Hcrt

Summary

Gene Symbol: Hcrt
Description: hypocretin neuropeptide precursor
Alias: orexin-A, orexin, Hypocretin (orexin) neuropeptide
Species: rat
Products:     Hcrt

Top Publications

  1. Xiao F, Jiang M, Du D, Xia C, Wang J, Cao Y, et al. Orexin A regulates cardiovascular responses in stress-induced hypertensive rats. Neuropharmacology. 2013;67:16-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that orexin-A (OXA) is involved in the mechanism of stress-induced hypertension (SIH) by adjusting NOS/NO system in the RVLM...
  2. Mileykovskiy B, Kiyashchenko L, Siegel J. Behavioral correlates of activity in identified hypocretin/orexin neurons. Neuron. 2005;46:787-98 pubmed
    ..and orthodromic activation from the ventral tegmental area and locus coeruleus were used to identify hypocretin (Hcrt) cells in anesthetized rats and develop criteria for identification of these cells in unanesthetized, unrestrained ..
  3. Laorden M, Ferenczi S, Pintér Kübler B, González Martín L, Lasheras M, Kovacs K, et al. Hypothalamic orexin--a neurons are involved in the response of the brain stress system to morphine withdrawal. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36871 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined the impact of chronic morphine and withdrawal on the lateral hypothalamic (LH) orexin A (OXA) gene expression and activity as well as OXA involvement in the brain stress response to morphine abstinence...
  4. de Lecea L, Kilduff T, Peyron C, Gao X, Foye P, Danielson P, et al. The hypocretins: hypothalamus-specific peptides with neuroexcitatory activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:322-7 pubmed
    ..The hypocretin (Hcrt) protein products are restricted to neuronal cell bodies of the dorsal and lateral hypothalamic areas...
  5. Alam M, Kumar S, Bashir T, Suntsova N, Methippara M, Szymusiak R, et al. GABA-mediated control of hypocretin- but not melanin-concentrating hormone-immunoreactive neurones during sleep in rats. J Physiol. 2005;563:569-82 pubmed
    ..The PF-LHA contains several cell types including neurones expressing the peptides, hypocretin (HCRT; also called orexin) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)...
  6. Zhu Y, Miwa Y, Yamanaka A, Yada T, Shibahara M, Abe Y, et al. Orexin receptor type-1 couples exclusively to pertussis toxin-insensitive G-proteins, while orexin receptor type-2 couples to both pertussis toxin-sensitive and -insensitive G-proteins. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003;92:259-66 pubmed
    Signal transduction pathways of orexin receptors were examined using a nerve-like cell line transfected with orexin receptor type-1 (OX1R) and orexin receptor type-2 (OX2R)...
  7. Yi C, Serlie M, Ackermans M, Foppen E, Buijs R, Sauerwein H, et al. A major role for perifornical orexin neurons in the control of glucose metabolism in rats. Diabetes. 2009;58:1998-2005 pubmed publisher
    The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin influences (feeding) behavior as well as energy metabolism. Administration of exogenous orexin-A into the brain has been shown to increase both food intake and blood glucose levels...
  8. Stoyanova I, Rutten W, le Feber J. Orexin-A and orexin-B during the postnatal development of the rat brain. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:81-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Orexin-A and orexin-B are hypothalamic neuropeptides isolated from a small group of neurons in the hypothalamus, which project their axons to all major parts of the central nervous system...
  9. Teske J, Levine A, Kuskowski M, Levine J, Kotz C. Elevated hypothalamic orexin signaling, sensitivity to orexin A, and spontaneous physical activity in obesity-resistant rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;291:R889-99 pubmed
    ..The neuropeptide orexin A robustly stimulates SPA...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Liu Z, Song N, Geng W, Jin W, Li L, Cao Y, et al. Orexin-A and respiration in a rat model of smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2010;37:963-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we used a rat model of cigarette smoke-induced COPD to investigate orexin-A expression in the hypothalamus and medulla and its effect on respiration. 2...
  2. Hoang Q, Bajic D, Yanagisawa M, Nakajima S, Nakajima Y. Effects of orexin (hypocretin) on GIRK channels. J Neurophysiol. 2003;90:693-702 pubmed
    ..In GTPgammaS-loaded cells, orexin A (OXA, 3 microM) inhibited GIRK currents that had previously been activated by somatostatin (in LC cells), ..
  3. Willie J, Chemelli R, Sinton C, Yanagisawa M. To eat or to sleep? Orexin in the regulation of feeding and wakefulness. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2001;24:429-58 pubmed
    b>Orexin-A and orexin-B are neuropeptides originally identified as endogenous ligands for two orphan G-protein-coupled receptors...
