Gene Symbol: Homer1
Description: homer scaffold protein 1
Alias: HOMER1F, Vesl-1, homer protein homolog 1, PSD-Zip45, VASP/Ena-related gene up-regulated during seizure and LTP 1, homer homolog 1, homer scaffolding protein 1, homer, neuronal immediate early gene, 1, scaffold protein
Species: rat
Products:     Homer1

Top Publications

  1. Roselli F, Hutzler P, Wegerich Y, Livrea P, Almeida O. Disassembly of shank and homer synaptic clusters is driven by soluble beta-amyloid(1-40) through divergent NMDAR-dependent signalling pathways. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6011 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, soluble Abeta recruits discrete signalling pathways to rapidly reduce the synaptic localization of major components of the PSD and to regulate the availability of mGluR1 in the synapse. ..
  2. Xiao B, Tu J, Worley P. Homer: a link between neural activity and glutamate receptor function. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2000;10:370-4 pubmed
    ..Homer proteins also self associate and function as adaptors to couple interacting proteins. Recent observations indicate a role for Homer complexes in signal transduction, synaptogenesis and receptor trafficking. ..
  3. Yang L, Mao L, Tang Q, Samdani S, Liu Z, Wang J. A novel Ca2+-independent signaling pathway to extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase by coactivation of NMDA receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in neurons. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10846-57 pubmed
  4. Szumlinski K, Dehoff M, Kang S, Frys K, Lominac K, Klugmann M, et al. Homer proteins regulate sensitivity to cocaine. Neuron. 2004;43:401-13 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that deletion of Homer1 or Homer2 in mice caused the same increase in sensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotion, conditioned reward, and ..
  5. Hayashi M, Tang C, Verpelli C, Narayanan R, Stearns M, Xu R, et al. The postsynaptic density proteins Homer and Shank form a polymeric network structure. Cell. 2009;137:159-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the Homer-Shank complex serves as a structural framework and as an assembly platform for other PSD proteins. ..
  6. Tu J, Xiao B, Yuan J, Lanahan A, Leoffert K, Li M, et al. Homer binds a novel proline-rich motif and links group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors with IP3 receptors. Neuron. 1998;21:717-26 pubmed
    ..These studies identify a novel mechanism in calcium signaling and provide evidence that an IEG, whose expression is driven by synaptic activity, can directly modify a specific synaptic function. ..
  7. Tu J, Xiao B, Naisbitt S, Yuan J, Petralia R, Brakeman P, et al. Coupling of mGluR/Homer and PSD-95 complexes by the Shank family of postsynaptic density proteins. Neuron. 1999;23:583-92 pubmed
    ..Thus, Shank may cross-link Homer and PSD-95 complexes in the PSD and play a role in the signaling mechanisms of both mGluRs and NMDA receptors. ..
  8. Kammermeier P, Worley P. Homer 1a uncouples metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 from postsynaptic effectors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:6055-60 pubmed
    ..Thus, alteration of mGluR signaling by changes in Homer protein expression may represent a viable mechanism for fine-tuning synaptic strength in neurons. ..
  9. Brakeman P, Lanahan A, O Brien R, Roche K, Barnes C, Huganir R, et al. Homer: a protein that selectively binds metabotropic glutamate receptors. Nature. 1997;386:284-8 pubmed
    ..This dynamic transcriptional control suggests that Homer mediates a novel cellular mechanism that regulates metabotropic glutamate signalling. ..

More Information


  1. Brouillette J, Young D, During M, Quirion R. Hippocampal gene expression profiling reveals the possible involvement of Homer1 and GABA(B) receptors in scopolamine-induced amnesia. J Neurochem. 2007;102:1978-1989 pubmed publisher
    ..real-time RT-PCR approaches, we identified several genes previously known to be associated with memory processes (Homer1, GABA(B) receptor, early growth response 1, prodynorphin, VGF nerve growth factor inducible) and multiple novel ..
