Gene Symbol: Hsd3b1
Description: hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 1
Alias: 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta 5-->4-isomerase type 1, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta 5-->4-isomerase type I, 3-beta-HSD I, 3betaHSD, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1, delta<5>-3-beta
Species: rat
Products:     Hsd3b1

Top Publications

  1. Dupont E, Rheaume E, Simard J, Luu The V, Labrie F, Pelletier G. Ontogenesis of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5-delta 4 isomerase in the rat adrenal as revealed by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization. Endocrinology. 1991;129:2687-92 pubmed
    ..The present data suggest that 3 beta-HSD expression could well play a major role in regulating adrenal function during foetal and postnatal development. ..
  2. Juneau C, Dupont E, Luu The V, Labrie F, Pelletier G. Ontogenesis of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase delta 5-delta 4 isomerase in the rat ovary as studied by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization. Biol Reprod. 1993;48:226-34 pubmed
    ..Similar results were obtained in 40-day-old and adult animals. The present data indicate a progressive expression of 3 beta-HSD in different morphological structures during ovarian development in the rat. ..
  3. Elumalai P, Krishnamoorthy G, Selvakumar K, Arunkumar R, Venkataraman P, Arunakaran J. Studies on the protective role of lycopene against polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254)-induced changes in StAR protein and cytochrome P450 scc enzyme expression on Leydig cells of adult rats. Reprod Toxicol. 2009;27:41-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that lycopene have ameliorative role against Aroclor 1254 induced Leydig cell dysfunction. ..
  4. Jana K, Samanta P. Evaluation of single intratesticular injection of calcium chloride for nonsurgical sterilization in adult albino rats. Contraception. 2006;73:289-300 pubmed
    ..To investigate a method of chemical sterilization and its efficacy in adult albino rats...
  5. Wu X, Wang W, Wang R, Xie L, Fang Z, Chen G. [Ginkgo biloba extract enhances testosterone synthesis of Leydig cells in type 2 diabetic rats]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2008;14:371-6 pubmed
    ..EGB enhances testosterone synthesis and secretion of Leydig cells by reducing the impairment of the testis in type 2 diabetic rats. ..
  6. Chen Y, Lee M, Yao H, Hsiao P, Ke F, Hwang J. Crucial role of estrogen receptor-alpha interaction with transcription coregulators in follicle-stimulating hormone and transforming growth factor beta1 up-regulation of steroidogenesis in rat ovarian granulosa cells. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4658-68 pubmed publisher
  7. Kumar V, Balomajumder C, Roy P. Disruption of LH-induced testosterone biosynthesis in testicular Leydig cells by triclosan: probable mechanism of action. Toxicology. 2008;250:124-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The study further confirmed the anti-androgenic activity of TCS in Leydig cells with highest effective concentration at 1 microM. ..
  8. Hu G, Zhou H, Li X, Chen B, Xiao Y, Lian Q, et al. The (+)- and (-)-gossypols potently inhibit both 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 in human and rat testes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;115:14-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As the reverse was true for the human enzymes, gossypol might be useful for treating metastatic prostate cancer. ..
  9. Szołtys M, Słomczyńska M, Knapczyk Stwora K, Durlej M, Lechowska A, Starowicz A. Immunolocalization of androgen receptor and steroidogenic enzymes in cumuli oophori of pre- and post-ovulatory rats. Acta Histochem. 2010;112:576-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Simultaneous AR and cytochrome P450c17 immunolabelling in the pre- and post-ovulatory COCs is suggestive of an intra- and paracrine androgen regulation of the cumulus granulosa cell function. ..

More Information


  1. Bilbao M, Di Yorio M, Faletti A. Different levels of leptin regulate different target enzymes involved in progesterone synthesis. Fertil Steril. 2013;99:1460-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that 1) leptin is able to regulate the expression of the 3?HSD protein in a dose-dependent manner; and 2) leptin seems to exert its dual effects on P synthesis on different targets in a dose-dependent manner. ..
