Gene Symbol: Hmga1
Description: high mobility group AT-hook 1
Alias: Hmgi, Hmgiy, high mobility group protein HMG-I/HMG-Y, HMG-I(Y), high mobility group AT-hook protein 1, high mobility group protein A1
Species: rat
Products:     Hmga1

Top Publications

  1. Huth J, Bewley C, Nissen M, Evans J, Reeves R, Gronenborn A, et al. The solution structure of an HMG-I(Y)-DNA complex defines a new architectural minor groove binding motif. Nat Struct Biol. 1997;4:657-65 pubmed
    ..The absence of one of these modules in the third DNA binding domain accounts for its-100 fold reduced affinity relative to the second one. ..
  2. Chieffi P, Battista S, Barchi M, Di Agostino S, Pierantoni G, Fedele M, et al. HMGA1 and HMGA2 protein expression in mouse spermatogenesis. Oncogene. 2002;21:3644-50 pubmed
    The high-mobility group A (HMGA) nonhistone chromosomal proteins HMGA1 and HMGA2 play a role in determining chromatin structure and in regulating the transcription of several genes...
  3. Summer H, Li O, Bao Q, Zhan L, Peter S, Sathiyanathan P, et al. HMGA2 exhibits dRP/AP site cleavage activity and protects cancer cells from DNA-damage-induced cytotoxicity during chemotherapy. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:4371-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study thus identifies an unexpected role for HMGA2 in DNA repair in cancer cells which has important clinical implications for disease diagnosis and therapy. ..
  4. Zhang Q, Chen L, Zhao Z, Wu Y, Zhong J, Wen G, et al. HMGA1 Mediated High-Glucose-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation in Diabetes Mellitus: Association Between PI3K/Akt Signaling and HMGA1 Expression. DNA Cell Biol. 2018;37:389-397 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility group protein A1 (HMGA1), an architectural transcription factor, was found to regulate multiple gene expression in mammals. Recent studies firmly indicate an association between HMGA1 and type 2 diabetes...
  5. Narita M, Narita M, Krizhanovsky V, Nũnez S, Chicas A, Hearn S, et al. A novel role for high-mobility group a proteins in cellular senescence and heterochromatin formation. Cell. 2006;126:503-14 pubmed
    ..Our results identify a component of the senescence machinery that contributes to heterochromatin formation and imply that HMGA proteins also act in tumor suppressor networks. ..
  6. Liu J, Schiltz J, Ashar H, Chada K. Hmga1 is required for normal sperm development. Mol Reprod Dev. 2003;66:81-9 pubmed
    ..Although the biochemical function of Hmga1 has been studied in vitro, to provide in vivo insight into its biological function, a targeted disruption of Hmga1 ..
  7. Sgarra R, Diana F, Bellarosa C, Dekleva V, Rustighi A, Toller M, et al. During apoptosis of tumor cells HMGA1a protein undergoes methylation: identification of the modification site by mass spectrometry. Biochemistry. 2003;42:3575-85 pubmed
    ..An increase of HMGA1a methylation could be related to heterochromatin and chromatin remodeling of apoptotic cells. ..
  8. Nagpal S, Ghosn C, DiSepio D, Molina Y, Sutter M, Klein E, et al. Retinoid-dependent recruitment of a histone H1 displacement activity by retinoic acid receptor. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:22563-8 pubmed
  9. Miranda T, Webb K, Edberg D, Reeves R, Clarke S. Protein arginine methyltransferase 6 specifically methylates the nonhistone chromatin protein HMGA1a. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;336:831-5 pubmed
    ..GST fusions of PRMT4 or PRMT7 were unable to methylate the full-length protein or its degradation products. We conclude that PRMT6 is a good candidate for the endogenous enzyme responsible for HGMA1a methylation. ..

More Information


  1. Camós S, Gubern C, Sobrado M, Rodriguez R, Romera V, Moro M, et al. The high-mobility group I-Y transcription factor is involved in cerebral ischemia and modulates the expression of angiogenic proteins. Neuroscience. 2014;269:112-30 pubmed publisher
    ..High-mobility group I-Y protein (HMGIY) TF characterization in a rat permanent focal cerebral ischemia model was performed by quantitative real time ..
  2. Bussemakers M, Van de Ven W, Debruyne F, Schalken J. Identification of high mobility group protein I(Y) as potential progression marker for prostate cancer by differential hybridization analysis. Cancer Res. 1991;51:606-11 pubmed
    ..The overexpression of high mobility group protein I(Y) correlates rather with metastatic ability than with growth rate; hence it may serve as a valuable marker to identify progressionally advanced prostate cancer cells. ..
  3. Berlingieri M, Pierantoni G, Giancotti V, Santoro M, Fusco A. Thyroid cell transformation requires the expression of the HMGA1 proteins. Oncogene. 2002;21:2971-80 pubmed
    Elevated expression of HMGA1 and HMGA2 proteins is correlated with a highly malignant phenotype in several human tumors...
  4. Shlapobersky M, Sanders R, Clark C, Spector D. Repression of HMGA2 gene expression by human cytomegalovirus involves the IE2 86-kilodalton protein and is necessary for efficient viral replication and inhibition of cyclin A transcription. J Virol. 2006;80:9951-61 pubmed
  5. De Martino I, Visone R, Wierinckx A, Palmieri D, Ferraro A, Cappabianca P, et al. HMGA proteins up-regulate CCNB2 gene in mouse and human pituitary adenomas. Cancer Res. 2009;69:1844-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently reported that transgenic mice carrying the Hmga1 or Hmga2 genes under transcriptional control of the cytomegalovirus promoter develop pituitary adenomas secreting ..
  6. Kitchen M, Yacqub Usman K, Emes R, Richardson A, Clayton R, Farrell W. Epidrug mediated re-expression of miRNA targeting the HMGA transcripts in pituitary cells. Pituitary. 2015;18:674-84 pubmed publisher
    Transgenic mice overexpressing the high mobility group A (HMGA) genes, Hmga1 or Hmga2 develop pituitary tumours and their overexpression is also a frequent finding in human pituitary adenomas...
  7. Hommura F, Katabami M, Leaner V, Donninger H, Sumter T, Resar L, et al. HMG-I/Y is a c-Jun/activator protein-1 target gene and is necessary for c-Jun-induced anchorage-independent growth in Rat1a cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2004;2:305-14 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that HMG-I/Y is a direct transcriptional target of c-Jun necessary for c-Jun-induced anchorage-independent growth in Rat1a cells. ..
  8. Bianconcini A, Lupo A, Capone S, Quadro L, Monti M, Zurlo D, et al. Transcriptional activity of the murine retinol-binding protein gene is regulated by a multiprotein complex containing HMGA1, p54 nrb/NonO, protein-associated splicing factor (PSF) and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1)/liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1). Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:2189-203 pubmed publisher
    ..This latter region contains several binding sites for the structural HMGA1 proteins, which are important to promoter regulation...