  2. Mao L, Yang L, Tang Q, Samdani S, Zhang G, Wang J. The scaffold protein Homer1b/c links metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 to extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase cascades in neurons. J Neurosci. 2005;25:2741-52 pubmed
    ..Both the Ca2+-dependent and -independent pathways are corequired to activate ERK1/2 to a level sufficient to achieve the mGluR5-dependent synapse-to-nucleus communication imperative for the transcriptional regulation. ..
  3. Klugmann M, Symes C, Leichtlein C, Klaussner B, Dunning J, Fong D, et al. AAV-mediated hippocampal expression of short and long Homer 1 proteins differentially affect cognition and seizure activity in adult rats. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2005;28:347-60 pubmed
    ..Homer 1g induced anxiety. Moreover, AAV-Homer 1a animals showed attenuation of electrographic seizures in a model of status epilepticus. These results suggest that Homer 1 proteins play an active role in behavioral plasticity. ..
  4. Xiao B, Tu J, Petralia R, Yuan J, Doan A, Breder C, et al. Homer regulates the association of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors with multivalent complexes of homer-related, synaptic proteins. Neuron. 1998;21:707-16 pubmed
    ..These observations support a model in which the dynamic expression of Homer 1a competes with constitutively expressed CC-Homers to modify synaptic mGluR properties. ..
  5. Menard C, Quirion R. Successful cognitive aging in rats: a role for mGluR5 glutamate receptors, homer 1 proteins and downstream signaling pathways. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e28666 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these results, a model of successful cognitive aging with a critical role for mGluR5, Homer 1 proteins and downstream signalling pathways is proposed here. ..
  6. Berke J, Paletzki R, Aronson G, Hyman S, Gerfen C. A complex program of striatal gene expression induced by dopaminergic stimulation. J Neurosci. 1998;18:5301-10 pubmed
    ..Thus we have identified novel components of a complex, coordinated genetic program that is induced in striatal cells in response to various dopaminergic manipulations. ..
  7. Beneken J, Tu J, Xiao B, Nuriya M, Yuan J, Worley P, et al. Structure of the Homer EVH1 domain-peptide complex reveals a new twist in polyproline recognition. Neuron. 2000;26:143-54 pubmed
    ..Site-directed mutagenesis confirms the importance of specific Homer residues for ligand binding. These results establish a molecular basis for understanding the biological properties of Homer-ligand complexes. ..
  8. Bakshi K, Parihar R, Goswami S, Walsh M, Friedman E, Wang H. Prenatal cocaine exposure uncouples mGluR1 from Homer1 and Gq Proteins. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e91671 pubmed publisher
    ..rats, we show that prenatal cocaine exposure uncouples mGluR1s from their associated synaptic anchoring protein, Homer1 and signal transducer, Gq/11 proteins leading to markedly reduced mGluR1-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in ..
  9. Hwang S, Wei J, Westhoff J, Duncan R, Ozawa F, Volpe P, et al. Differential functional interaction of two Vesl/Homer protein isoforms with ryanodine receptor type 1: a novel mechanism for control of intracellular calcium signaling. Cell Calcium. 2003;34:177-84 pubmed
    ..However, V-1S dose-dependently decreased the effects of V-1L on RyR1, providing a novel mechanism for the regulation of intracellular calcium channel activity and calcium homeostasis by changing expression levels of Vesl/Homer proteins. ..
  10. Park J, Hu J, Milshteyn A, Zhang P, Moore C, Park S, et al. A prolyl-isomerase mediates dopamine-dependent plasticity and cocaine motor sensitization. Cell. 2013;154:637-50 pubmed publisher
  11. Saito H, Kimura M, Inanobe A, Ohe T, Kurachi Y. An N-terminal sequence specific for a novel Homer1 isoform controls trafficking of group I metabotropic glutamate receptor in mammalian cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;296:523-9 pubmed
    ..We isolated a novel isoform of Homer1, Homer1d, from a mouse heart cDNA library...