  2. Szołtys M, Słomczyńska M, Galas J, Duda M, Sakiewicz A. Expression of androgen receptor and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in corpora lutea during pregnancy in the rat. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2007;19:356-65 pubmed
    ..The present studies showed differences in AR and 3beta-HSD distribution within various generations of CLs and within particular regions of the same young CL. ..
  3. Cherradi N, Defaye G, Chambaz E. Dual subcellular localization of the 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isomerase: characterization of the mitochondrial enzyme in the bovine adrenal cortex. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1993;46:773-9 pubmed
  4. McVey M, Cooke G, Curran I, Chan H, Kubow S, Lok E, et al. Effects of dietary fats and proteins on rat testicular steroidogenic enzymes and serum testosterone levels. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:259-69 pubmed
  5. MacKenzie S, Dewar D, Stewart W, Fraser R, Connell J, Davies E. The transcription of steroidogenic genes in the human cerebellum and hippocampus: a comparative survey of normal and Alzheimer's tissue. J Endocrinol. 2008;196:123-30 pubmed publisher
    ..There is no evidence of a link between AD and altered steroid biosynthesis within human hippocampus and cerebellum. ..
  6. Soma K, Sinchak K, Lakhter A, Schlinger B, Micevych P. Neurosteroids and female reproduction: estrogen increases 3beta-HSD mRNA and activity in rat hypothalamus. Endocrinology. 2005;146:4386-90 pubmed
    ..These data support the hypothesis that PROG is a neurosteroid, produced locally in the hypothalamus from cholesterol, which functions in the estrogen positive-feedback mechanism driving the LH surge. ..
  7. Nakamura E, Otsuka F, Inagaki K, Miyoshi T, Yamanaka R, Tsukamoto N, et al. A novel antagonistic effect of the bone morphogenetic protein system on prolactin actions in regulating steroidogenesis by granulosa cells. Endocrinology. 2010;151:5506-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering that BMPs suppressed PRLR in granulosa cells, it is likely that the BMP system in growing follicles plays a key role in antagonizing PRLR signaling actions in the ovary exposed to high concentrations of PRL. ..
  8. Lorence M, Naville D, Graham Lorence S, Mack S, Murry B, Trant J, et al. 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5----4-isomerase expression in rat and characterization of the testis isoform. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1991;80:21-31 pubmed
    ..We conclude that while one gene product is highly expressed in testicular Leydig cells, and probably adrenal and ovary, accounting for their 3 beta-HSD content, a 3 beta-HSD is also expressed in liver in a sex-specific manner. ..
  9. Codner E, Okuma C, Iniguez G, Boric M, Avila A, Johnson M, et al. Molecular study of the 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene type II in patients with hypospadias. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:957-64 pubmed
    ..We conclude that subtle molecular abnormalities in the HSD3B2 gene may be observed in some patients with apparent idiopathic hypospadias but that this finding is uncommon. ..
  10. Chabrolle C, Jeanpierre E, Tosca L, Rame C, Dupont J. Effects of high levels of glucose on the steroidogenesis and the expression of adiponectin receptors in rat ovarian cells. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2008;6:11 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanism that leads to reduced ovarian steroid production seems to be different. Furthermore, adiponectin receptors in ovarian cells are not regulated by glucose. ..
  11. Zurvarra F, Salvetti N, Mason J, Velazquez M, Alfaro N, Ortega H. Disruption in the expression and immunolocalisation of steroid receptors and steroidogenic enzymes in letrozole-induced polycystic ovaries in rat. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2009;21:827-39 pubmed publisher
  12. Escamilla Hernandez R, Little Ihrig L, Zeleznik A. Inhibition of rat granulosa cell differentiation by overexpression of Galphaq. Endocrine. 2008;33:21-31 pubmed publisher
  13. Nelson V, Qin K, Rosenfield R, Wood J, Penning T, Legro R, et al. The biochemical basis for increased testosterone production in theca cells propagated from patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:5925-33 pubmed
  14. Murugesan P, Muthusamy T, Balasubramanian K, Arunakaran J. Effects of vitamins C and E on steroidogenic enzymes mRNA expression in polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) exposed adult rat Leydig cells. Toxicology. 2007;232:170-82 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that vitamins C and E have ameliorative role against PCBs-induced testicular Leydig cells dysfunction. ..
