Gene Symbol: Grk2
Description: G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2
Alias: Adrbk1, BARK1, GRK-2, beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1, adrenergic receptor kinase, beta 1, adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 1, beta-ARK-1, beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 beta ARK1
Species: rat
Products:     Grk2

Top Publications

  1. Morris G, Nelson C, Everitt D, Brighton P, Standen N, Challiss R, et al. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and arrestin2 regulate arterial smooth muscle P2Y-purinoceptor signalling. Cardiovasc Res. 2011;89:193-203 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GRK2 inhibition, but not GRK3, GRK5, or GRK6, attenuated P2Y-receptor desensitization...
  2. Lee I, Song S, Campbell C, Kumar S, Cook D, Dinudom A. Regulation of the epithelial Na+ channel by the RH domain of G protein-coupled receptor kinase, GRK2, and Galphaq/11. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:19259-69 pubmed publisher
    The G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK2) belongs to a family of protein kinases that phosphorylates agonist-activated G protein-coupled receptors, leading to G protein-receptor uncoupling and termination of G protein signaling...
  3. Koch W, Rockman H, Samama P, Hamilton R, Bond R, Milano C, et al. Cardiac function in mice overexpressing the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase or a beta ARK inhibitor. Science. 1995;268:1350-3 pubmed
    ..Because increased amounts of beta ARK1 and diminished cardiac beta-adrenergic responsiveness characterize heart failure, these animals may provide experimental models to study the role of beta ARK in heart disease. ..
  4. Gros R, Chorazyczewski J, Meek M, Benovic J, Ferguson S, Feldman R. G-Protein-coupled receptor kinase activity in hypertension : increased vascular and lymphocyte G-protein receptor kinase-2 protein expression. Hypertension. 2000;35:38-42 pubmed
    ..These studies support a generalized defect in vascular GRK-2 protein expression in hypertension, which could be an important factor in the impairment of beta-adrenergic-mediated vasodilation, characteristic of the hypertensive state. ..
  5. Arriza J, Dawson T, Simerly R, Martin L, Caron M, Snyder S, et al. The G-protein-coupled receptor kinases beta ARK1 and beta ARK2 are widely distributed at synapses in rat brain. J Neurosci. 1992;12:4045-55 pubmed
    ..The beta ARK isozymes have a regional and subcellular distribution consistent with a general role in the desensitization of synaptic receptors. ..
  6. Morris G, Nelson C, Standen N, Challiss R, Willets J. Endothelin signalling in arterial smooth muscle is tightly regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;85:424-33 pubmed publisher ET(A)R desensitization, MSMCs were co-transfected with eGFP-PH and catalytically inactive (D110A,K220R)GRK2, (D110A,K220R)GRK3, (K215R)GRK5, or (K215R)GRK6 constructs...
  7. Ahmed M, Bychkov E, Gurevich V, Benovic J, Gurevich E. Altered expression and subcellular distribution of GRK subtypes in the dopamine-depleted rat basal ganglia is not normalized by l-DOPA treatment. J Neurochem. 2008;104:1622-36 pubmed
    ..In the globus pallidus, all four GRK isoforms (GRK2, 3, 5, 6) were reduced in the lesioned hemisphere...
  8. Willets J, Nahorski S, Challiss R. Roles of phosphorylation-dependent and -independent mechanisms in the regulation of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 in hippocampal neurons. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:18950-8 pubmed
    ..with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate biosensor eGFP-PH(PLC delta), G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) can suppress M1 muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor-mediated phospholipase C signaling in hippocampal neurons ..
  9. Eijkelkamp N, Heijnen C, Willemen H, Deumens R, Joosten E, Kleibeuker W, et al. GRK2: a novel cell-specific regulator of severity and duration of inflammatory pain. J Neurosci. 2010;30:2138-49 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GRK2 regulates cellular signaling by promoting G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) desensitization and direct interaction ..

