Gene Symbol: Id2
Description: inhibitor of DNA binding 2
Alias: Ac2-300, DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID-2, inhibitor of DNA binding 2, HLH protein, inhibitor of DNA binding 2, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein, inhibitor of differentiation 2
Species: rat
Products:     Id2

Top Publications

  1. Chen X, Zhou D, Yao Z. The inhibitor of DNA binding 2 is mainly expressed in oligodendrocyte lineage cells in adult rat brain. Neurosci Lett. 2007;428:93-8 pubmed
    The inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2) plays an important role in the brain both during embryogenesis and adulthood...
  2. Szpirer C, Tissir F, Riviere M, Van Vooren P, Kela J, Lallemand F, et al. Rat Chromosome 2: assignment of the genes encoding cyclin B1, interleukin 6 signal transducer, and proprotein convertase 1 to the Mcs1-containing region and identification of new microsatellite markers. Mamm Genome. 1999;10:30-4 pubmed
    ..These markers, as well as a microsatellite marker in the cyclin B1 gene, were genetically mapped in combination with known markers. A cyclin B1-related gene was also cytogenetically assigned to rat Chr 11q22-q23. ..
  3. Havrda M, Harris B, Mantani A, Ward N, Paolella B, Cuzon V, et al. Id2 is required for specification of dopaminergic neurons during adult olfactory neurogenesis. J Neurosci. 2008;28:14074-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We have characterized the process of olfactory neurogenesis in adult mice lacking inhibitor of DNA binding 2(-/-) (Id2(-/-))...
  4. Sun X, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Baltimore D. Id proteins Id1 and Id2 selectively inhibit DNA binding by one class of helix-loop-helix proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:5603-11 pubmed
    ..We have isolated and characterized the gene and cDNA clones for a new Id protein, designated Id2. The Id2 protein contains a helix-loop-helix motif similar to that of the previously described Id protein (referred ..
  5. Iavarone A, King E, Dai X, Leone G, Stanley E, Lasorella A. Retinoblastoma promotes definitive erythropoiesis by repressing Id2 in fetal liver macrophages. Nature. 2004;432:1040-5 pubmed
    ..Loss of Id2, a helix-loop-helix protein that mediates the lethality of Rb-deficient embryos, rescues the defects of Rb-..
  6. Ko H, Kwon I, Hwang I, Jin E, Shin J, Brennan Minnella A, et al. Akt1-Inhibitor of DNA binding2 is essential for growth cone formation and axon growth and promotes central nervous system axon regeneration. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..axon growth and growth cone formation through phosphorylation of serine 14 (S14) on Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2)...
  7. Nagata Y, Todokoro K. Activation of helix-loop-helix proteins Id1, Id2 and Id3 during neural differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;199:1355-62 pubmed
    ..We have characterized three Id-related cDNAs, Id1, Id2 and Id3, isolated from nerve growth factor (NGF)-stimulated PC12 cells...
  8. Stewart H, Zoidl G, Rossner M, Brennan A, Zoidl C, Nave K, et al. Helix-loop-helix proteins in Schwann cells: a study of regulation and subcellular localization of Ids, REB, and E12/47 during embryonic and postnatal development. J Neurosci Res. 1997;50:684-701 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that HLH transcription factors act as regulators of Schwann cell development and point to the existence of as yet unidentified cell type-specific bHLH proteins in these cells. ..
  9. Miyoshi K, Meyer B, Gruss P, Cui Y, Renou J, Morgan F, et al. Mammary epithelial cells are not able to undergo pregnancy-dependent differentiation in the absence of the helix-loop-helix inhibitor Id2. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:2892-901 pubmed
    ..To investigate the role of Id2 in mammary epithelium, we performed structural and molecular analyses...

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Moskowitz I, Kim J, Moore M, Wolf C, Peterson M, Shendure J, et al. A molecular pathway including Id2, Tbx5, and Nkx2-5 required for cardiac conduction system development. Cell. 2007;129:1365-76 pubmed
    ..Conduction-system-specific expression for Id2, a member of the Id gene family of transcriptional repressors, was identified...
  2. Gultice A, Selesniemi K, Brown T. Hypoxia inhibits differentiation of lineage-specific Rcho-1 trophoblast giant cells. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:1041-50 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR analysis revealed that undifferentiated Rcho-1 cells expressed trophoblast stem cell marker, Id2, and trophoblast giant cell markers...
  3. Jiang L, Wu Q, Yang T. Silencing of Id2 Alleviates Chronic Neuropathic Pain Following Chronic Constriction Injury. J Mol Neurosci. 2016;59:99-105 pubmed publisher
    Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation 2 (Id2) belongs to a helix-loop-helix family of proteins. Recent studies have showed that Id2 plays a pivotal role in neuronal survival and neuroprotection...