  15. Zhao H, Labrie C, Simard J, de Launoit Y, Trudel C, Martel C, et al. Characterization of rat 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5-delta 4 isomerase cDNAs and differential tissue-specific expression of the corresponding mRNAs in steroidogenic and peripheral tissues. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:583-93 pubmed
    ..The present data indicate the existence of two mRNAs encoding rat 3 beta-HSD and their differential tissular distribution in both steroidogenic and peripheral tissues.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  16. Wang H, Ni J, Cheng Z. [Effect of L-tyrosine on 3beta-HSD activity of rat luteal cells in vitro]. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 2004;20:190-3 pubmed
    ..3) L-tyrosine and L-tyrosine hydrazide both inhibited 3beta-HSD activity induced by hCG. L-tyrosine affects 3beta-HSD activity of rat luteal cells in vitro. L-tyrosine and tyrosine hydrazide inhibits hCG induced 3beta-HSD activity. ..
  17. Vaithinathan S, Saradha B, Mathur P. Transient inhibitory effect of methoxychlor on testicular steroidogenesis in rat: an in vivo study. Arch Toxicol. 2008;82:833-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrates transient effect of methoxychlor at LOAEL on testicular steroidogenesis and the possible role of hydrogen peroxide in mediating these effects. ..
  18. Feng Y, Zhang Q, Dai D, Ying H, Dai Y. Strontium fructose 1,6-diphosphate rescues adenine-induced male hypogonadism and upregulates the testicular endothelin-1 system. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2007;34:1131-7 pubmed
    ..These abnormalities were significantly restored by FDP-Sr in a dose-dependent manner. These data indicate the possibility of using FDP-Sr to treat male hypogonadism. ..
  19. Kostic T, Stojkov N, Bjelic M, Mihajlovic A, Janjic M, Andric S. Pharmacological doses of testosterone upregulated androgen receptor and 3-Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta-5-delta-4 isomerase and impaired leydig cells steroidogenesis in adult rats. Toxicol Sci. 2011;121:397-407 pubmed publisher
    ..The upregulation of AR and 3?HSD in testosterone-impaired Leydig cells steroidogenesis could be the possible mechanism that maintain and prevent loss of steroidogenic function...
  20. Rajeswary S, Kumaran B, Ilangovan R, Yuvaraj S, Sridhar M, Venkataraman P, et al. Modulation of antioxidant defense system by the environmental fungicide carbendazim in Leydig cells of rats. Reprod Toxicol. 2007;24:371-80 pubmed
    ..Thus, the present study suggests that chronic low dose treatment of MBC is capable of inducing reproductive toxicity through increased oxidative stress, but is transient and reversible upon withdrawal of treatment. ..
  21. Chaudhuri Sengupta S, Sarkar R, Maiti B. Lithium action on adrenomedullary and adrenocortical functions and serum ionic balance in different age-groups of albino rats. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2003;111:246-53 pubmed
    ..Thus, the antimanic drug certainly disturbs both adrenomedullary and adrenocortical functions and, serum ionic balance in all the age-group of rats. ..
  22. Hashimoto N, Yamanaka H, Mizushima T, Noguchi K. Increased expression of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNA in dorsal root ganglion neurons of adult rats following peripheral nerve injury. Neurosci Lett. 2003;340:45-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that progesterone may have a role in the process against neuronal injury or in regeneration in the peripheral nervous system. ..
  23. Viollet B, Lefrançois Martinez A, Henrion A, Kahn A, Raymondjean M, Martinez A. Immunochemical characterization and transacting properties of upstream stimulatory factor isoforms. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:1405-15 pubmed
    ..Additionally, USF2b was an efficient as USF1 and USF2a homodimers in transactivating the liver-specific pyruvate kinase gene promoter. ..
  24. Xiao Y, Huang Y, Hardy D, Li X, Ge R. Glucocorticoid suppresses steroidogenesis in rat progenitor Leydig cells. J Androl. 2010;31:365-71 pubmed publisher
    ..steady-state mRNA levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (Star) and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd3b1)...
