Gene Symbol: Grm4
Description: glutamate metabotropic receptor 4
Alias: metabotropic glutamate receptor 4, glutamate receptor, metabotropic 4, mGluR4
Species: rat
Products:     Grm4

Top Publications

  1. Cosgrove K, Meriney S, Barrionuevo G. High affinity group III mGluRs regulate mossy fiber input to CA3 interneurons. Hippocampus. 2011;21:1302-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that the timing and probability of action potentials in L-Mi evoked by MF synaptic input is regulated by the activation of presynaptic high affinity group III mGluRs. ..
  2. Marino M, Hess J, Liverton N. Targeting the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR4 for the treatment of diseases of the central nervous system. Curr Top Med Chem. 2005;5:885-95 pubmed
    ..Recently, selective agonist or allosteric potentiators of mGluR4, one of the group III mGluRs, have been proposed as potential novel therapeutics for the palliative treatment of ..
  3. Abitbol K, McLean H, Bessiron T, Daniel H. A new signalling pathway for parallel fibre presynaptic type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR4) in the rat cerebellar cortex. J Physiol. 2012;590:2977-94 pubmed publisher
    In the rodent cerebellum, pharmacological activation of mGluR4 acutely depresses excitatory synaptic transmission at parallel fibre–Purkinje cell synapses...
  4. Iacovelli L, Capobianco L, Iula M, Di Giorgi Gerevini V, Picascia A, Blahos J, et al. Regulation of mGlu4 metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling by type-2 G-protein coupled receptor kinase (GRK2). Mol Pharmacol. 2004;65:1103-10 pubmed
    ..We speculate that GRK2 acts as a "switch molecule" by inhibiting the mGlu4 receptor-mediated stimulation of MAPK and therefore directing the signal propagation toward the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. ..
  5. Uehara S, Muroyama A, Echigo N, Morimoto R, Otsuka M, Yatsushiro S, et al. Metabotropic glutamate receptor type 4 is involved in autoinhibitory cascade for glucagon secretion by alpha-cells of islet of Langerhans. Diabetes. 2004;53:998-1006 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR and immunological analyses indicated that mGluR4, a class III mGluR, was expressed and localized with alpha- and F cells, whereas no evidence for expression of ..
  6. Nakajima Y, Mochida S, Okawa K, Nakanishi S. Ca2+-dependent release of Munc18-1 from presynaptic mGluRs in short-term facilitation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18385-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that mGluR4 bound Munc18-1 with an EC(50) for Ca(2+) of 168 nM, close to the resting Ca(2+) concentration, and that the ..
  7. Corti C, Aldegheri L, Somogyi P, Ferraguti F. Distribution and synaptic localisation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) in the rodent CNS. Neuroscience. 2002;110:403-20 pubmed
    ..Here, we assessed the distribution of mGluR4 in the rat and mouse brain using affinity-purified antibodies raised against its entire C-terminal domain...
  8. Zhang Z, Ma W, Wang L, Gong H, Tian Y, Zhang J, et al. Activation of Type 4 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Death of Neural Stem Cells with Inhibition of JNK and p38 MAPK Signaling. Stem Cells Dev. 2015;24:2709-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR4), one of the members of mGluRs, has been shown to protect neurons from acute and chronic excitotoxic insults in ..
  9. Pekhletski R, Gerlai R, Overstreet L, Huang X, Agopyan N, Slater N, et al. Impaired cerebellar synaptic plasticity and motor performance in mice lacking the mGluR4 subtype of metabotropic glutamate receptor. J Neurosci. 1996;16:6364-73 pubmed
    ..understanding of the function of L-AP4 receptors, we have generated and studied knockout (KO) mice lacking the mGluR4 subtype of mGluR that displays high affinity for L-AP4...