  4. Sakurai T, Amemiya A, Ishii M, Matsuzaki I, Chemelli R, Tanaka H, et al. Orexins and orexin receptors: a family of hypothalamic neuropeptides and G protein-coupled receptors that regulate feeding behavior. Cell. 1998;92:573-85 pubmed
    ..These peptides, termed orexin-A and -B, have no significant structural similarities to known families of regulatory peptides...
  5. Sakurai T. The neural circuit of orexin (hypocretin): maintaining sleep and wakefulness. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2007;8:171-81 pubmed
    ..The orexin (hypocretin) system regulates sleep and wakefulness through interactions with systems that regulate emotion, ..
  6. Stoyanova I, Lazarov N. Localization of orexin-A-immunoreactive fibers in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus of the rat. Brain Res. 2005;1054:82-7 pubmed
    b>Orexin A is a neuropeptide located exclusively in neurons in the hypothalamic nuclei involved in the central regulation of many brain functions, related to motor activity and state-dependent processes...
  7. Mieda M, Willie J, Hara J, Sinton C, Sakurai T, Yanagisawa M. Orexin peptides prevent cataplexy and improve wakefulness in an orexin neuron-ablated model of narcolepsy in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:4649-54 pubmed
    ..The vast majority of narcoleptic-cataplectic individuals have low or undetectable levels of orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides in the cerebrospinal fluid, likely due to specific loss of the hypothalamic orexin-..
  8. Cui L, Li B, Jin X, Zhao L, Shi J. Progressive changes of orexin system in a rat model of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Bull. 2010;26:381-7 pubmed
    ..Loss of orexin neurons in hypothalamus and the resultant decreased level of orexin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) found in ..
  9. Nevsimalova S, Vankova J, Stepanova I, Seemanova E, Mignot E, Nishino S. Hypocretin deficiency in Prader-Willi syndrome. Eur J Neurol. 2005;12:70-2 pubmed
    ..a role of hypothalamic dysfunction and sleep disturbance might be functionally connected through the hypocretin (orexin) system...
  10. Yang B, Ferguson A. Orexin-A depolarizes nucleus tractus solitarius neurons through effects on nonselective cationic and K+ conductances. J Neurophysiol. 2003;89:2167-75 pubmed
    ..b>Orexin (ORX)-A is a 33-amino-acid peptide implicated in the central regulation of energy metabolism, sleep, and the ..
  11. Arii J, Kanbayashi T, Tanabe Y, Sawaishi Y, Kimura S, Watanabe A, et al. CSF hypocretin-1 (orexin-A) levels in childhood narcolepsy and neurologic disorders. Neurology. 2004;63:2440-2 pubmed
  12. Terrill S, Hyde K, Kay K, Greene H, Maske C, Knierim A, et al. Ventral tegmental area orexin 1 receptors promote palatable food intake and oppose postingestive negative feedback. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016;311:R592-9 pubmed publisher
    Hypothalamic orexin neurons project to numerous brain areas, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which is involved in motivation and food-seeking behavior...
  13. Toth A, Balatoni B, Hajnik T, Detari L. EEG effect of orexin A in freely moving rats. Acta Physiol Hung. 2012;99:332-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Orexin A and orexin B are neuropeptides produced by a group of neurons located in the lateral hypothalamus which send widespread projections virtually to the whole neuraxis...
  14. Jöhren O, Neidert S, Kummer M, Dominiak P. Sexually dimorphic expression of prepro-orexin mRNA in the rat hypothalamus. Peptides. 2002;23:1177-80 pubmed
    The neuropeptides orexin A and B are expressed in the lateral hypothalamic area and are involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis and arousal...
  15. Kirouac G, Parsons M, Li S. Orexin (hypocretin) innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus. Brain Res. 2005;1059:179-88 pubmed
    ..The orexin (hypocretin) peptides are synthesized in hypothalamic neurons that project throughout the CNS...
  16. Perekrest S, Abramova T, Novikova N. [Comparative analysis of orexin-containing neurons reactions in the rat hypothalamus after lipopolysaccharide injection in different doses]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2009;95:1336-45 pubmed
    Nowadays many investigations are focused on the participation of orexin-containing neurons in CNS reactions caused by antigen injection, for instance lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
  17. Guan J, Wang Q, Shioda S. Immunoelectron microscopic examination of orexin-like immunoreactive fibers in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Brain Res. 2003;987:86-92 pubmed
    The ultrastructure and synaptic relationships of orexin A-like immunoreactive neuronal fibers in the dorsal horn of the rat cervical spinal cord were examined at both the light and electron microscopic levels...
