Gene Symbol: Hmgb2
Description: high mobility group box 2
Alias: Hmg2, high mobility group protein B2, HMG-2, high mobility group protein 2
Species: rat
Products:     Hmgb2

Top Publications

  1. Paull T, Haykinson M, Johnson R. The nonspecific DNA-binding and -bending proteins HMG1 and HMG2 promote the assembly of complex nucleoprotein structures. Genes Dev. 1993;7:1521-34 pubmed
    The mammalian high mobility group proteins HMG1 and HMG2 are abundant, chromatin-associated proteins whose cellular function is not known...
  2. Taniguchi N, Caramés B, Ronfani L, Ulmer U, Komiya S, Bianchi M, et al. Aging-related loss of the chromatin protein HMGB2 in articular cartilage is linked to reduced cellularity and osteoarthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:1181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In human and murine cartilage, there is an aging-related loss of HMGB2 expression, ultimately leading to its complete absence...
  3. Ronfani L, Ferraguti M, Croci L, Ovitt C, Scholer H, Consalez G, et al. Reduced fertility and spermatogenesis defects in mice lacking chromosomal protein Hmgb2. Development. 2001;128:1265-73 pubmed
    High mobility group 2 protein (Hmgb2) is a member of the HMGB protein family, which includes the ubiquitous Hmgb1 and the embryo-specific Hmgb3...
  4. Zwilling S, Konig H, Wirth T. High mobility group protein 2 functionally interacts with the POU domains of octamer transcription factors. EMBO J. 1995;14:1198-208 pubmed
    ..We have mapped the interaction domains for both proteins and have shown that HMG2 and Oct2 interact via their HMG domains and POU homeodomains, respectively...
  5. Yamazaki F, Nagatsuka Y, Shirakawa H, Yoshida M. Repression of cell cycle progression by antisense HMG2 RNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;210:1045-51 pubmed
    The expression level of the HMG2 gene during the cell cycle of rat fibroblast cell lines was analyzed...
  6. Yanai H, Ban T, Wang Z, Choi M, Kawamura T, Negishi H, et al. HMGB proteins function as universal sentinels for nucleic-acid-mediated innate immune responses. Nature. 2009;462:99-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Hmgb1(-/-) and Hmgb2(-/-) mouse cells are defective in type-I interferon and inflammatory cytokine induction by DNA or RNA targeted to ..
  7. Pusterla T, De Marchis F, Palumbo R, Bianchi M. High mobility group B2 is secreted by myeloid cells and has mitogenic and chemoattractant activities similar to high mobility group B1. Autoimmunity. 2009;42:308-10 pubmed
    ..HMGB1 can be actively secreted by inflammatory cells. Here, we report that also HMGB2 can be secreted by THP-1 cells, and promotes proliferation and migration of endothelial cells...
  8. Fan Z, Beresford P, Zhang D, Lieberman J. HMG2 interacts with the nucleosome assembly protein SET and is a target of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protease granzyme A. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:2810-20 pubmed
    ..find that the SET complex contains DNA binding and bending activities mediated by the chromatin-associated protein HMG2. HMG2 facilitates assembly of nucleoprotein higher-order structures by bending and looping DNA or by stabilizing ..
  9. Mosevitsky M, Novitskaya V, Iogannsen M, Zabezhinsky M. Tissue specificity of nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution of HMG1 and HMG2 proteins and their probable functions. Eur J Biochem. 1989;185:303-10 pubmed
    The levels and distribution between nucleus and cytoplasm of HMG1 and HMG2 proteins have been investigated in different tissues of mammals...

