Microbiol. 2011;152:401-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter finding indicates that PRV efficiently circumvents IFN-mediated translation inhibition by interfering with phosphorylation of eIF2?. ..
  43. Sharma S, Findlay G, Bandukwala H, Oberdoerffer S, Baust B, Li Z, et al. Dephosphorylation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factor is regulated by an RNA-protein scaffold complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:11381-6 pubmed publisher
  44. Saha A, Dhir A, Ranjan A, Gupta V, Bairwa N, Bamezai R. Functional IFNG polymorphism in intron 1 in association with an increased risk to promote sporadic breast cancer. Immunogenetics. 2005;57:165-71 pubmed
    ..that such genetic background for a proposed non-specific enhancer element with (CA)n repeat within intron 1 of the IFNG gene might put the individuals with this genotype at higher risk to promote the development of sporadic breast ..
  45. Dwivedi M, Laddha N, Shah K, Shah B, Begum R. Involvement of interferon-gamma genetic variants and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in onset and progression of generalized vitiligo. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2013;33:646-59 pubmed publisher
    ..IFN-?) is a paracrine inhibitor of melanocytes and genetic variability due to intron 1 polymorphisms in IFNG has been reported to be associated with increased risk for several autoimmune diseases...
  46. Didoli G, Davila H, Feldman S, di Masso R, Revelli S, Bottasso O. Protected Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rats born to mothers receiving interferon-gamma during gestation is associated with a decreased intramacrophage parasite growth and preferential synthesis of specific IgG2b antibodies. Int J Immunopharmacol. 2000;22:45-55 pubmed
    We demonstrated that administration of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) to pregnant rats conferred partial resistance in their offspring to further challenge with Trypanosoma cruzi...
  47. Xie M, Motoo Y, Su S, Sawabu N. Expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interferon-gamma in spontaneous chronic pancreatitis in the WBN/Kob rat. Pancreas. 2001;22:400-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that tissue expressions of TNF-alpha and IL-6 are involved in the onset of pancreatitis and that IFN-gamma expression is related to the progression of CP. ..
  48. Lighvani S, Huang X, Trivedi P, Swanborg R, Hazlett L. Substance P regulates natural killer cell interferon-gamma production and resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:1567-75 pubmed
    ..The data suggest a unique link between the nervous system and development of innate immunity in the cornea. ..
  49. Freundlich B, Jimenez S, Steen V, Medsger T, Szkolnicki M, Jaffe H. Treatment of systemic sclerosis with recombinant interferon-gamma. A phase I/II clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum. 1992;35:1134-42 pubmed
    A phase I/II trial to examine the safety and efficacy of interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) therapy for patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). An 18-week open-label study was performed...
  50. Dellacono F, Eisma R, Lafreniere D, Leonard G, Kreutzer D. Interferon gamma expression in human nasal polyps. Laryngoscope. 1997;107:626-30 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that elevated levels of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) activate lymphocytes and eosinophils within the NP microenvironment...
  51. Panahi Y, Davoudi S, Madanchi N, Abolhasani E. Recombinant human interferon gamma (Gamma Immunex) in treatment of atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Med. 2012;12:241-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Present study evaluated the effect of recombinant human interferon gamma (rIFN-gamma: Gamma Immunex, Exir Pharmaceutical Company, Iran) on severity of AD (SCORAD), dermatology life ..
  52. Degrandi D, Konermann C, Beuter Gunia C, Kresse A, Würthner J, Kurig S, et al. Extensive characterization of IFN-induced GTPases mGBP1 to mGBP10 involved in host defense. J Immunol. 2007;179:7729-40 pubmed
    ..Taken together, mGBPs comprise an important set of host defense molecules...
  53. Soto P, Price Schiavi S, Carraway K. SMAD2 and SMAD7 involvement in the post-translational regulation of Muc4 via the transforming growth factor-beta and interferon-gamma pathways in rat mammary epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:20338-44 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that TGF-beta regulates Muc4/SMC expression via the SMAD pathway by a transcriptional effect on a protein in the Muc4/SMC processing step, possibly the protease that cleaves the precursor. ..