Gene Symbol: Gsk3b
Description: glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta
Alias: glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, GSK-3 beta, factor A, serine/threonine-protein kinase GSK3B
Species: rat
Products:     Gsk3b

Top Publications

  1. Liu Y, Tanabe K, Baronnier D, Patel S, Woodgett J, Cras Méneur C, et al. Conditional ablation of Gsk-3? in islet beta cells results in expanded mass and resistance to fat feeding-induced diabetes in mice. Diabetologia. 2010;53:2600-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice with beta cell deficiency of GSK-3? (?-Gsk-3? [also known as Gsk3b](-/-)) were generated by breeding Gsk-3? (flox/flox) mice with mice overexpressing the Cre recombinase gene under ..
  2. Mishra R, Barthwal M, Sondarva G, Rana B, Wong L, Chatterjee M, et al. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta induces neuronal cell death via direct phosphorylation of mixed lineage kinase 3. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:30393-405 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of GSK-3 is thus a potential therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases caused by trophic factor deprivation. ..
  3. Buss H, Dörrie A, Schmitz M, Frank R, Livingstone M, Resch K, et al. Phosphorylation of serine 468 by GSK-3beta negatively regulates basal p65 NF-kappaB activity. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:49571-4 pubmed
    ..Collectively our results suggest that a GSK-3beta-PP1-dependent mechanism regulates phosphorylation of p65 NF-kappaB at Ser(468) in unstimulated cells and thereby controls the basal activity of NF-kappaB. ..
  4. Neary J, Kang Y. P2 purinergic receptors signal to glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in astrocytes. J Neurosci Res. 2006;84:515-24 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that purinergic signaling contributes to the regulation of GSK3beta functions, one of which may be the response of astrocytes to CNS injury on release of ATP. ..
  5. Forde J, Dale T. Glycogen synthase kinase 3: a key regulator of cellular fate. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007;64:1930-44 pubmed
    ..The details of these mechanisms will be discussed in the context of specific signalling pathways. ..
  6. Maurer M, Brömme J, Feldmann R, Järve A, Sabouri F, Bürgers H, et al. Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) regulates differentiation and proliferation in neural stem cells from the rat subventricular zone. J Proteome Res. 2007;6:1198-208 pubmed
  7. Green H, Nolan Y. GSK-3 mediates the release of IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-10 from cortical glia. Neurochem Int. 2012;61:666-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a role for GSK-3 as a modulator of inflammatory cytokine levels in the brain, and contribute to a mechanistic insight into neurological disorders in which neuroinflammation is a characteristic feature. ..
  8. Nishihara M, Miura T, Miki T, Tanno M, Yano T, Naitoh K, et al. Modulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex in GSK-3beta-mediated myocardial protection. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2007;43:564-70 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that reduction in affinity of ANT to cyclophilin D by increased phospho-GSK-3beta binding to ANT may be responsible for suppression of mPTP opening and myocardial protection afforded by IPC+EPO. ..
  9. Gross E, Hsu A, Gross G. Opioid-induced cardioprotection occurs via glycogen synthase kinase beta inhibition during reperfusion in intact rat hearts. Circ Res. 2004;94:960-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, no differences were seen in phosphorylation of GSKalpha (Ser21 or Tyr279) or phosphorylation of GSKbeta (Tyr216). These data indicate that OIC occurs via the phosphorylation of GSKbeta at Ser9 during reperfusion. ..

More Information


  1. Sanchez J, Sniderhan L, Williamson A, Fan S, Chakraborty Sett S, Maggirwar S. Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta-mediated apoptosis of primary cortical astrocytes involves inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:4649-62 pubmed
    ..These findings therefore implicate GSK-3beta as a regulator of NF-kappaB activation in astrocytes and suggest that the pro-apoptotic effects of GSK-3beta may be mediated at least in part through the inhibition of NF-kappaB pathway. ..
  2. Beals C, Sheridan C, Turck C, Gardner P, Crabtree G. Nuclear export of NF-ATc enhanced by glycogen synthase kinase-3. Science. 1997;275:1930-4 pubmed
    ..Because GSK-3 responds to signals initiated by Wnt and other ligands, NF-AT family members could be effectors of these pathways. ..