  4. Huang J, Vogel G, Yu Z, Almazan G, Richard S. Type II arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 regulates gene expression of inhibitors of differentiation/DNA binding Id2 and Id4 during glial cell differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:44424-32 pubmed publisher
    ..progenitor and C6 glioma cells expressed high levels of the inhibitors of differentiation/DNA binding, Id2 and Id4, known repressors of glial cell differentiation...
  5. Penella E, Sandoval J, Zaragoza R, García C, Viña J, Torres L, et al. Molecular mechanisms of Id2 down-regulation in rat liver after acetaminophen overdose. Protection by N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Free Radic Res. 2010;44:1044-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Id2 is a pleiotropic protein whose function depends on its expression levels. Id2-deficient cells show increased cell death...
  6. Ji M, Li H, Suh H, Klarmann K, Yokota Y, Keller J. Id2 intrinsically regulates lymphoid and erythroid development via interaction with different target proteins. Blood. 2008;112:1068-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of Id1, Id2, or Id3 has similar effects on lymphocyte development...
  7. Kitajima K, Takahashi R, Yokota Y. Localization of Id2 mRNA in the adult mouse brain. Brain Res. 2006;1073-1074:93-102 pubmed
    ..Among them, Id2 is known to be expressed in Purkinje cells and neurons in the cortical layers of the adult mouse brain, suggesting ..
  8. Tzeng S, Bresnahan J, Beattie M, de Vellis J. Upregulation of the HLH Id gene family in neural progenitors and glial cells of the rat spinal cord following contusion injury. J Neurosci Res. 2001;66:1161-72 pubmed
    ..Inhibitors of DNA binding (Id1, Id2, Id3) belong to a helix-loop-helix (HLH) gene family...
  9. Niu Z, Wang L, Hu X, Wang H, Ouyang J, Huang W, et al. [Promotion effect of nuclear factor kappa B p65 on early fracture healing of rat radius by elevating prostaglandins E2 production and regulating inhibitor of DNA binding 2 protein expression]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2011;25:569-74 pubmed
    ..01). The expressions of NF-kappaB p65, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7), and inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2) were observed at fracture sites of 4 groups...
  10. Hou T, Ward S, Murad J, Watson N, Israel M, Duffield G. ID2 (inhibitor of DNA binding 2) is a rhythmically expressed transcriptional repressor required for circadian clock output in mouse liver. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:31735-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Id2 is a helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene expressed in a circadian manner in multiple tissues with a phase-locked relationship with canonical clock genes...
  11. Siu P, Pistilli E, Murlasits Z, Alway S. Hindlimb unloading increases muscle content of cytosolic but not nuclear Id2 and p53 proteins in young adult and aged rats. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006;100:907-16 pubmed
    This study tested the hypothesis that inhibitor of differentiation-2 (Id2), p53, and heat shock proteins (HSP) are responsive to suspension-induced muscle atrophy...
  12. Havrda M, Paolella B, Ward N, Holroyd K. Behavioral abnormalities and Parkinson's-like histological changes resulting from Id2 inactivation in mice. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:819-27 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Id2 is a transcription factor expressed in the developing central nervous system...
  13. Matsumura M, Lobe D, McNamara C. Contribution of the helix-loop-helix factor Id2 to regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:7293-7 pubmed
    ..b>Id2 (inhibitor of DNA binding) is a member of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) family of transcription regulators that are ..
  14. Guo L, Lan J, Lin Y, Guo P, Nie Q, Mao Q, et al. Hypoxia/ischemia up-regulates Id2 expression in neuronal cells in vivo and in vitro. Neurosci Lett. 2013;554:88-93 pubmed publisher
    Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation 2 (Id2) belongs to a family of transcriptional modulators characterized by a helix-loop-helix (HLH) motif that lacks the basic amino acid domain necessary to bind DNA...
  15. Jo Y, Hwang E, Lee J, Lee Y, Kim S, Choi Y, et al. Regulation of inhibitors of differentiation family proteins by thyroid-stimulating hormone in FRTL-5 thyroid cells. J Korean Med Sci. 2008;23:262-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found that Id2, one of the Id family proteins, is a major target for regulation by TSH in FRTL-5 thyroid cells...
  16. Kusunoki T, Sugai M, Katakai T, Omatsu Y, Iyoda T, Inaba K, et al. TH2 dominance and defective development of a CD8+ dendritic cell subset in Id2-deficient mice. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;111:136-42 pubmed
    ..We sought to characterize the immunologic status of mice lacking Id2, an inhibitor of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors...