  12. de Bartolomeis A, Sarappa C, Buonaguro E, Marmo F, Eramo A, Tomasetti C, et al. Different effects of the NMDA receptor antagonists ketamine, MK-801, and memantine on postsynaptic density transcripts and their topography: role of Homer signaling, and implications for novel antipsychotic and pro-cognitive targets in psychosis. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2013;46:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These data may support the view that ketamine, MK-801 and memantine exert divergent effects on PSD transcripts, which may contribute to their partially different behavioral and clinical effects. ..
  13. Lu J, Helton T, Blanpied T, Racz B, Newpher T, Weinberg R, et al. Postsynaptic positioning of endocytic zones and AMPA receptor cycling by physical coupling of dynamin-3 to Homer. Neuron. 2007;55:874-89 pubmed
    ..Thus, a physical link between the PSD and the EZ ensures localized endocytosis and recycling by recapturing and maintaining a proximate pool of cycling AMPA receptors. ..
  14. Westhoff J, Hwang S, Duncan R, Ozawa F, Volpe P, Inokuchi K, et al. Vesl/Homer proteins regulate ryanodine receptor type 2 function and intracellular calcium signaling. Cell Calcium. 2003;34:261-9 pubmed
    ..Thereby it may control cellular calcium homeostasis. These observations suggest a novel mechanism for the regulation of RyR2 and calcium-dependent cellular functions. ..
  15. Kato A, Fukazawa Y, Ozawa F, Inokuchi K, Sugiyama H. Activation of ERK cascade promotes accumulation of Vesl-1S/Homer-1a immunoreactivity at synapses. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;118:33-44 pubmed
    ..Activity-dependent release of neurotrophins or depolarization may cause local activation of the ERK cascade to produce the synapse-specific localization of Vesl-1S/Homer-1a. ..
  16. Suzuki T, Li W, Zhang J, Tian Q, Sakagami H, Usuda N, et al. A novel scaffold protein, TANC, possibly a rat homolog of Drosophila rolling pebbles (rols), forms a multiprotein complex with various postsynaptic density proteins. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:339-50 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that TANC protein may work as a postsynaptic scaffold component by forming a multiprotein complex with various postsynaptic density proteins. ..
  17. Iasevoli F, Ambesi Impiombato A, Fiore G, Panariello F, Muscettola G, de Bartolomeis A. Pattern of acute induction of Homer1a gene is preserved after chronic treatment with first- and second-generation antipsychotics: effect of short-term drug discontinuation and comparison with Homer1a-interacting genes. J Psychopharmacol. 2011;25:875-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant changes were also observed for PSD-95. The results suggest that Homer1a preserves its expression profile after chronic antipsychotics. ..
  18. Salm E, Thayer S. Homer proteins accelerate Ca2+ clearance mediated by the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump in hippocampal neurons. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;424:76-81 pubmed publisher
    ..PMCA-mediated Ca(2+) clearance may be stimulated following incorporation of the pump into Homer organized signaling domains and following induction of the Homer 1a immediate early gene. ..
  19. Sandonà D, Scolari A, Mikoshiba K, Volpe P. Subcellular distribution of Homer 1b/c in relation to endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane proteins in Purkinje neurons. Neurochem Res. 2003;28:1151-8 pubmed
    ..Only some IP3R1s appeared to be part of multimeric, junctional Ca2+ signaling networks, whose composition is shown to include PMCA, mGluR1, Homer 1b/c and, not always, RYR1. ..
  20. Qi C, Roseboom P, Nanda S, Lane J, Speers J, Kalin N. Anxiety-related behavioral inhibition in rats: a model to examine mechanisms underlying the risk to develop stress-related psychopathology. Genes Brain Behav. 2010;9:974-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the use of predator threat as a stimulus and HBI rats as a model to study mechanisms underlying extreme and stable BI in humans. ..
  21. Yao Y, Jiang Z, Zhao Z. Knockdown of synaptic scaffolding protein Homer 1b/c attenuates secondary hyperalgesia induced by complete Freund's adjuvant in rats. Anesth Analg. 2011;113:1501-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel results demonstrate that Homer 1b/c in the spinal cord contributes to the maintenance of secondary hyperalgesia induced by CFA and suggest that Homer 1b/c may be a novel target for pain therapy. ..