  3. Hongisto V, Vainio J, Thompson R, Courtney M, Coffey E. The Wnt pool of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta is critical for trophic-deprivation-induced neuronal death. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1515-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These data imply that Wnt-regulated GSK-3beta plays a nonredundant role in trophic-deprivation-induced death of neurons. ..
  4. Etienne Manneville S, Hall A. Cdc42 regulates GSK-3beta and adenomatous polyposis coli to control cell polarity. Nature. 2003;421:753-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Cdc42 regulates cell polarity through the spatial regulation of GSK-3beta and Apc. This role for Apc may contribute to its tumour-suppressor activity. ..
  5. Peineau S, Taghibiglou C, Bradley C, Wong T, Liu L, Lu J, et al. LTP inhibits LTD in the hippocampus via regulation of GSK3beta. Neuron. 2007;53:703-17 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the regulation of GSK3beta activity provides a powerful mechanism to preserve information encoded during LTP from erasure by subsequent LTD, perhaps thereby permitting the initial consolidation of learnt information...
  6. Hart M, de los Santos R, Albert I, Rubinfeld B, Polakis P. Downregulation of beta-catenin by human Axin and its association with the APC tumor suppressor, beta-catenin and GSK3 beta. Curr Biol. 1998;8:573-81 pubmed
    ..This suggests a possible link between Axin, the Wnt-1 signaling components beta-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3 beta), and APC...
  7. Rubinfeld B, Albert I, Porfiri E, Fiol C, Munemitsu S, Polakis P. Binding of GSK3beta to the APC-beta-catenin complex and regulation of complex assembly. Science. 1996;272:1023-6 pubmed
    ..APC was a good substrate for GSK3 beta in vitro, and the phosphorylation sites were mapped to the central region of APC. Binding of beta-catenin to this region was dependent on phosphorylation by GSK3 beta. ..
  8. Vaidya R, Ray R, Johnson L. Akt-mediated GSK-3beta inhibition prevents migration of polyamine-depleted intestinal epithelial cells via Rac1. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63:2871-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results indicate that sustained activation of Akt in response to polyamine depletion inhibits migration through GSK-3beta and Rac1. ..
  9. Cross D, Alessi D, Cohen P, Andjelkovich M, Hemmings B. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by insulin mediated by protein kinase B. Nature. 1995;378:785-9 pubmed
    ..Like the inhibition of GSK3 (refs 10, 14), the activation of PKB is prevented by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase. ..
  10. Lee S, Chung Y, Joo K, Lim H, Jeon G, Kim D, et al. Age-related changes in glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of rats. Neurosci Lett. 2006;409:134-9 pubmed
  11. Chen Y, Chen G, Fan Z, Luo J, Ke Z. GSK3beta and endoplasmic reticulum stress mediate rotenone-induced death of SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;76:128-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results suggest that GSK3beta activation and ER stress contribute separately to rotenone cytotoxicity. ..
  12. Das S, Wong R, Rajapakse N, Murphy E, Steenbergen C. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibition slows mitochondrial adenine nucleotide transport and regulates voltage-dependent anion channel phosphorylation. Circ Res. 2008;103:983-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Both proteomics and adenine nucleotide transport data suggest that GSK regulates VDAC and that VDAC may be an important regulatory site in ischemia/reperfusion injury. ..
  13. Endo H, Nito C, Kamada H, Yu F, Chan P. Akt/GSK3beta survival signaling is involved in acute brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats. Stroke. 2006;37:2140-6 pubmed
    ..LY294002 reduced Akt and GSK3beta phosphorylation and increased brain injury after SAH. The present study suggests that the Akt/GSK3beta pathway might be involved in neuronal survival in acute brain injury after SAH. ..
  14. Purro S, Ciani L, Hoyos Flight M, Stamatakou E, Siomou E, Salinas P. Wnt regulates axon behavior through changes in microtubule growth directionality: a new role for adenomatous polyposis coli. J Neurosci. 2008;28:8644-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistently, short hairpin RNA knockdown of APC mimics Wnt3a function. Together, our findings define APC as a key Wnt signaling target in the regulation of microtubule growth direction. ..