More Information


  1. Hirbec H, Perestenko O, Nishimune A, Meyer G, Nakanishi S, Henley J, et al. The PDZ proteins PICK1, GRIP, and syntenin bind multiple glutamate receptor subtypes. Analysis of PDZ binding motifs. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:15221-4 pubmed
    ..These data also suggest that the structural determinants involved in PDZ interactions are more complex than originally envisaged. ..
  2. Dütting E, Schröder Kress N, Sticht H, Enz R. SUMO E3 ligases are expressed in the retina and regulate SUMOylation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 8b. Biochem J. 2011;435:365-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the results of the present study show in vivo SUMOylation of the complete mGluR8b and co-localize proteins of the SUMOylation machinery in the retina. ..
  3. Marino M, Williams D, O Brien J, Valenti O, McDonald T, Clements M, et al. Allosteric modulation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptor 4: a potential approach to Parkinson's disease treatment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:13668-73 pubmed
    ..We previously identified the metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) as a potential drug target and predicted that selective activation of mGluR4 could provide ..
  4. Lidwell K, Dillon J, Sihota A, O CONNOR V, Pilkington B. Determining calmodulin binding to metabotropic glutamate receptors with distinct protein-interaction methods. Biochem Soc Trans. 2004;32:868-70 pubmed
    ..This illustrates that certain Ca(2+)-dependent interactions are not recapitulated in yeast. Moreover, it highlights the necessity for supporting biochemical data to substantiate interactions identified with Y2H methods. ..
  5. Makoff A, Lelchuk R, Oxer M, Harrington K, Emson P. Molecular characterization and localization of human metabotropic glutamate receptor type 4. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1996;37:239-48 pubmed
    ..Five unique human sequences homologous to these rat receptor genes were isolated including mGluR4. A human cerebellum cDNA library was screened using this amplified mGluR4 sequence as a probe and yielded clones ..
  6. Wang H, Jiang W, Yang R, Li Y. Spinal metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 is involved in neuropathic pain. Neuroreport. 2011;22:244-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have shown that spinal administration of metabotropic GluRs (mGluR4)-positive allosteric modulator (VU0155041) dose dependently attenuated hyperalgesia in neuropathic pain model rats,..
  7. Nakajima Y. Ca2+-dependent binding of calcium-binding protein 1 to presynaptic group III metabotropic glutamate receptors and blockage by phosphorylation of the receptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;412:602-5 pubmed publisher
  8. Beqollari D, Kammermeier P. The mGlu(4) receptor allosteric modulator N-phenyl-7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxamide acts as a direct agonist at mGlu(6) receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;589:49-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, PHCCC directly activates the mGlu(6) receptor and does not enhance activity of glutamate. Therefore, PHCCC is a direct mGlu(6) receptor agonist, but lacks allosteric modulatory properties. ..
  9. Tanabe Y, Masu M, Ishii T, Shigemoto R, Nakanishi S. A family of metabotropic glutamate receptors. Neuron. 1992;8:169-79 pubmed
    Three cDNA clones, mGluR2, mGluR3, and mGluR4, were isolated from a rat brain cDNA library by cross-hybridization with the cDNA for a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1)...
  10. Puente N, Hermida D, Azkue J, Bilbao A, Elezgarai I, Diez J, et al. Immunoreactivity for the group III receptor subtype mGluR4a in the visual layers of the rat superior colliculus. Neuroscience. 2005;131:627-33 pubmed
    ..These results reveal that retinal terminals are the major contributors to the mGluR4a immunoreactivity observed in the superior collicular circuitry. ..
  11. Zhou F, Hongmin B, Xiang Z, Enyu L. Changes of mGluR4 and the effects of its specific agonist L-AP4 in a rodent model of diffuse brain injury. J Clin Neurosci. 2003;10:684-8 pubmed
    ..Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 4 (mGluR4) is regarded as one of the neuroprotective receptors in mammalian brains...
  12. Duan Z, Zhang X, Zhu G, Gao Y, Xue X. Activation of mGluR4 promotes proliferation of rat neural progenitor cells while mediating activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2013;59 Suppl:OL1809-17 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the expression of mGluR4 in NPCs and its possible role in the proliferation of rat embryonic NPCs in vitro, the expression of cyclin D1 and ..
  13. Ramos C, Chardonnet S, Marchand C, Decottignies P, Ango F, Daniel H, et al. Native presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) interacts with exocytosis proteins in rat cerebellum. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:20176-86 pubmed publisher
    ..b>mGluR4 belongs to group III and is mainly localized presynaptically...
  14. Kammermeier P. Functional and pharmacological characteristics of metabotropic glutamate receptors 2/4 heterodimers. Mol Pharmacol. 2012;82:438-47 pubmed publisher
    ..evident with the mGluR2-selective agonist (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2',3'-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV) or with the mGluR4 selective agonist L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4); however, full activation was apparent when both ..
  15. Isherwood S, Robbins T, Nicholson J, Dalley J, Pekcec A. Selective and interactive effects of D2 receptor antagonism and positive allosteric mGluR4 modulation on waiting impulsivity. Neuropharmacology. 2017;123:249-260 pubmed publisher
    b>Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) and dopamine D2 receptors are specifically expressed within the indirect pathway neurons of the striato-pallidal-subthalamic pathway...
  16. Tang Z, El Far O, Betz H, Scheschonka A. Pias1 interaction and sumoylation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 8. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:38153-9 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with post-translational sumoylation providing a novel mechanism of group III mGluR regulation. ..
  17. Girardi E, Canitrot J, Antonelli M, Gonzalez N, Coirini H. Differential expression of cerebellar metabotropic glutamate receptors mGLUR2/3 and mGLUR4a after the administration of a convulsant drug and the adenosine analogue cyclopentyladenosine. Neurochem Res. 2007;32:1120-8 pubmed
    ..A protective action and /or an apoptotic effect may not be discarded. CPA repetitive administration although increase seizure latency, cannot prevent seizure activity. ..
  18. Kuramoto E, Fujiyama F, Unzai T, Nakamura K, Hioki H, Furuta T, et al. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4-immunopositive terminals of medium-sized spiny neurons selectively form synapses with cholinergic interneurons in the rat neostriatum. J Comp Neurol. 2007;500:908-22 pubmed
    b>Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) is localized mainly to presynaptic membranes in the brain...
  19. Gillard S, Tzaferis J, Tsui H, Kingston A. Expression of metabotropic glutamate receptors in rat meningeal and brain microvasculature and choroid plexus. J Comp Neurol. 2003;461:317-32 pubmed
  20. El Far O, Airas J, Wischmeyer E, Nehring R, Karschin A, Betz H. Interaction of the C-terminal tail region of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 with the protein kinase C substrate PICK1. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:4215-21 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that PDZ domain-containing proteins might contribute to the presynaptic localization of group III mGluRs. ..
  21. Wu S, Wright R, Rockey P, Burgett S, Arnold J, Rosteck P, et al. Group III human metabotropic glutamate receptors 4, 7 and 8: molecular cloning, functional expression, and comparison of pharmacological properties in RGT cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1998;53:88-97 pubmed
    ..Complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding the human mGluR4, human mGluR7, and human mGluR8 were isolated from human cerebellum, fetal brain or retinal cDNA libraries...
  22. O Hara P, Sheppard P, Thøgersen H, Venezia D, Haldeman B, McGrane V, et al. The ligand-binding domain in metabotropic glutamate receptors is related to bacterial periplasmic binding proteins. Neuron. 1993;11:41-52 pubmed
    ..The metabotropic receptor extracellular domain is a member of a family of structural domains linked to a variety of receptor types, including ionotropic glutamate receptors. ..