  25. Victor Costa A, Bandeira S, Oliveira A, Mahecha G, Oliveira C. Changes in testicular morphology and steroidogenesis in adult rats exposed to Atrazine. Reprod Toxicol. 2010;29:323-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that 3beta-HSD inhibition may represent an alternative mechanism through which Atrazine affects the testicular androgenesis, leading to changes in spermatogenesis. ..
  26. Chandra A, Chatterjee A, Ghosh R, Sarkar M, Chaube S. Chromium induced testicular impairment in relation to adrenocortical activities in adult albino rats. Reprod Toxicol. 2007;24:388-96 pubmed
    ..Adrecortical hyperactivity accompanied by testicular oxidative stress might have a crucial role for Cr induced male reproductive impairment. ..
  27. Slominski A, Zmijewski M, Semak I, Sweatman T, Janjetovic Z, Li W, et al. Sequential metabolism of 7-dehydrocholesterol to steroidal 5,7-dienes in adrenal glands and its biological implication in the skin. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4309 pubmed publisher
    ..effectively with cholesterol for the substrate binding site on P450scc and that the catalytic efficiency of 3betaHSD for 7DHP (V(m)/K(m)) is 40% of that for pregnenolone...
  28. Naville D, Keeney D, Jenkin G, Murry B, Head J, Mason J. Regulation of expression of male-specific rat liver microsomal 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Mol Endocrinol. 1991;5:1090-100 pubmed
    ..e. high apparent Km for dehydroepiandrosterone) and distinct from those of the high affinity gonadal type I 3 beta HSD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  29. Jana K, Jana S, Samanta P. Effects of chronic exposure to sodium arsenite on hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular activities in adult rats: possible an estrogenic mode of action. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2006;4:9 pubmed
    ..Estradiol treatment has been associated with similar effects on pituitary testicular axis supporting the hypothesis that arsenite might somehow act through an estrogenic mode of action. ..
  30. Keeney D, Mason J. Expression of testicular 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5----4-isomerase: regulation by luteinizing hormone and forskolin in Leydig cells of adult rats. Endocrinology. 1992;130:2007-15 pubmed
    ..Maximal responses were effected by 1 ng/ml ovine LH, 1 microM forskolin, 1 ng/ml cholera toxin, and 1 mM (Bu)2cAMP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  31. Chang Y, Kappy M, Iwamoto K, Wang J, Yang X, Pang S. Mutations in the type II 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene in a patient with classic salt-wasting 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Pediatr Res. 1993;34:698-700 pubmed
    ..These data indicate a homozygous combined missense/frameshift mutation in exon IV of the type II 3 beta-HSD gene resulting in severe salt-wasting adrenal and gonadal 3 beta-HSD deficiency in the patient. ..
  32. Murono E, Washburn A, Goforth D. Enhanced stimulation of 5 alpha-reductase activity in cultured Leydig cell precursors by human chorionic gonadotropin. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1994;48:377-84 pubmed
  33. Cherradi N, Rossier M, Vallotton M, Timberg R, Friedberg I, Orly J, et al. Submitochondrial distribution of three key steroidogenic proteins (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome p450scc and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isomerase enzymes) upon stimulation by intracellular calcium in adrenal glomerulos. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:7899-907 pubmed
  34. Cooke G. Identification and mechanism of action of phospholipids capable of modulating rat testicular microsomal 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-isomerase activity in vitro. Biol Reprod. 1989;41:438-45 pubmed
  35. Escamilla Hernandez R, Little Ihrig L, Orwig K, Yue J, Chandran U, Zeleznik A. Constitutively active protein kinase A qualitatively mimics the effects of follicle-stimulating hormone on granulosa cell differentiation. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:1842-52 pubmed publisher
    ..However, optimal induction of aromatase, the LHr, and other genes by FSH appears to require activation of additional signaling pathways. ..
  36. Ge R, Dong Q, Sottas C, Papadopoulos V, Zirkin B, Hardy M. In search of rat stem Leydig cells: identification, isolation, and lineage-specific development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:2719-24 pubmed
    ..cells that exhibit some aspects of differentiated function, including 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD) activity...