More Information


  1. Sobajima J, Ozaki S, Osakada F, Uesugi H, Shirakawa H, Yoshida M, et al. Novel autoantigens of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (P-ANCA) in ulcerative colitis: non-histone chromosomal proteins, HMG1 and HMG2. Clin Exp Immunol. 1997;107:135-40 pubmed
    ..of these proteins are identical with those of high mobility group (HMG) non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and HMG2. Immunoblotting analysis of human neutrophil lysates using rabbit anti-HMG1/2 antisera revealed a single band of 28 ..
  2. Lee S, Nam Y, Koo J, Lim D, Park J, Ock J, et al. A small molecule binding HMGB1 and HMGB2 inhibits microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. Nat Chem Biol. 2014;10:1055-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals that ICM suppresses microglia-mediated inflammation and exerts a neuroprotective effect, demonstrating the therapeutic potential of ICM in neuroinflammatory diseases. ..
  3. Ito I, Mitsuoka N, Sobajima J, Uesugi H, Ozaki S, Ohya K, et al. Conformational difference in HMGB1 proteins of human neutrophils and lymphocytes revealed by epitope mapping of a monoclonal antibody. J Biochem. 2004;136:155-62 pubmed
    HMGB1 and HMGB2 are abundant nonhistone chromosomal proteins in eukaryotic organisms. Their respective primary sequences are highly conserved...
  4. Campbell P, Rudnicki M. Oct4 interaction with Hmgb2 regulates Akt signaling and pluripotency. Stem Cells. 2013;31:1107-20 pubmed publisher
    ..modifications (PTMs) form a positive feedback loop, which promotes Akt activation and interaction with Hmgb2 and the SET complex...
  5. Lawrence D, Engelsberg B, Farid R, Hughes E, Billings P. Localization of the binding region of high mobility group protein 2 to cisplatin-damaged DNA. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:23940-5 pubmed
    ..In the present study partial proteolytic digestion was used to localize the binding region of HMG2. A proteolytic fragment of approximately 20 kDa, containing the amino-terminal region of the protein, maintains the ..
  6. Stros M, Polanská E, Struncová S, Pospisilova S. HMGB1 and HMGB2 proteins up-regulate cellular expression of human topoisomerase IIalpha. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:2070-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The involvement of HMGB1 and its close relative, HMGB2, in modulation of activity of the topo IIalpha gene is further supported by knock-down of HMGB1/2, as evidenced by ..
  7. Chiou W, Niazi S. Pharmaceutical applications of solid dispersion systems: dissolution of griseofulvin-succinic acid eutectic mixture. J Pharm Sci. 1976;65:1212-4 pubmed
    ..Contrary to the original proposal of Sekiguchi and coworkers, dissolution rates of driseofulvin from solid dispersions were found to be markedly affected by the particle size of solid dispersions. ..
  8. Shykind B, Kim J, Sharp P. Activation of the TFIID-TFIIA complex with HMG-2. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1354-65 pubmed
  9. Beliavtseva L, Kozlov S, Kulikova O, Surkova E, Fedorova N. [Effect of HMG proteins and their phosphorylated forms on the process of transcription in neuronal nuclei of the rat brain (data from an immunochemical analysis)]. Biokhimiia. 1992;57:214-9 pubmed
    ..transcription in the neuronal nucleus of rat brain is inhibited by antisera to proteins HMG 14, HMG 17 and HMG 2. It is known that chromatin transcription of the neuronal nucleus and phosphorylation of chromosomal proteins are ..
  10. Pallier C, Scaffidi P, Chopineau Proust S, Agresti A, Nordmann P, Bianchi M, et al. Association of chromatin proteins high mobility group box (HMGB) 1 and HMGB2 with mitotic chromosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:3414-26 pubmed
    ..e., free and associated with the condensed chromatin, which rapidly exchange. A detailed analysis of HMGB2 interaction with mitotic chromosomes indicated that two sites encompassing HMG-box A and B are responsible for ..
  11. Lehming N, Le Saux A, Schuller J, Ptashne M. Chromatin components as part of a putative transcriptional repressing complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:7322-6 pubmed
    ..Each of these proteins represses transcription when tethered to DNA in mammalian cells. These results suggest how heterochromatin proteins might be recruited to specific sites on DNA with resultant specific effects on gene expression. ..
  12. Küchler R, Schroeder B, Jaeger S, Stange E, Wehkamp J. Antimicrobial activity of high-mobility-group box 2: a new function to a well-known protein. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:4782-93 pubmed publisher
    ..based on antimicrobial function, here we identified competent antibacterial activity of high-mobility-group box 2 (HMGB2) against Escherichia coli...
  13. Pasheva E, Sarov M, Bidjekov K, Ugrinova I, Sarg B, Lindner H, et al. In vitro acetylation of HMGB-1 and -2 proteins by CBP: the role of the acidic tail. Biochemistry. 2004;43:2935-40 pubmed
    ..The alterations in the acetylation pattern of HMGB-1 and -2 upon removal of the C-terminal tail are regarded as a means by which the acidic domain modulates some properties of these proteins. ..
  14. Angelova A, Borissova Z, Avramova F, Simeonova V, Stambolova M. HMG-2 protein in developing rat brain cells. Int J Biochem. 1993;25:37-41 pubmed
    ..The treatment with antibodies affected mainly the DNA replicative activity of the nuclei, while their DNA repair activity remained unchanged. ..
  15. Laurent B, Randrianarison Huetz V, Marechal V, Marchal V, Mayeux P, Dusanter Fourt I, et al. High-mobility group protein HMGB2 regulates human erythroid differentiation through trans-activation of GFI1B transcription. Blood. 2010;115:687-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We here identify HMGB2, a high-mobility group HMG protein, as a key regulator of GFI1B transcription...
  16. Chou D, Evans J, Jungalwala F. Identity of nuclear high-mobility-group protein, HMG-1, and sulfoglucuronyl carbohydrate-binding protein, SBP-1, in brain. J Neurochem. 2001;77:120-31 pubmed
    ..The proteins also promoted neurite outgrowth in explant cultures of cerebellum. The results showed that the cerebellar HMG-1 and -2 proteins have similar biochemical and biological properties and HMG-1 is most likely identical to SBP-1. ..
  17. Abraham A, Bronstein R, Reddy A, Maletic Savatic M, Aguirre A, Tsirka S. Aberrant neural stem cell proliferation and increased adult neurogenesis in mice lacking chromatin protein HMGB2. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e84838 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them HMGB2 was found to be dynamically expressed in proliferating and differentiating NSCs, suggesting that it may regulate ..
  18. Bernues J, Querol E. Non-random reconstitution of HMG1 and HMG2 in chromatin. Determination of the histone contacts. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989;1008:52-61 pubmed
    We have studied how non-histone proteins HMG1 and HMG2 interact with rat liver chromatin using reconstitution and chemical cross-linking procedures...
  19. Kuehl L. Synthesis of high mobility group proteins in regenerating rat liver. J Biol Chem. 1979;254:7276-81 pubmed
    Incorporation of [3H]lysine into the non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1, HMG2, and HMG17 and into each of the five major classes of histones was measured in rat liver at various times after partial hepatectomy...
  20. Catena R, Ronfani L, Sassone Corsi P, Davidson I. Changes in intranuclear chromatin architecture induce bipolar nuclear localization of histone variant H1T2 in male haploid spermatids. Dev Biol. 2006;296:231-238 pubmed
    ..In contrast, in late round spermatids from trf2 -/- or hmgb2 -/- mice, a bipolar H1T2 localization was observed revealing that polarity is modified by loss of proteins ..