  15. Ohori K, Miura T, Tanno M, Miki T, Sato T, Ishikawa S, et al. Ser9 phosphorylation of mitochondrial GSK-3beta is a primary mechanism of cardiomyocyte protection by erythropoietin against oxidant-induced apoptosis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;295:H2079-86 pubmed publisher
  16. Mussmann R, Geese M, Harder F, Kegel S, Andag U, Lomow A, et al. Inhibition of GSK3 promotes replication and survival of pancreatic beta cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:12030-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that GSK3 is a regulator of beta cell replication and survival. Moreover, our results suggest that specific inhibitors of GSK3 may have practical applications in beta cell regenerative therapies. ..
  17. Zhao S, Fu J, Liu X, Wang T, Zhang J, Zhao Y. Activation of Akt/GSK-3beta/beta-catenin signaling pathway is involved in survival of neurons after traumatic brain injury in rats. Neurol Res. 2012;34:400-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, neuroprotection of beta-catenin against ischemia was partly mediated by enhanced and persistent activation of the Akt/GSK3beta signaling pathway. ..
  18. Lee J, Lee E, Kang J, Chong Y. Concomitant degradation of beta-catenin and GSK-3 beta potently contributes to glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in rat hippocampal slice cultures. J Neurochem. 2008;106:1066-77 pubmed publisher
  19. Tong N, Sanchez J, Maggirwar S, Ramirez S, Guo H, Dewhurst S, et al. Activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3beta) by platelet activating factor mediates migration and cell death in cerebellar granule neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;13:1913-22 pubmed
    ..induces neuronal apoptosis in cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) in part by activating glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3beta)...
  20. Jiang H, Guo W, Liang X, Rao Y. Both the establishment and the maintenance of neuronal polarity require active mechanisms: critical roles of GSK-3beta and its upstream regulators. Cell. 2005;120:123-35 pubmed
  21. Hoeflich K, Luo J, Rubie E, Tsao M, Jin O, Woodgett J. Requirement for glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in cell survival and NF-kappaB activation. Nature. 2000;406:86-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, GSK-3beta facilitates NF-kappaB function. ..
  22. Bhat R, Budd S. GSK3beta signalling: casting a wide net in Alzheimer's disease. Neurosignals. 2002;11:251-61 pubmed
    ..The present review focuses on recent developments in the understanding of GSK3beta with an emphasis on events likely to be critical to the pathophysiology of AD. ..
  23. Zhu L, Liu D, Hu J, Cheng J, Wang S, Wang Q, et al. GSK-3 beta inhibits presynaptic vesicle exocytosis by phosphorylating P/Q-type calcium channel and interrupting SNARE complex formation. J Neurosci. 2010;30:3624-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that GSK-3beta negatively regulates synaptic vesicle fusion events via interfering with Ca(2+)-dependent SNARE complex formation. ..
  24. Woodgett J. Molecular cloning and expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3/factor A. EMBO J. 1990;9:2431-8 pubmed
    ..Partial purification of GSK-3 activity from bovine brain results in the isolation of active alpha and beta proteins. The physiological importance of these two proteins in cellular signal transduction is discussed. ..
  25. Nishihara M, Miura T, Miki T, Sakamoto J, Tanno M, Kobayashi H, et al. Erythropoietin affords additional cardioprotection to preconditioned hearts by enhanced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;291:H748-55 pubmed
    ..0 +/- 2.0% by 1.2 mg/kg SB). These results suggest that EPO and PC afford additive infarct size-limiting effects by additive phosphorylation of GSK-3beta at the time of reperfusion by Akt-dependent and -independent mechanisms. ..
  26. Terashima Y, Sato T, Yano T, Maas O, Itoh T, Miki T, et al. Roles of phospho-GSK-3? in myocardial protection afforded by activation of the mitochondrial K ATP channel. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;49:762-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of CypD-ANT interaction may contribute to mK(ATP)-induced myocardial protection, though it is not the sole mechanism of phospho-GSK-3?-mediated cytoprotection...
  27. Popkie A, Zeidner L, Albrecht A, D Ippolito A, Eckardt S, Newsom D, et al. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling via glycogen synthase kinase-3 (Gsk-3) regulates DNA methylation of imprinted loci. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:41337-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we find that N-Myc is a potent Gsk-3-dependent regulator of Dnmt3a2 expression. In summary, we have identified a signal transduction pathway that is capable of altering the DNA methylation of imprinted loci. ..