  17. Guo L, Yang X, Lin X, Lin Y, Shen L, Nie Q, et al. Silencing of Id2 attenuates hypoxia/ischemia-induced neuronal injury via inhibition of neuronal apoptosis. Behav Brain Res. 2015;292:528-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation 2 (Id2) is found to be up-regulated in neuronal cells following hypoxia/ischemia (H/I)...
  18. Moskowitz I, Wang J, Peterson M, Pu W, MacKinnon A, Oxburgh L, et al. Transcription factor genes Smad4 and Gata4 cooperatively regulate cardiac valve development. [corrected]. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:4006-11 pubmed publisher
    ..cushions, absent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation, reduced endocardial proliferation, and loss of Id2 expression in valve-forming regions...
  19. Ward S, Fernando S, Hou T, Duffield G. The transcriptional repressor ID2 can interact with the canonical clock components CLOCK and BMAL1 and mediate inhibitory effects on mPer1 expression. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:38987-9000 pubmed publisher
    b>ID2 is a rhythmically expressed HLH transcriptional repressor. Deletion of Id2 in mice results in circadian phenotypes, highlighted by disrupted locomotor activity rhythms and an enhanced photoentrainment response...
  20. Nagata Y, Shoji W, Obinata M, Todokoro K. Phosphorylation of helix-loop-helix proteins ID1, ID2 and ID3. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;207:916-26 pubmed
    ..It has been noted that putative phosphorylation sites for various protein kinases exist in rat Id1, Id2 and Id3...
  21. Rodriguez J, Sandoval J, Serviddio G, Sastre J, Morante M, Perrelli M, et al. Id2 leaves the chromatin of the E2F4-p130-controlled c-myc promoter during hepatocyte priming for liver regeneration. Biochem J. 2006;398:431-7 pubmed
    ..that the molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration are not completely understood prompted us to study the fate of Id2 in proliferating liver...
  22. Scobey M, Fix C, Walker W. The Id2 transcriptional repressor is induced by follicle-stimulating hormone and cAMP. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:16064-70 pubmed
    ..Of the four characterized Id proteins, only Id2 is found in the nucleus of Sertoli cells that support the development of spermatozoa in the testis...
  23. Wu E, Tang H, Asai T, Yan S. Regional cerebral blood volume reduction in transgenic mutant APP (V717F, K670N/M671L) mice. Neurosci Lett. 2004;365:223-7 pubmed
    ..02), and thalamus (-5.21%, P = 0.03), indicating an early change of microvasculature in these selected regions. No significant difference was found in olfactory bulb, pons, midbrain, superior colliculus, medulla, and cerebellum. ..
  24. Li X, Luo Y, Starremans P, McNamara C, Pei Y, Zhou J. Polycystin-1 and polycystin-2 regulate the cell cycle through the helix-loop-helix inhibitor Id2. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:1202-12 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the ADPKD protein polycystin-2 (PC2) regulates the cell cycle through direct interaction with Id2, a member of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein family that is known to regulate cell proliferation and ..
  25. Biederer C, Ries S, Moser M, Florio M, Israel M, McCormick F, et al. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors myogenin and Id2 mediate specific induction of caveolin-3 gene expression during embryonic development. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:26245-51 pubmed
    ..assays indicated that overexpression of myogenin activates caveolin-3 reporter gene expression, whereas Id2 overexpression inhibited caveolin-3 promoter activation by myogenin...
  26. Boos M, Yokota Y, Eberl G, Kee B. Mature natural killer cell and lymphoid tissue-inducing cell development requires Id2-mediated suppression of E protein activity. J Exp Med. 2007;204:1119-30 pubmed
    The Id2 transcriptional repressor is essential for development of natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue-inducing (LTi) cells, and secondary lymphoid tissues...
  27. Espira L, Lamoureux L, Jones S, Gerard R, Dixon I, Czubryt M. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor scleraxis regulates fibroblast collagen synthesis. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;47:188-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support a novel and previously unknown role for scleraxis in the regulation of collagen gene expression in the heart, including in post-infarct scar formation. ..
  28. Wang S, Sdrulla A, Johnson J, Yokota Y, Barres B. A role for the helix-loop-helix protein Id2 in the control of oligodendrocyte development. Neuron. 2001;29:603-14 pubmed
    ..We show here that oligodendrocyte lineage cells express the helix-loop-helix proteins Mash1 and Id2. Although Mash1 has been found to regulate neuronal development, we found that in the absence of Mash1 ..
  29. Aoki Y, Mori S, Kitajima K, Yokoyama O, Kanamaru H, Okada K, et al. Id2 haploinsufficiency in mice leads to congenital hydronephrosis resembling that in humans. Genes Cells. 2004;9:1287-96 pubmed
    ..Half of the cases are due to obstruction at the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ). Here we report that mice lacking Id2, an inhibitor of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, exhibit hydronephrosis mimicking the ..