  18. de Miguel M, Burrell M. Immunocytochemical detection of orexin A in endocrine cells of the developing mouse gut. J Histochem Cytochem. 2002;50:63-9 pubmed
    ..Recently orexin A and its receptor have also been reported in neurons and endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract...
  19. Yamamoto Y, Ueta Y, Yamashita H, Asayama K, Shirahata A. Expressions of the prepro-orexin and orexin type 2 receptor genes in obese rat. Peptides. 2002;23:1689-96 pubmed
    We examined the expressions of the prepro-orexin gene in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), the genes of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the orexin type 1 receptor (OX1R) gene in the ..
  20. Petrovich G, Hobin M, Reppucci C. Selective Fos induction in hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin, but not melanin-concentrating hormone neurons, by a learned food-cue that stimulates feeding in sated rats. Neuroscience. 2012;224:70-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we examined whether the underlying mechanism involves the hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide regulators orexin/hypocretin (ORX) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)...
  21. Wu W, Wu P, Zhou J, Guan X, ZHANG Z, Yang Y, et al. Orexin-A activates hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase signaling through a Ca²?-dependent mechanism involving voltage-gated L-type calcium channel. Mol Pharmacol. 2013;84:876-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrated that orexin-A elicited significant activation of AMPK in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus by elevating cytosolic ..
  22. Morganstern I, Chang G, Karatayev O, Leibowitz S. Increased orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone expression in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus of rats prone to overconsuming a fat-rich diet. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010;96:413-22 pubmed publisher
    The goal of this study is to examine the expression pattern of orexigenic peptides, orexin (OX) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus (PFLH) in subpopulations of Sprague-Dawley rats differing in ..
  23. Ghaemi Jandabi M, Azizi H, Ahmadi Soleimani S, Semnanian S. Intracoerulear microinjection of orexin-A induces morphine withdrawal-like signs in rats. Brain Res Bull. 2017;130:107-111 pubmed publisher
    b>Orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides play a pivotal role in expression of opioid withdrawal signs. Hypothalamic orexinergic neurons provide dense afferents for the nucleus locus coeruleus (LC)...
  24. Ishibashi M, Takano S, Yanagida H, Takatsuna M, Nakajima K, Oomura Y, et al. Effects of orexins/hypocretins on neuronal activity in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus in rats in vitro. Peptides. 2005;26:471-81 pubmed
    b>Orexin-A (ORX-A) and orexin-B (ORX-B), also called hypocretin-1 and hypocretin-2, respectively, act upon orexin 1 (OX1R) and orexin 2 (OX2R) receptors, and are involved in the regulation of sleep-wakefulness and energy homeostasis...
  25. Yan G, Lin J, Liao J. [Distribution of Orexin-A mRNA expression in different organs and its variation in acute inflammation]. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2005;17:207-10 pubmed
    To explore the distribution of Orexin-A mRNA expression in different organs, and its variation in acute inflammation, and to evaluate the role of Orexin-A in acute inflammatory responses...
  26. Di Sebastiano A, Yong Yow S, Wagner L, Lehman M, Coolen L. Orexin mediates initiation of sexual behavior in sexually naive male rats, but is not critical for sexual performance. Horm Behav. 2010;58:397-404 pubmed publisher
    The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin mediates arousal, sleep, and naturally rewarding behaviors, including food intake...
  27. Drazen D, Coolen L, Strader A, Wortman M, Woods S, Seeley R. Differential effects of adrenalectomy on melanin-concentrating hormone and orexin A. Endocrinology. 2004;145:3404-12 pubmed
    ..for example, is attenuated by ADX, and there is evidence that glucocorticoids influence both MCH and orexin A activity...
  28. Leone A, Spatola G, Cucco D, Tessitore V, Bonaventura G, Uzzo M. Immunohistochemical expression and distribution of orexin, orphanin and leptin in the major salivary glands of some mammals. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2012;50:504-12 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to determine by immunochemistry the expression of leptin, orexin A and orphanin FQ in the major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual) of rat, sheep and cow...
  29. Uschakov A, Grivel J, Cvetkovic Lopes V, Bayer L, Bernheim L, Jones B, et al. Sleep-deprivation regulates ?-2 adrenergic responses of rat hypocretin/orexin neurons. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16672 pubmed publisher
    We recently demonstrated, in rat brain slices, that the usual excitation by noradrenaline (NA) of hypocretin/orexin (hcrt/orx) neurons was changed to an inhibition following sleep deprivation (SD)...