  37. Lachance Y, Luu The V, Labrie C, Simard J, Dumont M, de Launoit Y, et al. Characterization of human 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5-delta 4-isomerase gene and its expression in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:20469-75 pubmed
  38. Gautam D, Misro M, Chaki S, Sehgal N. H2O2 at physiological concentrations modulates Leydig cell function inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis. Apoptosis. 2006;11:39-46 pubmed
  39. Brokken L, Adamsson A, Paranko J, Toppari J. Antiandrogen exposure in utero disrupts expression of desert hedgehog and insulin-like factor 3 in the developing fetal rat testis. Endocrinology. 2009;150:445-51 pubmed publisher
    ..factor 1 (Sf1), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (Hsd3b1), and insulin-like factor 3 (Insl3) were analyzed...
  40. Jana K, Samanta P, Manna I, Ghosh P, Singh N, Khetan R, et al. Protective effect of sodium selenite and zinc sulfate on intensive swimming-induced testicular gamatogenic and steroidogenic disorders in mature male rats. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008;33:903-14 pubmed publisher
    ..It can be concluded that intensive-swimming-induced oxidative stress causes dysfunctions in the male reproductive system, which can be protected by the coadministration of sodium selenite and zinc sulfate. ..
  41. Kumar V, Majumdar C, Roy P. Effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals from leather industry effluents on male reproductive system. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;111:208-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggests that the effluents from leather industry have potential EDC demonstrating androgenic activities. ..
  42. Kumar V, Kural M, Pereira B, Roy P. Spearmint induced hypothalamic oxidative stress and testicular anti-androgenicity in male rats - altered levels of gene expression, enzymes and hormones. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:3563-70 pubmed publisher
  43. Rosmond R, Chagnon M, Bouchard C, Bjorntorp P. Polymorphism in exon 4 of the human 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I gene (HSD3B1) and blood pressure. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;293:629-32 pubmed
    ..the present study was to examine the potential impact of a T-->C substitution at codon Leu(338) of the type I (HSD3B1) 3 beta-HSD gene on obesity, circulating hormones, and estimates of insulin, glucose, and lipid metabolism as well ..
  44. Martel C, Labrie C, Couet J, Dupont E, Trudel C, Luu The V, et al. Effects of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and prolactin (PRL) on 3 beta-hydroxy-5-ene-steroid dehydrogenase/delta 5-delta 4 isomerase (3 beta-HSD) expression and activity in the rat ovary. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1990;72:R7-13 pubmed
    ..The present data show that hCG and PRL act synergistically to stimulate ovarian progesterone secretion via an increase in 3 beta-HSD mRNA levels, protein content and enzymatic activity. ..
  45. Shi Z, Zhang H, Liu Y, Xu M, Dai J. Alterations in gene expression and testosterone synthesis in the testes of male rats exposed to perfluorododecanoic acid. Toxicol Sci. 2007;98:206-15 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that PFDoA affects the reproduction function of male rats via alterations in steroidogenesis genes, testosterone levels, and testes ultrastructure. ..
  46. Swathy S, Panicker S, Indira M. Effect of exogenous selenium on the testicular toxicity induced by ethanol in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;50:215-24 pubmed
    ..It also reduced the levels of testosterone and fructose. The activities of 3betaHSD, 17betaHSD in the testis and SDH in the seminal plasma were also reduced...
  47. Vachhrajani K, Chowdhury A. Distribution of mercury and evaluation of testicular steroidogenesis in mercuric chloride and methylmercury administered rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1990;28:746-51 pubmed
    ..Moreover, a significant decrease in serum testosterone levels by day 90 confirmed steroidogenic impairment after MMC or MC treatment. ..
  48. Hurtado de Catalfo G, de Alaniz M, Marra C. Influence of commercial dietary oils on lipid composition and testosterone production in interstitial cells isolated from rat testis. Lipids. 2009;44:345-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that dietary oils qualitatively and quantitatively modified the lipid composition of interstitial cells, producing either a direct or indirect regulatory effect on testicular steroidogenic function. ..