  30. Chaudhary J, Sadler Riggleman I, Ague J, Skinner M. The helix-loop-helix inhibitor of differentiation (ID) proteins induce post-mitotic terminally differentiated Sertoli cells to re-enter the cell cycle and proliferate. Biol Reprod. 2005;72:1205-17 pubmed
    ..The four known helix-loop-helix ID proteins (i.e., Id1, Id2, Id3, and Id4) are considered dominant negative regulators of cellular differentiation pathways and act as positive ..
  31. Muir T, Sadler Riggleman I, Skinner M. Role of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, scleraxis, in the regulation of Sertoli cell function and differentiation. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:2164-74 pubmed
    ..This is one of the first adult and nontendon/chondrocyte-associated functions described for scleraxis. ..
  32. Duffield G, Watson N, Mantani A, Peirson S, Robles Murguia M, Loros J, et al. A role for Id2 in regulating photic entrainment of the mammalian circadian system. Curr Biol. 2009;19:297-304 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Id2 was identified in DNA microarray screens for rhythmically expressed genes [3-5], and further analysis revealed a ..
  33. Carroll M, Hamzeh M, Robaire B. Expression, localization, and regulation of inhibitor of DNA binding (Id) proteins in the rat epididymis. J Androl. 2006;27:212-24 pubmed
    ..The objectives of this study were to determine the mRNA expression and the immunocytolocalization of Id1, Id2, Id3, and Id4 in the epididymis of adult rats and to determine the Id3 protein expression profile in ..
  34. Kim H, Kim J, Park Y, Choi H. Synergistic activation of the human orphan nuclear receptor SHP gene promoter by basic helix-loop-helix protein E2A and orphan nuclear receptor SF-1. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:6860-72 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that the E2A proteins differentially regulate the human and mouse SHP promoters and cooperate with orphan nuclear receptor SF-1 for transcriptional activation of the hSHP promoter. ..
  35. Tu X, Baffa R, Luke S, Prisco M, Baserga R. Intracellular redistribution of nuclear and nucleolar proteins during differentiation of 32D murine hemopoietic cells. Exp Cell Res. 2003;288:119-30 pubmed
    ..The four proteins studied were the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), the ID2 protein, nucleolin, and the upstream binding factor (UBF), all of which are involved directly or indirectly in the ..
  36. Nitta H, Ishikawa I. Analysis of the genetic control of antibody response to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by immunoblotting inbred strains of mice. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 1993;8:141-5 pubmed
    ..This 65 kDa antigen was also highly reactive with some human sera from early-onset periodontitis patients. Further analysis of this antigen is required. ..
  37. Gratze P, Dechend R, Stocker C, Park J, Feldt S, Shagdarsuren E, et al. Novel role for inhibitor of differentiation 2 in the genesis of angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Circulation. 2008;117:2645-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice deficient for the helix-loop-helix transcription factor inhibitor of differentiation (Id2(-/-)) lack Langerhans and splenic CD8a+ dendritic cells, have reduced natural killer cells, and have altered CD8 T-..
  38. Hammond N, Jahoda C. Id2, Id3, and Id4 proteins show dynamic changes in expression during vibrissae follicle development. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:1653-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied Id2, Id3, and Id4 protein expression during different stages of rat vibrissa follicle development using ..
  39. Fraidenraich D, Stillwell E, Romero E, Wilkes D, Manova K, Basson C, et al. Rescue of cardiac defects in id knockout embryos by injection of embryonic stem cells. Science. 2004;306:247-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, ES cells have the potential to reverse congenital defects through Id-dependent local and long-range effects in a mammalian embryo. ..
  40. Park K, Waki H, Villanueva C, Monticelli L, Hong C, Kang S, et al. Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 is a small molecule-inducible modulator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression and adipocyte differentiation. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:2038-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibitor of DNA biding 2 (Id2) was identified as a gene rapidly induced by harmine but not by PPARgamma agonists...
  41. Bai G, Sheng N, Xie Z, Bian W, Yokota Y, Benezra R, et al. Id sustains Hes1 expression to inhibit precocious neurogenesis by releasing negative autoregulation of Hes1. Dev Cell. 2007;13:283-97 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of Id2 in the chick hindbrain upregulates Hes1 expression and inhibits proneural gene expression and neuronal ..
  42. Torihashi S, Kuwahara M, Ogaeri T, Zhu P, Kurahashi M, Fujimoto T. Gut-like structures from mouse embryonic stem cells as an in vitro model for gut organogenesis preserving developmental potential after transplantation. Stem Cells. 2006;24:2618-26 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrated that Id2-expressing epithelium developed first, alpha-smooth muscle actin appeared around the periphery, and finally, the ..