  22. Orsetti M, Di Brisco F, Canonico P, Genazzani A, Ghi P. Gene regulation in the frontal cortex of rats exposed to the chronic mild stress paradigm, an animal model of human depression. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:2156-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The results confirmed the downregulation of Itga6, Camk2a, Plcb1, Cart, Gad1, Homer1 and Th and the upregulation of Egr2 and Ptgs2 observed in the DNA microarray analysis...
  23. Wang F, Li R, Liang H, Shen Y, Guo X, Wang Z. [Homer protein expression after focal brain contusion in rats]. Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2011;27:409-12 pubmed
    ..Homer protein expression based on immunohistochemistry and Western blotting had statistical difference among adjacent groups. Expression of Homer protein near the focal contusion area shows time dependence after brain contusion in rats. ..
  24. Paschen W, Mengesdorf T. Conditions associated with ER dysfunction activate homer 1a expression. J Neurochem. 2003;86:1108-15 pubmed
    ..Thus, homer 1a expression may be activated by impairment of ER functioning just as it is by glutamate receptor activation. ..
  25. Soria Van Hoeve J, Borst J. Delayed appearance of the scaffolding proteins PSD-95 and Homer-1 at the developing rat calyx of Held synapse. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:4581-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The relatively late appearance of Homer-1 and PSD-95 within the developing calyx of Held synapse suggests that they play a role in its stabilization and the recruitment of additional receptors to its postsynaptic density. ..
  26. Wang Y, Fei Z, Ma Y, Liu W, Zhu J, Zhang C, et al. VEGF upregulates Homer 1a gene expression via the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in cultured cortex neurons. Neurosci Lett. 2012;515:44-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that MAPK is a key mediator that links distinct extracellular VEGF stimuli to the transcriptional activation of Homer 1a mRNA. ..
  27. Hashimoto K, Nakahara T, Yamada H, Hirano M, Kuroki T, Kanba S. A neurotoxic dose of methamphetamine induces gene expression of Homer 1a, but not Homer 1b or 1c, in the striatum and nucleus accumbens. Neurochem Int. 2007;51:227-32 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the induction of Homer 1a gene may be involved at least in part in the methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity, possibly through the glutamate-dopaminergic interaction. ..
  28. Polese D, de Serpis A, Ambesi Impiombato A, Muscettola G, de Bartolomeis A. Homer 1a gene expression modulation by antipsychotic drugs: involvement of the glutamate metabotropic system and effects of D-cycloserine. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002;27:906-13 pubmed
  29. Li Y, Krogh K, Thayer S. Epileptic stimulus increases Homer 1a expression to modulate endocannabinoid signaling in cultured hippocampal neurons. Neuropharmacology. 2012;63:1140-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that seizure activity modulates eCB-mediated synaptic plasticity, suggesting a changing role for the eCB system following exposure to aberrant patterns of excitatory synaptic activity. ..
  30. de Bartolomeis A, Marmo F, Buonaguro E, Latte G, Tomasetti C, Iasevoli F. Switching antipsychotics: Imaging the differential effect on the topography of postsynaptic density transcripts in antipsychotic-naïve vs. antipsychotic-exposed rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2016;70:24-38 pubmed publisher
  31. Moore E, Kooshki M, Wheeler K, Metheny Barlow L, Robbins M. Differential expression of Homer1a in the hippocampus and cortex likely plays a role in radiation-induced brain injury. Radiat Res. 2014;181:21-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that Homer1a is, (1) a brain region specific regulator of radiation-induced brain injury, including cognitive impairment and (2) potentially a druggable target for preventing it. ..
  32. Ambesi Impiombato A, Panariello F, Dell Aversano C, Tomasetti C, Muscettola G, de Bartolomeis A. Differential expression of Homer 1 gene by acute and chronic administration of antipsychotics and dopamine transporter inhibitors in the rat forebrain. Synapse. 2007;61:429-39 pubmed
    ..Finally, we describe a differential spatial induction pattern of Homer 1 gene within the caudate-putamen by typical antipsychotics and DAT blockers, and propose a novel method to quantitate it. ..