  28. Jia L, Li X, Gu Y, Cui W. Early Activation of PINCH/ Glycogen-Synthase Kinase 3?/ERK Pathway in Obstructive Nephropathy Rat Model. Am J Nephrol. 2016;44:396-403 pubmed
    ..However, ERK1/2 proteins showed no statistically significant difference between UUO and sham groups. PINCH/GSK3?/ERK pathway was early molecular responses to obstructed kidney induced by UUO in rat. ..
  29. Chin P, Majdzadeh N, D Mello S. Inhibition of GSK3beta is a common event in neuroprotection by different survival factors. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;137:193-201 pubmed
    ..SB-415286 on the other hand, was able to rescue CGNs from cell death. Taken together, we conclude that regulation of GSK3beta is a critical convergence event in the promotion of CGN survival by different factors. ..
  30. Martin L, Magnaudeix A, Esclaire F, Yardin C, Terro F. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta downregulates total tau proteins in cultured neurons and its reversal by the blockade of protein phosphatase-2A. Brain Res. 2009;1252:66-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that GSK3beta regulates both tau phosphorylation and total tau levels through PP2A. ..
  31. Hong Y, Shao A, Wang J, Chen S, Wu H, McBride D, et al. Neuroprotective effect of hydrogen-rich saline against neurologic damage and apoptosis in early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage: possible role of the Akt/GSK3? signaling pathway. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e96212 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibitor of PI3K, Ly294002, suppressed the beneficial effects of HS. HS could attenuate neuronal apoptosis in EBI and improve the neurofunctional outcome after SAH, partially via the Akt/GSK3? pathway. ..
  32. Hu J, Huang H, Wang X, Xie A, Wang X, Liu D, et al. Activation of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Mediates the Olfactory Deficit-Induced Hippocampal Impairments. Mol Neurobiol. 2015;52:1601-1617 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that GSK-3 activation mediates the olfactory deficits to the hippocampus, and targeting GSK-3 blocks the pathological connection. ..
  33. Dufourcq P, Leroux L, Ezan J, Descamps B, Lamazière J, Costet P, et al. Regulation of endothelial cell cytoskeletal reorganization by a secreted frizzled-related protein-1 and frizzled 4- and frizzled 7-dependent pathway: role in neovessel formation. Am J Pathol. 2008;172:37-49 pubmed
    ..This study illustrates a regulated pathway by sFRP-1 involving GSK-3beta and Rac-1 in endothelial cell cytoskeletal reorganization and in neovessel formation. ..
  34. Javadov S, Rajapurohitam V, Kilic A, Zeidan A, Choi A, Karmazyn M. Anti-hypertrophic effect of NHE-1 inhibition involves GSK-3beta-dependent attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;46:998-1007 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, anti-hypertrophic effect of NHE-1 inhibition can be mediated through activation of GSK-3beta which in turn induces inhibition of mPTP opening due to VDAC phosphorylation. ..
  35. Wakatsuki S, Saitoh F, Araki T. ZNRF1 promotes Wallerian degeneration by degrading AKT to induce GSK3B-dependent CRMP2 phosphorylation. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:1415-23 pubmed publisher
    ..AKT phosphorylates glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3B), and thereby inactivates it in axons. AKT overexpression significantly delays axonal degeneration...
  36. He H, Chang X, Gao J, Zhu L, Miao M, Yan T. Salidroside Mitigates Sepsis-Induced Myocarditis in Rats by Regulating IGF-1/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β Signaling. Inflammation. 2015;38:2178-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Sal is assumed to exert pronounced cardioprotective effects in rats subjected to LPS, probably through regulation of IGF-1/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling. ..
  37. Li Z, Song Y, Liu L, Hou N, An X, Zhan D, et al. miR-199a impairs autophagy and induces cardiac hypertrophy through mTOR activation. Cell Death Differ. 2017;24:1205-1213 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a novel role of miR-199a as a key regulator of cardiac autophagy, suggesting that targeting miRNAs controlling autophagy as a potential therapeutic strategy for cardiac disease. ..
