Gene Symbol: Hrg
Description: histidine-rich glycoprotein
Alias: HPRG, HRG1, histidine-rich glycoprotein, histidine-proline-rich glycoprotein, histidine-rich glycoprotein 1
Species: rat
Products:     Hrg

Top Publications

  1. Hulett M, Parish C. Murine histidine-rich glycoprotein: cloning, characterization and cellular origin. Immunol Cell Biol. 2000;78:280-7 pubmed
    Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is a plasma protein of vertebrates that has been implicated in the regulation of several important biological functions, including the immune response and blood clotting...
  2. Olsson A, Larsson H, Dixelius J, Johansson I, Lee C, Oellig C, et al. A fragment of histidine-rich glycoprotein is a potent inhibitor of tumor vascularization. Cancer Res. 2004;64:599-605 pubmed
    ..This study shows for the first time inhibitory effects of HRGP on tumor vascularization in vivo, thus providing proof of concept that HRGP is an angiogenesis inhibitor. ..
  3. Tsuchida Straeten N, Ensslen S, Schafer C, Wöltje M, Denecke B, Moser M, et al. Enhanced blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in mice lacking histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG). J Thromb Haemost. 2005;3:865-72 pubmed
    Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is a serum protein belonging to the cystatin superfamily. HRG may play a regulatory role in hemostasis and innate immunity...
  4. Thulin A, Ringvall M, Dimberg A, Kårehed K, Väisänen T, Väisänen M, et al. Activated platelets provide a functional microenvironment for the antiangiogenic fragment of histidine-rich glycoprotein. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:1792-802 pubmed publisher
    The angiogenesis inhibitor histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) constitutes one of several examples of molecules regulating both angiogenesis and hemostasis...
  5. Ringvall M, Thulin A, Zhang L, Cedervall J, Tsuchida Straeten N, Jahnen Dechent W, et al. Enhanced platelet activation mediates the accelerated angiogenic switch in mice lacking histidine-rich glycoprotein. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14526 pubmed publisher
    The heparin-binding plasma protein histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG; alternatively, HRGP/HPRG) can suppress tumor angiogenesis and growth in vitro and in vivo...
  6. Shigekiyo T, Yoshida H, Matsumoto K, Azuma H, Wakabayashi S, Saito S, et al. HRG Tokushima: molecular and cellular characterization of histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) deficiency. Blood. 1998;91:128-33 pubmed
    Previously, we found the first congenital deficiency of histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) in a Japanese woman with thrombosis...
  7. Gorgani N, Parish C, Altin J. Differential binding of histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) to human IgG subclasses and IgG molecules containing kappa and lambda light chains. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:29633-40 pubmed
    In previous studies we showed that the plasma protein histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) binds strongly to pooled human IgG...
  8. Claesson Welsh L. Blood vessels as targets in tumor therapy. Ups J Med Sci. 2012;117:178-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This review describes the hallmarks of tumor vessels, how different angiogenic growth factors exert their function, and the perspectives for future development of anti-angiogenic therapy...
  9. Jones A, Hulett M, Altin J, Hogg P, Parish C. Plasminogen is tethered with high affinity to the cell surface by the plasma protein, histidine-rich glycoprotein. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:38267-76 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have reported that the plasma protein, histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), interacts with plasminogen and cell surfaces, raising the possibility that HRG may immobilize plasminogen/plasmin ..

More Information


  1. Roberts A, Campa M, Gottlin E, Jiang C, Owzar K, Kindler H, et al. Identification of potential prognostic biomarkers in patients with untreated, advanced pancreatic cancer from a phase 3 trial (Cancer and Leukemia Group B 80303). Cancer. 2012;118:571-8 pubmed publisher
    ..protein, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (AACT), and 2 putative predictive proteins, histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) and complement factor H (CFH), for validation by ELISA...
  2. Macquarrie J, Stafford A, Yau J, Leslie B, Vu T, Fredenburgh J, et al. Histidine-rich glycoprotein binds factor XIIa with high affinity and inhibits contact-initiated coagulation. Blood. 2011;117:4134-41 pubmed publisher
    Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) circulates in plasma at a concentration of 2?M and binds plasminogen, fibrinogen, and thrombospondin. Despite these interactions, the physiologic role of HRG is unknown...
  3. Rydengård V, Shannon O, Lundqvist K, Kacprzyk L, Chalupka A, Olsson A, et al. Histidine-rich glycoprotein protects from systemic Candida infection. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000116 pubmed publisher
    ..further by the present investigation, demonstrating a novel antifungal role of histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), an abundant and multimodular plasma protein...
  4. Lijnen H, Van Hoef B, Collen D. Histidine-rich glycoprotein modulates the anticoagulant activity of heparin in human plasma. Thromb Haemost. 1984;51:266-8 pubmed
    ..69). It is concluded that the level of histidine-rich glycoprotein modulates the anticoagulant activity of heparin in human plasma to an extent which appears to be pharmacologically and possibly clinically relevant. ..
  5. White C, Yuan X, Schmidt P, Bresciani E, Samuel T, Campagna D, et al. HRG1 is essential for heme transport from the phagolysosome of macrophages during erythrophagocytosis. Cell Metab. 2013;17:261-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the mammalian homolog of HRG1, a transmembrane heme permease in C...
  6. Rolny C, Mazzone M, Tugues S, Laoui D, Johansson I, Coulon C, et al. HRG inhibits tumor growth and metastasis by inducing macrophage polarization and vessel normalization through downregulation of PlGF. Cancer Cell. 2011;19:31-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that the host-produced histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) inhibits tumor growth and metastasis, while improving chemotherapy...
  7. Dixelius J, Olsson A, Thulin A, Lee C, Johansson I, Claesson Welsh L. Minimal active domain and mechanism of action of the angiogenesis inhibitor histidine-rich glycoprotein. Cancer Res. 2006;66:2089-97 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, HRGP330, which we define as the minimal antiangiogenic domain of HRGP, exerts its effects through signal transduction targeting focal adhesions, thereby interrupting VEGF-induced endothelial cell motility. ..
  8. Jones A, Hulett M, Parish C. Histidine-rich glycoprotein binds to cell-surface heparan sulfate via its N-terminal domain following Zn2+ chelation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:30114-22 pubmed
    Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is an alpha2-glycoprotein found in mammalian plasma at high concentrations (approximately 150 microg/ml) and is distinguished by its high content of histidine and proline...
  9. Morgan W. Human serum histidine-rich glycoprotein. I. Interactions with heme, metal ions and organic ligands. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978;535:319-33 pubmed
  10. Vanwildemeersch M, Olsson A, Gottfridsson E, Claesson Welsh L, Lindahl U, Spillmann D. The anti-angiogenic His/Pro-rich fragment of histidine-rich glycoprotein binds to endothelial cell heparan sulfate in a Zn2+-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:10298-304 pubmed