  33. Kane J, Hwang Y, Konu O, Loughlin S, Leslie F, Li M. Regulation of Homer and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors by nicotine. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:1145-54 pubmed
    ..These data provide further evidence for the involvement of nicotine in the glutamatergic neuronal synaptic activity in vivo, suggesting a role for the newly identified Homer proteins in this paradigm. ..
  34. Gray N, Fourgeaud L, Huang B, Chen J, Cao H, Oswald B, et al. Dynamin 3 is a component of the postsynapse, where it interacts with mGluR5 and Homer. Curr Biol. 2003;13:510-5 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Dyn3 is a postsynaptic dynamin and, like its binding partner Homer, plays a significant role in dendritic spine morphogenesis and remodeling. ..
  35. Lu J, Gan J, Fu G, Ding L, Zheng Q. The Impact of Small RNA Interference Against Homer1 on Rats with Type 2 Diabetes and ERK Phosphorylation. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2015;73:597-601 pubmed publisher
    The objective of the study is to evaluate Homer1 expression in rats with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and investigate the mechanism by which Homer1 influences the pathogenesis of diabetes through study on rat model with decreased ..
  36. Fujiyama K, Kajii Y, Hiraoka S, Nishikawa T. Differential regulation by stimulants of neocortical expression of mrt1, arc, and homer1a mRNA in the rats treated with repeated methamphetamine. Synapse. 2003;49:143-9 pubmed
  37. Rong R, Ahn J, Huang H, Nagata E, Kalman D, Kapp J, et al. PI3 kinase enhancer-Homer complex couples mGluRI to PI3 kinase, preventing neuronal apoptosis. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:1153-61 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that this complex mediates the well-known ability of agonists of mGluRI to prevent neuronal apoptosis. ..
  38. Roloff A, Anderson G, Martemyanov K, Thayer S. Homer 1a gates the induction mechanism for endocannabinoid-mediated synaptic plasticity. J Neurosci. 2010;30:3072-81 pubmed publisher
    ..BDNF treatment blocked MSE and enhanced DSE. Thus, physiological changes in H1a expression gate the induction pathway for eCB-mediated synaptic plasticity by uncoupling mGluR from eCB production. ..
  39. Cui Z, Zhou L, Liu C, Zhu G, Wu X, Yan Y, et al. The role of Homer1b/c in neuronal apoptosis following LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Neurochem Res. 2015;40:204-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the role of Homer1b/c, a long form of Homer1, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced neuroinflammation in CNS...
  40. Sala C, Futai K, Yamamoto K, Worley P, Hayashi Y, Sheng M. Inhibition of dendritic spine morphogenesis and synaptic transmission by activity-inducible protein Homer1a. J Neurosci. 2003;23:6327-37 pubmed
    ..Because Homer1a expression is induced by synaptic activity, our results suggest that this splice variant of Homer operates in a negative feedback loop to regulate the structure and function of synapses in an activity-dependent manner. ..
  41. Iasevoli F, Tomasetti C, Ambesi Impiombato A, Muscettola G, de Bartolomeis A. Dopamine receptor subtypes contribution to Homer1a induction: insights into antipsychotic molecular action. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009;33:813-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The changes in expression suggest that these gene transcripts are differentially regulated by antagonism at different dopamine receptors. ..
  42. Chen T, Yang Y, Luo P, Liu W, Dai S, Zheng X, et al. Homer1 knockdown protects dopamine neurons through regulating calcium homeostasis in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease. Cell Signal. 2013;25:2863-70 pubmed publisher
    Homer1 protein is an important scaffold protein at postsynaptic density and has been demonstrated to play a central role in calcium signaling in the central nervous system...