  38. Ren C, Li J, Lin X. LIPUS enhance elongation of neurites in rat cortical neurons through inhibition of GSK-3beta. Biomed Environ Sci. 2010;23:244-9 pubmed publisher
    ..LIPUS can enhance elongation of neurites and it is possible through the decreased expression of GSK-3beta. ..
  39. Vasileva A, Plotnikov E, Kazachenko A, Kirpatovsky V, Zorov D. Inhibition of GSK-3? decreases the ischemia-induced death of renal cells. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2010;149:303-7 pubmed
    ..This enzyme is inactivated upon phosphorylation of serine residue in position 9. We found that in vivo administration of lithium ions to animals before renal ischemia prevents the development of kidney failure. ..
  40. Wang Z, Havasi A, Gall J, Bonegio R, Li Z, Mao H, et al. GSK3beta promotes apoptosis after renal ischemic injury. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:284-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, GSK3beta-mediated Bax activation induces apoptosis and tubular damage that contribute to acute ischemic kidney injury. ..
  41. Barton Pai A, Feleder C, Johnson A. Tumor necrosis factor-? induces increased lung vascular permeability: a role for GSK3?/?. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;657:159-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicates that pharmacologic inhibition of GSK3? inhibits TNF induced increased endothelial permeability associated with lung inflammation. ..
  42. Green H, Nolan Y. Unlocking mechanisms in interleukin-1?-induced changes in hippocampal neurogenesis--a role for GSK-3? and TLX. Transl Psychiatry. 2012;2:e194 pubmed publisher
    ..Strategies to reduce GSK-3? activity or to increase TLX expression may facilitate the restoration of hippocampal neurogenesis in neuroinflammatory conditions where neurogenesis is impaired. ..
  43. Sharma S, Findlay G, Bandukwala H, Oberdoerffer S, Baust B, Li Z, et al. Dephosphorylation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factor is regulated by an RNA-protein scaffold complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:11381-6 pubmed publisher
  44. Pap M, Cooper G. Role of translation initiation factor 2B in control of cell survival by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase 3beta signaling pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:578-86 pubmed
    ..Regulation of translation resulting from phosphorylation of eIF2B by GSK-3beta thus appears to contribute to the control of cell survival by the PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway, acting upstream of mitochondrial cytochrome c release. ..
  45. Zhao X, Jin W, Wu J, Mi S, Ju G. Inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and up-regulation of LINGO-1 are involved in LINGO-1 antagonist regulated survival of cerebellar granular neurons. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2008;28:727-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest a new mechanism of LINGO-1 antagonist regulated neuronal survival involving protein synthesis of LINGO-1 and inactivation of GSK-3 pathway. ..
  46. Hardt S, Tomita H, Katus H, Sadoshima J. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2Bepsilon by glycogen synthase kinase-3beta regulates beta-adrenergic cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. Circ Res. 2004;94:926-35 pubmed
  47. Hinrichsen R, Haunsø S, Busk P. Different regulation of p27 and Akt during cardiomyocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. Growth Factors. 2007;25:132-40 pubmed
    ..The difference between the two responses appears to be that high amounts of p27 are present during hypertrophic growth, whereas proliferation involves downregulation of p27 and GSK-3beta activity and upregulation of Akt. ..
  48. Wang S, Li Z, Shen H, Zhang Z, Yin Y, Wang Q, et al. Quantitative Phosphoproteomic Study Reveals that Protein Kinase A Regulates Neural Stem Cell Differentiation Through Phosphorylation of Catenin Beta-1 and Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3?. Stem Cells. 2016;34:2090-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provides a valuable resource for studying the self-renewal and differentiation of NSCs. Stem Cells 2016;34:2090-2101. ..
  49. Yang S, Chen Z, Cao M, Li R, Wang Z, Zhang M. Pioglitazone ameliorates Aβ42 deposition in rats with diet-induced insulin resistance associated with AKT/GSK3β activation. Mol Med Rep. 2017;15:2588-2594 pubmed publisher
  50. Liu X, Ou S, Yin M, Xu T, Wang T, Liu Y, et al. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors mediate epilepsy-induced axonal impairment and tau phosphorylation via activating glycogen synthase kinase-3? and cyclin-dependent kinase 5. Discov Med. 2017;23:221-234 pubmed
    ..Meanwhile inhibiting Cdk5 lowered the tau phosphorylation level by reducing phosphorylated tau without affecting total tau, indicating a possible role of GSK-3? in NMDAR-mediated tau phosphorylation in epilepsy. ..