  30. Morgan A, Harrod S, Lacy R, Stanley E, Fadel J. Intravenous prenatal nicotine exposure increases orexin expression in the lateral hypothalamus and orexin innervation of the ventral tegmental area in adult male rats. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013;132:562-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The orexin/hypocretin neuropeptide system, which originates in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), projects to key areas of the ..
  31. Amiot C, Brischoux F, Colard C, La Roche A, Fellmann D, Risold P. Hypocretin/orexin-containing neurons are produced in one sharp peak in the developing ventral diencephalon. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:531-4 pubmed
    ..These observations may be linked to the relative distribution area of both populations. ..
  32. Zheng H, Corkern M, Stoyanova I, Patterson L, Tian R, Berthoud H. Peptides that regulate food intake: appetite-inducing accumbens manipulation activates hypothalamic orexin neurons and inhibits POMC neurons. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;284:R1436-44 pubmed
    ..In the perifornical area, a significantly higher percentage of orexin neurons expressed Fos after muscimol compared with saline injection...
  33. Vittoz N, Schmeichel B, Berridge C. Hypocretin /orexin preferentially activates caudomedial ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:1629-40 pubmed publisher
    The hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) neuropeptide system modulates behavioral state and state-dependent processes via actions on multiple neuromodulatory transmitter systems...
  34. Lee H, Park S, Song W, Waterhouse B. Retrograde study of hypocretin-1 (orexin-A) projections to subdivisions of the dorsal raphe nucleus in the rat. Brain Res. 2005;1059:35-45 pubmed
    ..tracer, WGA-apo-HRP-gold (WG), was injected into each subdivision of the dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus, and subsequent orexin-A immunostaining was performed for the tuberal region of the hypothalamus in order to investigate orexin ..
  35. Geerling J, Mettenleiter T, Loewy A. Orexin neurons project to diverse sympathetic outflow systems. Neuroscience. 2003;122:541-50 pubmed
    The viral transneuronal labeling method was used to demonstrate that orexin-containing neurons of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) are linked via multisynaptic connections to different sympathetic outflow systems...
  36. Harris G, Wimmer M, Randall Thompson J, Aston Jones G. Lateral hypothalamic orexin neurons are critically involved in learning to associate an environment with morphine reward. Behav Brain Res. 2007;183:43-51 pubmed
    ..Results indicated that a unilateral LH orexin lesion together with a microinjection of the orexin A antagonist (SB 334867) into the contralateral VTA prior to each morphine-pairing session was sufficient to block ..
  37. Thorpe A, Kotz C. Orexin A in the nucleus accumbens stimulates feeding and locomotor activity. Brain Res. 2005;1050:156-62 pubmed
    ..shell (AccSh) and the presence of orexin receptors and varicosities within the AccSh, we hypothesized that orexin A may partly regulate feeding behavior and locomotor activity via signaling in this site...
  38. Allard J, Tizabi Y, Shaffery J, Manaye K. Effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation on hypocretin neurons in the hypothalamus of a rat model of depression. Neuropeptides. 2007;41:329-37 pubmed
    Hypocretin (Hcrt, also known as orexin) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide linked to narcolepsy, a disorder diagnosed by the appearance of rapid eye-movement sleep (REMS)-state characteristics during waking...
  39. Gerashchenko D, Blanco Centurion C, Greco M, Shiromani P. Effects of lateral hypothalamic lesion with the neurotoxin hypocretin-2-saporin on sleep in Long-Evans rats. Neuroscience. 2003;116:223-35 pubmed
    ..These results led us to conclude that the extent of hypocretin neuronal loss together with an accompanying loss of cells in the lateral hypothalamus may explain the differences in severity of symptoms seen in human narcolepsy. ..
  40. Heydendael W, Sharma K, Iyer V, Luz S, Piel D, Beck S, et al. Orexins/hypocretins act in the posterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus during repeated stress to regulate facilitation to novel stress. Endocrinology. 2011;152:4738-52 pubmed publisher
    ..innervate the posterior division of the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (pPVT), which expresses both orexin receptor types...
  41. Chen J, Xia C, Wang J, Jiang M, Zhang H, Zhang C, et al. The effect of orexin-A on cardiac dysfunction mediated by NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide anion in ventrolateral medulla. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69840 pubmed publisher
    Hypocretin/orexin-producing neurons, located in the perifornical region of the lateral hypothalamus area (LHA) and projecting to the brain sites of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), involve in the increase of sympathetic activity, ..