  43. Nikbakht N, Zarei B, Shirani E, Moshtaghian J, Esmaeili A, Habibian S. Experience-dependent expression of rat hippocampal Arc and Homer 1a after spatial learning on 8-arm and 12-arm radial mazes. Neuroscience. 2012;218:49-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Significantly elevated expression of both Arc and H1a was observed. The orchestrated expression levels of both genes were correlated with the behavioral task demand level and behavioral performance. ..
  44. Yamada H, Kuroki T, Nakahara T, Hashimoto K, Tsutsumi T, Hirano M, et al. The dopamine D1 receptor agonist, but not the D2 receptor agonist, induces gene expression of Homer 1a in rat striatum and nucleus accumbens. Brain Res. 2007;1131:88-96 pubmed
    ..However, in contrast to c-fos expression, it is unlikely that co-activation of both D(1)-like and D(2)-like receptors exerts a synergic action on Homer 1a expression in these regions. ..
  45. Herrera Molina R, Sarto Jackson I, Montenegro Venegas C, Heine M, Smalla K, Seidenbecher C, et al. Structure of excitatory synapses and GABAA receptor localization at inhibitory synapses are regulated by neuroplastin-65. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:8973-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that Np65 is an important regulator of the number and function of synapses in the hippocampus. ..
  46. Kato A, Ozawa F, Saitoh Y, Hirai K, Inokuchi K. vesl, a gene encoding VASP/Ena family related protein, is upregulated during seizure, long-term potentiation and synaptogenesis. FEBS Lett. 1997;412:183-9 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the Vesl protein may be involved in the structural changes that occur at synapses during long-lasting neuronal plasticity and development. ..
  47. Zimmermann J, Neuhuber W, Raab M. Homer1 (VesL-1) in the rat esophagus: focus on myenteric plexus and neuromuscular junction. Histochem Cell Biol. 2017;148:189-206 pubmed publisher
    b>Homer1, a scaffolding protein of the postsynaptic density (PSD), enriched at excitatory synapses is known to anchor and modulate group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and different channel- and receptor-proteins...
  48. Gerstein H, Lindstrom M, Burger C. Gene delivery of Homer1c rescues spatial learning in a rodent model of cognitive aging. Neurobiol Aging. 2013;34:1963-70 pubmed publisher
    ..of Homer1c in the hippocampus can improve memory in normal rats and can also rescue spatial learning deficits in Homer1 knockout mice...
  49. Ageta H, Kato A, Fukazawa Y, Inokuchi K, Sugiyama H. Effects of proteasome inhibitors on the synaptic localization of Vesl-1S/Homer-1a proteins. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2001;97:186-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Vesl-1S protein is synaptically targeted. ..
  50. Miletic G, Miyabe T, Gebhardt K, Miletic V. Increased levels of Homer1b/c and Shank1a in the post-synaptic density of spinal dorsal horn neurons are associated with neuropathic pain in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2005;386:189-93 pubmed
    ..The reversible shift in the content of scaffolding proteins in the PSD may have important implications for the development of injury-elicited neuropathic pain. ..
  51. Sgambato Faure V, Xiong Y, Berke J, Hyman S, Strehler E. The Homer-1 protein Ania-3 interacts with the plasma membrane calcium pump. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;343:630-7 pubmed
    ..The interaction between Ania-3/Homer and PMCAs may represent a novel mechanism by which local calcium signaling and hence synaptic function can be modulated in neurons. ..
  52. Ghasemzadeh M, Vasudevan P, Mueller C, Seubert C, Mantsch J. Neuroadaptations in the cellular and postsynaptic group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 and Homer proteins following extinction of cocaine self-administration. Neurosci Lett. 2009;452:167-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Concurrent plasticity in the scaffolding proteins further suggests that mGluR5 receptor neuroadaptations may have implications for synaptic function. ..
  53. Okada D, Ozawa F, Inokuchi K. Input-specific spine entry of soma-derived Vesl-1S protein conforms to synaptic tagging. Science. 2009;324:904-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Vesl-1S supports the hypothesis and that the activity-dependent regulation of spine entry functions as a synaptic tag. ..