  51. Ha S, Ryu H, Chung K, Baek S, Kim E, Yu S. Regulation of autophagic cell death by glycogen synthase kinase-3β in adult hippocampal neural stem cells following insulin withdrawal. Mol Brain. 2015;8:30 pubmed publisher
  52. Chen S, Sun K, Liu B, Zong Z, Zhao Y. The role of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) in endometrial carcinoma: A carcinogenesis, progression, prognosis, and target therapy marker. Oncotarget. 2016;7:27538-51 pubmed publisher
    ..GSK-3β inhibitor AZD1080 may be an effective drug for treating endometrial carcinoma. ..
  53. Cuesto G, Jordán Álvarez S, Enriquez Barreto L, Ferrús A, Morales M, Acebes Ã. GSK3β inhibition promotes synaptogenesis in Drosophila and mammalian neurons. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0118475 pubmed publisher
  54. Semache M, Zarrouki B, Fontes G, Fogarty S, Kikani C, Chawki M, et al. Per-Arnt-Sim kinase regulates pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 protein stability via phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3? in pancreatic ?-cells. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:24825-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that PASK phosphorylates and inactivates GSK3?, thereby preventing PDX-1 serine phosphorylation and alleviating GSK3?-mediated PDX-1 protein degradation in pancreatic ?-cells. ..
  55. Yamamoto H, Komekado H, Kikuchi A. Caveolin is necessary for Wnt-3a-dependent internalization of LRP6 and accumulation of beta-catenin. Dev Cell. 2006;11:213-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, caveolin plays critical roles in inducing the internalization of LRP6 and activating the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. We also discuss the idea that distinct endocytic pathways correlate with the specificity of Wnt signaling events. ..
  56. Miclea R, Siebelt M, Finos L, Goeman J, Lowik C, Oostdijk W, et al. Inhibition of Gsk3? in cartilage induces osteoarthritic features through activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2011;19:1363-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Short term ?-catenin up-regulation in cartilage secondary to Gsk3? inhibition may be sufficient to induce osteoarthritis-like features in vivo. ..
  57. Figeac F, Uzan B, Faro M, Chelali N, Portha B, Movassat J. Neonatal growth and regeneration of beta-cells are regulated by the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in normal and diabetic rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E245-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings might have potential clinical applications in the regenerative therapy of diabetes. ..
  58. Zhao J, Feng Y, Yan H, Chen Y, Wang J, CHUA B, et al. ?-arrestin2/miR-155/GSK3? regulates transition of 5'-azacytizine-induced Sca-1-positive cells to cardiomyocytes. J Cell Mol Med. 2014;18:1562-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The ?-arrestin2/miR-155/GSK3? pathway may be a new mechanism with implications for treatment of heart disease. ..
  59. Cho J, Johnson G. Primed phosphorylation of tau at Thr231 by glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) plays a critical role in regulating tau's ability to bind and stabilize microtubules. J Neurochem. 2004;88:349-58 pubmed
    ..These results strongly indicate that phosphorylation of Thr231 in tau by GSK3beta plays a critical role in regulating tau's ability to bind and stabilize microtubules. ..
  60. Kurabayashi N, Hirota T, Sakai M, Sanada K, Fukada Y. DYRK1A and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, a dual-kinase mechanism directing proteasomal degradation of CRY2 for circadian timekeeping. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1757-68 pubmed publisher
    ..DYRK1A is a novel clock component cooperating with GSK-3beta and governs the Ser557 phosphorylation-triggered degradation of CRY2. ..
  61. Gong L, Zhang Q, Zhang N, Hua W, Huang Y, Di P, et al. Neuroprotection by urate on 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease: linking to Akt/GSK3? signaling pathway. J Neurochem. 2012;123:876-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the phosphorylation of both protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3?) in the lesioned striata of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats was dramatically reduced as compared with ..