  49. Zhao P, De A, Hu Z, Li J, Mulders S, Sollewijn Gelpke M, et al. Gonadotropin stimulation of ovarian fractalkine expression and fractalkine augmentation of progesterone biosynthesis by luteinizing granulosa cells. Endocrinology. 2008;149:2782-9 pubmed publisher
  50. Nampoothiri L, Gupta S. Biochemical effects of gestational coexposure to lead and cadmium on reproductive performance, placenta, and ovary. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2008;22:337-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Biochemical effects are correlated with metals accumulated in blood, reproductive tissue such as placenta and ovary. ..
  51. Pinilla L, Castellano J, Romero M, Tena Sempere M, Gaytan F, Aguilar E. Delayed puberty in spontaneously hypertensive rats involves a primary ovarian failure independent of the hypothalamic KiSS-1/GPR54/GnRH system. Endocrinology. 2009;150:2889-97 pubmed publisher
  52. Parthasarathy C, Balasubramanian K. Effects of corticosterone deficiency and its replacement on Leydig cell steroidogenesis. J Cell Biochem. 2008;104:1671-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that metyrapone-induced corticosterone deficiency impairs Leydig cell testosterone production by decreasing the activities of steroidogenic enzymes and their mRNA expression and glucose oxidation. ..
  53. Tsukahara S, Nakajima D, Kuroda Y, Hojo R, Kageyama S, Fujimaki H. Effects of maternal toluene exposure on testosterone levels in fetal rats. Toxicol Lett. 2009;185:79-84 pubmed publisher
    ..9 and 9 ppm, but not 0.09 ppm, toluene. These findings indicate that toluene reduced the synthesis and secretion of testosterone in fetal testes from rats possibly as a consequence of reduced 3beta-HSD expression. ..
  54. O Shaughnessy P, Morris I, Baker P. Leydig cell re-generation and expression of cell signaling molecules in the germ cell-free testis. Reproduction. 2008;135:851-8 pubmed publisher
    ..enzymes cytochrome P450 11a1 (Cyp11a1), cytochrome P450 17a1 (Cyp17a1), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (Hsd3b1), 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (Hsd17b3) and the LH receptor...
  55. Kimoto T, Ishii H, Higo S, Hojo Y, Kawato S. Semicomprehensive analysis of the postnatal age-related changes in the mRNA expression of sex steroidogenic enzymes and sex steroid receptors in the male rat hippocampus. Endocrinology. 2010;151:5795-806 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the hippocampal sex steroidogenic properties are substantially altered during the postnatal development processes, which might contribute to brain sexual maturation. ..
  56. Drummond A, Tellbach M, Dyson M, Findlay J. Fibroblast growth factor-9, a local regulator of ovarian function. Endocrinology. 2007;148:3711-21 pubmed
    ..In summary, the data are consistent with a paracrine role for FGF9 in the ovary. ..
  57. de Launoit Y, Simard J, Durocher F, Labrie F. Androgenic 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity of expressed rat type I 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5-delta 4 isomerase. Endocrinology. 1992;130:553-5 pubmed
  58. Murono E, Washburn A. Evidence that Leydig precursors localize in immature band two cells isolated on Percoll gradients. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1990;37:675-80 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that during a limited period of maturation precursor cells in Band 2, which are undetected by histochemical staining for 3 beta-HSD, can be converted to Leydig cells in culture by hCG. ..
  59. Hapon M, Motta A, Ezquer M, Bonafede M, Jahn G. Hypothyroidism prolongs corpus luteum function in the pregnant rat. Reproduction. 2007;133:197-205 pubmed
    ..pregnancy and, by semiquantitative RT-PCR, the expression of factors involved in P4 synthesis (CytP450scc, StAR, 3betaHSD, PRLR) and metabolism (20alphaHSD, PGF2alphaR, iNOS and COX2)...
  60. Keeney D, Mason J. Regulation of expression of 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase is mediated by cAMP in rat Leydig cells and H540 rat Leydig tumor cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1992;43:915-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The implication of these in vitro studies is that, in vivo, LH is required to maintain optimal levels of expression of the gene encoding testicular 3?HSD. ..