  54. Nielsen H, Georg B, Hannibal J, Fahrenkrug J. Homer-1 mRNA in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus is regulated differentially by the retinohypothalamic tract transmitters pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and glutamate at time points where light phase-shifts the endogenous rhythm. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;105:79-85 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the RHT transmitters PACAP and glutamate could be responsible for the light-induced expression of Homer-1 in the SCN, and Homer-1 seems to be differentially regulated by the two transmitters at early and late night. ..
  55. Banerjee A, Luong J, Ho A, Saib A, Ploski J. Overexpression of Homer1a in the basal and lateral amygdala impairs fear conditioning and induces an autism-like social impairment. Mol Autism. 2016;7:16 pubmed publisher
    ..in part because Homer1a influences the functioning of Shank3, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5), and Homer1, and these proteins have previously been associated with ASD, indicating that these differing models of ASD may ..
  56. Hwang J, Kim H, Lee J, Kim E, Ryu S, Suh P. The interaction of phospholipase C-beta3 with Shank2 regulates mGluR-mediated calcium signal. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:12467-73 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that Shank2 brings PLC-beta3 closer to Homer 1b and constitutes an efficient mGluR-coupled signaling pathway in the PSD region of neuronal synapses. ..
  57. Yang L, Hong Q, Zhang M, Liu X, Pan X, Guo M, et al. The role of Homer 1a in increasing locomotor activity and non-selective attention, and impairing learning and memory abilities. Brain Res. 2013;1515:39-47 pubmed publisher
    ..However, MPH ameliorated these abnormal behaviors. All findings indicated that Homer 1a may play an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of ADHD. ..
  58. Yuan J, Kiselyov K, Shin D, Chen J, Shcheynikov N, Kang S, et al. Homer binds TRPC family channels and is required for gating of TRPC1 by IP3 receptors. Cell. 2003;114:777-89 pubmed
    ..Since H1a is transcriptionally regulated by cellular activity, this mechanism can affect both short and long-term regulation of TRPC1 function. ..
  59. Usui S, Konno D, Hori K, Maruoka H, Okabe S, Fujikado T, et al. Synaptic targeting of PSD-Zip45 (Homer 1c) and its involvement in the synaptic accumulation of F-actin. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:10619-28 pubmed
    ..contains an enabled/VASP homology 1 (EVH1) domain and leucine zipper motifs, is a postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold protein that interacts with metabotropic glutamate receptors and the shank family...
  60. Unal C, Beverley J, Willuhn I, Steiner H. Long-lasting dysregulation of gene expression in corticostriatal circuits after repeated cocaine treatment in adult rats: effects on zif 268 and homer 1a. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:1615-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies will have to elucidate the role of such neuronal changes in psychostimulant addiction. ..
  61. Ma Z, Zhu W, Zhang W, Gu X. Effect of the synaptic scaffolding protein Homer1a on chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2009;39:71-5 pubmed
    ..In this study, we explored the early expression of Homer1 gene in the spinal dorsal horn by using the neuropathic pain model of chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion (..
  62. Ghasemzadeh M, Windham L, Lake R, Acker C, Kalivas P. Cocaine activates Homer1 immediate early gene transcription in the mesocorticolimbic circuit: differential regulation by dopamine and glutamate signaling. Synapse. 2009;63:42-53 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Homer1 gene activation leads to transcription of a variant mRNA (Homer1a), which functions as an immediate early gene...
  63. Stiber J, Zhang Z, Burch J, Eu J, Zhang S, Truskey G, et al. Mice lacking Homer 1 exhibit a skeletal myopathy characterized by abnormal transient receptor potential channel activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:2637-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide direct evidence that Homer 1 functions as an important scaffold for TRP channels and regulates mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle. ..
  64. Feng W, Tu J, Yang T, Vernon P, Allen P, Worley P, et al. Homer regulates gain of ryanodine receptor type 1 channel complex. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:44722-30 pubmed
    ..In contrast to the prevailing notion of Homer function, Homer1c (long form) and Homer1-EVH1 (short form) evoke similar changes in RyR activity...