  62. Hashimoto Y, Satoh T, Okamoto M, Takemori H. Importance of autophosphorylation at Ser186 in the A-loop of salt inducible kinase 1 for its sustained kinase activity. J Cell Biochem. 2008;104:1724-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This may also be the case for the other isoform SIK2, but not for SIK3. ..
  63. Schattenberg J, Wang Y, Singh R, Rigoli R, Czaja M. Hepatocyte CYP2E1 overexpression and steatohepatitis lead to impaired hepatic insulin signaling. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9887-94 pubmed
  64. Song J, Salek Ardakani S, Rogers P, Cheng M, Van Parijs L, Croft M. The costimulation-regulated duration of PKB activation controls T cell longevity. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:150-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, sustained and periodic PKB signaling has an integral role in regulating T cell longevity. ..
  65. Liu Y, Yan Y, Inagaki Y, Logan S, Bosnjak Z, Bai X. Insufficient Astrocyte-Derived Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Contributes to Propofol-Induced Neuron Death Through Akt/Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3?/Mitochondrial Fission Pathway. Anesth Analg. 2017;125:241-254 pubmed publisher
  66. Zhang Y, Xu Y, Liu Y, Yin J, Li H, Wang Q, et al. Peroxynitrite induces Alzheimer-like tau modifications and accumulation in rat brain and its underlying mechanisms. FASEB J. 2006;20:1431-42 pubmed
    ..Our findings reveal a common upstream stimulator and a potential therapeutic target for Alzheimer-like neurodegeneration. ..
  67. Kim S, Yang S, Kim H, Shin C, Ko K. Inhibition of GSK-3beta mediates expression of MMP-9 through ERK1/2 activation and translocation of NF-kappaB in rat primary astrocyte. Brain Res. 2007;1186:12-20 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that GSK-3beta inhibition mediates ERK1/2 activation followed by NF-kappaB activation, which directly regulates the induction of MMP-9 in rat primary astrocytes. ..
  68. Su H, Yuan Q, Qin D, Yang X, Wong W, So K, et al. Lithium enhances axonal regeneration in peripheral nerve by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3? activation. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:658753 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that GSK-3? activity is involved in negative regulation for axonal elongation and regeneration and lithium, the specific GSK-3? inhibitor, enhances motoneuron regeneration from CNS to PNS. ..
  69. Zaoui K, Benseddik K, Daou P, Salaün D, Badache A. ErbB2 receptor controls microtubule capture by recruiting ACF7 to the plasma membrane of migrating cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18517-22 pubmed publisher
    ..By defining the signaling pathway by which ErbB2 allows MT capture and stabilization at the cell leading edge, we provide insights into the mechanism underlying cell motility and steering. ..
  70. Cortés J, Montalvo E, Muñiz J, Mornet D, Garrido E, Centeno F, et al. Dp71f modulates GSK3-beta recruitment to the beta1-integrin adhesion complex. Neurochem Res. 2009;34:438-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the present work establishes that adhesion of PC12 cells to laminin does not influence the phosphorylation status of Dp71f. ..
  71. Antos C, McKinsey T, Frey N, Kutschke W, McAnally J, Shelton J, et al. Activated glycogen synthase-3 beta suppresses cardiac hypertrophy in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:907-12 pubmed
  72. Yamamoto D, Hutchinson D, Bengtsson T. Beta(2)-Adrenergic activation increases glycogen synthesis in L6 skeletal muscle cells through a signalling pathway independent of cyclic AMP. Diabetologia. 2007;50:158-67 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that in L6 skeletal muscle cells adrenergic stimulation through beta(2)-adrenoceptors, but not involving cyclic AMP or G(i), activates a PI3K pathway that stimulates glycogen synthesis through GSK3. ..
  73. Huang S, Zhu M, Wu W, Rashid A, Liang Y, Hou L, et al. Valproate pretreatment protects pancreatic ?-cells from palmitate-induced ER stress and apoptosis by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3?. J Biomed Sci. 2014;21:38 pubmed publisher
    ..Valproate may protect ?-cells from palmitate-induced apoptosis and ER stress via GSK-3? inhibition, independent of ATF4/CHOP pathway. Besides, GSK-3?, rather than CHOP, may be a more promising therapeutic target for T2D. ..
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    ..SCFFWD1 may be critical for tumor development and suppression through regulation of beta-catenin protein stability. ..
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