Gene Symbol: Gys1
Description: glycogen synthase 1
Alias: glycogen [starch] synthase, muscle, glycogen synthase 1, muscle
Species: rat
Products:     Gys1

Top Publications

  1. Pederson B, Chen H, Schroeder J, Shou W, DePaoli Roach A, Roach P. Abnormal cardiac development in the absence of heart glycogen. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7179-87 pubmed
    ..Mice lacking this glucose reserve in muscle, heart, and several other tissues were generated by disruption of the GYS1 gene, which encodes an isoform of glycogen synthase...
  2. Satoh K, Sato K. Glycogen-binding protein components of rat tissues. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980;96:28-33 pubmed
  3. Shimomura H, Sanke T, Ueda K, Hanabusa T, Sakagashira S, Nanjo K. A missense mutation of the muscle glycogen synthase gene (M416V) is associated with insulin resistance in the Japanese population. Diabetologia. 1997;40:947-52 pubmed
    Muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1) is a key enzyme of non-oxidative pathway of glucose metabolism that has been reported to be related to insulin resistance in non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) patients...
  4. Jaspers S, Rulfs J, Johnson G, Mole J, Miller T. Amino-terminal sequence analysis of rat heart and muscle glycogen synthase: homology to the rabbit enzyme and the implications for hormonal control. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1989;268:630-6 pubmed
    ..These variations may provide a partial explanation for previously observed differences in rat and rabbit phosphopeptide maps. ..
  5. Grekinis D, Reimann E, Schlender K. Phosphorylation and inactivation of rat heart glycogen synthase by cAMP-dependent and cAMP-independent protein kinases. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1995;27:565-73 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the well known differences in heart and glycogen metabolism may be due to the interplay of kinases and phosphatases which could lead to different phosphorylation and activity states of glycogen synthase...
  6. Tagliabracci V, Heiss C, Karthik C, Contreras C, Glushka J, Ishihara M, et al. Phosphate incorporation during glycogen synthesis and Lafora disease. Cell Metab. 2011;13:274-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the phosphate in glycogen is present as C2 and C3 phosphomonoesters. Since hyperphosphorylation of glycogen causes Lafora disease, phosphate removal by laforin may thus be considered a repair or damage control mechanism. ..
  7. Lai Y, Stuenaes J, Kuo C, Jensen J. Glycogen content and contraction regulate glycogen synthase phosphorylation and affinity for UDP-glucose in rat skeletal muscles. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293:E1622-9 pubmed
    ..Contraction increases GS affinity for UDP-glucose independently of glycogen content and creates a unique phosphorylation pattern. ..
  8. Fredriksson J, Anevski D, Almgren P, Sjögren M, Lyssenko V, Carlson J, et al. Variation in GYS1 interacts with exercise and gender to predict cardiovascular mortality. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e285 pubmed
    The muscle glycogen synthase gene (GYS1) has been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), the metabolic syndrome (MetS), male myocardial infarction and a defective increase in muscle glycogen synthase protein in response to exercise...
  9. Jensen J, Aslesen R, Jebens E, Skrondal A. Adrenaline-mediated glycogen phosphorylase activation is enhanced in rat soleus muscle with increased glycogen content. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1472:215-21 pubmed
    ..Glycogen phosphorylase activation during adrenaline stimulation was much higher in epitrochlearis than in soleus muscles with a similar content of glycogen. ..

More Information


  1. Cid E, Geremia R, Guinovart J, Ferrer J. Glycogen synthase: towards a minimum catalytic unit?. FEBS Lett. 2002;528:5-11 pubmed
    ..Therefore, they are the link between GS and G(S)S and harbor the minimal sequence and structural features that constitute the minimum catalytic unit of the alpha-1,4-glucan synthase superfamily. ..
  2. Dietz M, Chiasson J, Soderling T, Exton J. Epinephrine regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism. Studies utilizing the perfused rat hindlimb preparation. J Biol Chem. 1980;255:2301-7 pubmed
    ..These data provide a basis for speculation about in vivo regulation of the enzyme. ..
  3. Lai Y, Lin F, Jensen J. Glycogen content regulates insulin- but not contraction-mediated glycogen synthase activation in the rat slow-twitch soleus muscles. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2009;197:139-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Glycogen content regulates insulin- but not contraction-stimulated GS activation and glycogen synthesis in soleus muscles. Furthermore, phosphorylation of GS Ser(641) and Ser(645,649,653,657) seems to regulate GS activity in soleus. ..
  4. Cameron J, Levandovskiy V, Mackay N, Utgikar R, Ackerley C, Chiasson D, et al. Identification of a novel mutation in GYS1 (muscle-specific glycogen synthase) resulting in sudden cardiac death, that is diagnosable from skin fibroblasts. Mol Genet Metab. 2009;98:378-82 pubmed publisher
    ..A homozygous two base pair deletion was identified in exon 2 of GYS1, and the parents and sibling were confirmed as heterozygous carriers of the deletion...
  5. Wilson W, Skurat A, Probst B, de Paoli Roach A, Roach P, Rutter J. Control of mammalian glycogen synthase by PAS kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:16596-601 pubmed
    ..This mode of regulation provides a mechanism for metabolic status to impinge directly on the cellular decision of whether to store or use available energy. ..
  6. Cheng A, Zhang M, Gentry M, Worby C, Dixon J, Saltiel A. A role for AGL ubiquitination in the glycogen storage disorders of Lafora and Cori's disease. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2399-409 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that binding to glycogen crucially regulates the stability of AGL and, further, that its ubiquitination may play an important role in the pathophysiology of both Lafora and Cori's disease. ..
  7. Lai Y, Stuenaes J, Kuo C, Jensen J. Insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis and glycogen synthase activation after electrical stimulation of epitrochlearis muscles with different initial glycogen contents. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2010;116:116-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, after contraction insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis was increased by rather similar magnitude at all glycogen contents in concert with increased glycogen synthase activation. ..
  8. Schmitz Peiffer C, Browne C, Biden T. Characterization of two forms of protein kinase C alpha, with different substrate specificities, from skeletal muscle. Biochem J. 1996;320 ( Pt 1):207-14 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that a modification of PKC alpha in situ limits its substrate specificity, and indicate an additional level of control of the kinase that may be a site for modulation of PKC-mediated signal transduction. ..
  9. Lomako J, Lomako W, Whelan W, Dombro R, Neary J, Norenberg M. Glycogen synthesis in the astrocyte: from glycogenin to proglycogen to glycogen. FASEB J. 1993;7:1386-93 pubmed
    ..6) The discovery of additional potential control points in glycogen synthesis, now emerging, may assist the identification of so-far-unexplained aberrations of glycogen metabolism. ..