  65. Van Keuren Jensen K, Cline H. Homer proteins shape Xenopus optic tectal cell dendritic arbor development in vivo. Dev Neurobiol. 2008;68:1315-24 pubmed publisher
  66. Montes Rodriguez C, Lapointe V, Trivedi V, Lu Q, Demchuk A, McNaughton B. Postnatal development of Homer1a in the rat hippocampus. Hippocampus. 2013;23:890-902 pubmed publisher
    ..The developmental progression of H1a corresponds to the synaptic refinement period supporting the conclusion that H1a could play an important role in this process. ..
  67. Sandona D, Tibaldo E, Volpe P. Evidence for the presence of two homer 1 transcripts in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;279:348-53 pubmed
    ..The regulatory mechanism exerted via transition of Homer 1 isoform composition may be operative in striated muscles. ..
  68. Grubb D, Luo J, Yu Y, Woodcock E. Scaffolding protein Homer 1c mediates hypertrophic responses downstream of Gq in cardiomyocytes. FASEB J. 2012;26:596-603 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Gq-mediated hypertrophy involves activation of PLC?1b scaffolded onto a Shank3/Homer complex. Signaling downstream of Homer 1c is necessary and sufficient for Gq-initiated hypertrophy. ..
  69. Wang X, MCCOY P, Rodriguiz R, Pan Y, Je H, Roberts A, et al. Synaptic dysfunction and abnormal behaviors in mice lacking major isoforms of Shank3. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:3093-108 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that loss of major Shank3 species produces biochemical, cellular and morphological changes, leading to behavioral abnormalities in mice that bear similarities to human ASD patients with SHANK3 mutations. ..
  70. Dani A, Huang B, BERGAN J, Dulac C, Zhuang X. Superresolution imaging of chemical synapses in the brain. Neuron. 2010;68:843-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Combination with optogenetics further allowed molecular events associated with synaptic plasticity to be resolved at the single-synapse level. ..
  71. Miletic G, Driver A, Miyabe Nishiwaki T, Miletic V. Early changes in Homer1 proteins in the spinal dorsal horn are associated with loose ligation of the rat sciatic nerve. Anesth Analg. 2009;109:2000-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Homer1 proteins play an important role in synaptic plasticity through an activity-dependent remodeling of the ..
  72. Volpe P, Sandri C, Bortoloso E, Valle G, Nori A. Topology of Homer 1c and Homer 1a in C2C12 myotubes and transgenic skeletal muscle fibers. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;316:884-92 pubmed
    ..Our findings are discussed in relation to reported effects of Homer 1 isoforms on RYR1 function. ..
  73. Shin D, Dehoff M, Luo X, Kang S, Tu J, Nayak S, et al. Homer 2 tunes G protein-coupled receptors stimulus intensity by regulating RGS proteins and PLCbeta GAP activities. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:293-303 pubmed
  74. Hong Q, Zhang M, Pan X, Guo M, Li F, Tong M, et al. Prefrontal cortex Homer expression in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Neurol Sci. 2009;287:205-11 pubmed publisher
    ..It is plausible that Homer 1a and Homer 2a/b may be involved in the etiology and pathogenesis of ADHD. Future work will focus on elucidating the specific mechanisms of Homer 1a and Homer 2a/b in ADHD. ..
  75. Diering G, Nirujogi R, Roth R, Worley P, Pandey A, Huganir R. Homer1a drives homeostatic scaling-down of excitatory synapses during sleep. Science. 2017;355:511-515 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that homeostatic scaling-down, a global form of synaptic plasticity, is active during sleep to remodel synapses and participates in the consolidation of contextual memory. ..
  76. Iasevoli F, Fiore G, Cicale M, Muscettola G, de Bartolomeis A. Haloperidol induces higher Homer1a expression than risperidone, olanzapine and sulpiride in striatal sub-regions. Psychiatry Res. 2010;177:255-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the quantitative and topographical pattern of Homer1a expression may putatively be related to antipsychotics affinity and/or occupancy at dopamine D(2) receptors. ..