  42. Ford G, Al Barazanji K, Wilson S, Jones D, Harbuz M, Jessop D. Orexin expression and function: glucocorticoid manipulation, stress, and feeding studies. Endocrinology. 2005;146:3724-31 pubmed
    We investigated the effects of glucocorticoid manipulation on orexin-A-induced feeding and prepro-orexin mRNA levels in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of the rat brain...
  43. Bengtsson M, Mäkelä K, Herzig K, Flemström G. Short food deprivation inhibits orexin receptor 1 expression and orexin-A induced intracellular calcium signaling in acutely isolated duodenal enterocytes. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;296:G651-8 pubmed publisher
    Close intra-arterial infusion of the appetite regulating peptide orexin-A stimulates bicarbonate secretion from the duodenal mucosa...
  44. Fadel J, Pasumarthi R, Reznikov L. Stimulation of cortical acetylcholine release by orexin A. Neuroscience. 2005;130:541-7 pubmed
    ..We used dual-probe in vivo microdialysis in rats to test the hypothesis that orexin A (OxA) increases cortical acetylcholine (ACh) release. Intrabasalis administration of OxA (0, 0.1, 10...
  45. Izgut Uysal V, Gemici B, Tan R. Effect of orexin-A on phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage in starved rats. Cell Immunol. 2011;271:85-8 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fasting-induced orexin-A (OXA) on inflammation and macrophage phagocytic activity. Fifty six male wistar rats were fasted for 36 h to stimulate OXA synthesis...
  46. Stoyanova I, Rutten W, le Feber J. Orexin a in cortical cultures: expression and effect on synaptogenesis during development. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2012;32:49-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Orexin A (OXA) is an excitatory hypothalamic neurotransmitter and ligand for Orexin Receptor-1 (OR1), isolated from a small group of hypothalamic neurons...
  47. Lin J, Yan G, Xue H, Hao X, Zhang K, Wang L. [Orexin-A in hepatic reperfusion-induced liver injury in rats]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2009;34:1078-85 pubmed
    To explore the change of orexin-A expression in hepatic reperfusion and their association with liver injury, and to find out the role of orexin-A in traumatic stress responses...
  48. Hao H, Luan X, Guo F, Sun X, Gong Y, Xu L. Lateral hypothalamic area orexin-A influence the firing activity of gastric distension-sensitive neurons and gastric motility in rats. Neuropeptides. 2016;57:45-52 pubmed publisher
    The orexins system consists of two G-protein coupled receptors (the orexin-1 and the orexin-2 receptor) and two neuropeptides, orexin-A and orexin-B. Orexin-A is an excitatory neuropeptide that regulates arousal, wakefulness and appetite...
  49. Gompf H, Aston Jones G. Role of orexin input in the diurnal rhythm of locus coeruleus impulse activity. Brain Res. 2008;1224:43-52 pubmed publisher
    ..DMH neurons expressing the peptide neurotransmitter orexin/hypocretin are ideally situated to act as a relay between SCN and LC due to their synaptic inputs from SCN and ..
  50. Alvarez Crespo M, Martínez Sánchez N, Ruiz Pino F, Garcia Lavandeira M, Alvarez C, Tena Sempere M, et al. The orexigenic effect of orexin-A revisited: dependence of an intact growth hormone axis. Endocrinology. 2013;154:3589-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore investigated whether hypothalamic-pituitary axes have a role in the central orexigenic action of orexin A (OX-A) by centrally injecting hypophysectomized, adrenalectomized, gonadectomized (male and female), hypothyroid, ..
  51. Bengtsson M, Mäkelä K, Sjöblom M, Uotila S, Akerman K, Herzig K, et al. Food-induced expression of orexin receptors in rat duodenal mucosa regulates the bicarbonate secretory response to orexin-A. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;293:G501-9 pubmed
    Presence of appetite-regulating peptides orexin-A and orexin-B in mucosal endocrine cells suggests a role in physiological control of the intestine...
  52. Chen W, Kao C, Chen P, Lin S, Huang M. Orexin-A level elevation in recently abstinent male methamphetamine abusers. Psychiatry Res. 2016;239:9-11 pubmed publisher
    Research has suggested that methamphetamine (METH) use influences orexin regulation. We examined the difference in orexin-A levels between METH abusers and healthy controls...
  53. Shu Q, Zhang J, Ma W, Lei Y, Zhou D. Orexin-A promotes Glu uptake by OX1R/PKC?/ERK1/2/GLT-1 pathway in astrocytes and protects co-cultured astrocytes and neurons against apoptosis in anoxia/hypoglycemic injury in vitro. Mol Cell Biochem. 2017;425:103-112 pubmed publisher
    b>Orexin-A, which is an endogenous neuropeptide, is reported to have a protective role in ischemic stroke...