More Information


  1. Ferrari L, Bogen O, Alessandri Haber N, Levine E, Gear R, Levine J. Transient decrease in nociceptor GRK2 expression produces long-term enhancement in inflammatory pain. Neuroscience. 2012;222:392-403 pubmed publisher
    In heterozygous mice, attenuation of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) level in nociceptors is associated with enhanced and prolonged inflammatory hyperalgesia...
  2. Spiegelberg B, Hamm H. G betagamma binds histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) and inhibits its transcriptional co-repression activity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:41769-76 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data imply that HDAC5 and possibly other class II HDACs can be added to the growing list of G betagamma effectors. ..
  3. Wang Q, Zhao J, Brady A, Feng J, Allen P, Lefkowitz R, et al. Spinophilin blocks arrestin actions in vitro and in vivo at G protein-coupled receptors. Science. 2004;304:1940-4 pubmed
    ..Through blocking G protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) association with receptor-Gbetagamma complexes, spinophilin reduces arrestin-stabilized receptor phosphorylation, ..
  4. Vinge L, Andressen K, Attramadal T, Andersen G, Ahmed M, Peppel K, et al. Substrate specificities of g protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 and -3 at cardiac myocyte receptors provide basis for distinct roles in regulation of myocardial function. Mol Pharmacol. 2007;72:582-91 pubmed
    The closely related G protein-coupled receptor kinases GRK2 and GRK3 are both expressed in cardiac myocytes...
  5. Zhu W, Tilley D, Myers V, Coleman R, Feldman A. Arginine vasopressin enhances cell survival via a G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2/?-arrestin1/extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2-dependent pathway in H9c2 cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2013;84:227-35 pubmed publisher
    ..HCl, bisindolylmaleimide X, HCl), GRK2 [C-terminal GRK2 peptide overexpression and small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown], GRK5 (siRNA knockdown), and ?-..
  6. Zhang Z, Wu H, Wang R, Li S, Dai L, Wang W. Immune Tolerance Effect in Mesenteric Lymph Node Lymphocytes of Geniposide on Adjuvant Arthritis Rats. Phytother Res. 2017;31:1249-1256 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of ?2-AR, GRK2, and ?-arrestin-1 and ?-arrestin-2 was detected by western blot...
  7. Zhang Q, Hu L, Chen L, Li H, Wu J, Liu W, et al. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, the major green tea catechin, regulates the desensitization of β1 adrenoceptor via GRK2 in experimental heart failure. Inflammopharmacology. 2018;26:1081-1091 pubmed publisher
    ..EGCG) on cardiac function and its mechanism, which focused on the desensitization of β1-AR and GRK2 in heart failure (HF) rats. HF was induced by abdominal aortic coarctation...
  8. Liu H, Liu S, Li Q, Wang H, Wang Y, Mao Ying Q. Downregulation of Spinal G Protein-Coupled Kinase 2 Abolished the Antiallodynic Effect of Electroacupuncture. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:848603 pubmed publisher
    ..The attenuation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in spinal cord and peripheral nociceptor has been widely acknowledged to promote the transition from acute to ..
  9. Montó F, Oliver E, Vicente D, Buendía F, Rueda J, Agüero J, et al. β2- and β1-Adrenoceptor Expression Exhibits a Common Regulatory Pattern With GRK2 and GRK5 in Human and Animal Models of Cardiovascular Diseases. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2015;66:478-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In diseased versus healthy subjects and rats, parallel changes in messenger RNA levels of GRK2 and β(2)-AR or GRK5 and β(1)-AR were observed in each territory...
  10. Woodall M, Woodall B, Gao E, Yuan A, Koch W. Cardiac Fibroblast GRK2 Deletion Enhances Contractility and Remodeling Following Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury. Circ Res. 2016;119:1116-1127 pubmed
    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is an important molecule upregulated after myocardial injury and during heart failure...
  11. Aziziyeh A, Li T, Pape C, Pampillo M, Chidiac P, Possmayer F, et al. Dual regulation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA1) receptor signalling by Ral and GRK. Cell Signal. 2009;21:1207-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we found that GRK2 is required for the desensitization of LPA(1) and LPA(2) and have identified a novel interaction between RalA and ..
  12. Chen X, Zhao S, Xia Y, Xiong Z, Li Y, Tao L, et al. G protein coupled receptor kinase-2 upregulation causes ?-opioid receptor desensitization in diabetic heart. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;482:658-664 pubmed publisher
    ..HG) caused obvious KOR downregulation, accompanied by an upregulation of G protein coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2). We found that HG exposure increased the interaction between GRK2 and KOR...
  13. Jorgensen R, Holliday N, Hansen J, Vrecl M, Heding A, Schwartz T, et al. Characterization of G-protein coupled receptor kinase interaction with the neurokinin-1 receptor using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;73:349-58 pubmed
    ..bioluminescence resonance energy transfer(2) (BRET(2)) measurements between the family A NK-1 receptor and GRK2 and GRK5 as well as their respective kinase-inactive mutants...
  14. Willets J, Nelson C, Nahorski S, Challiss R. The regulation of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization by synaptic activity in cultured hippocampal neurons. J Neurochem. 2007;103:2268-80 pubmed
    ..Taken together these data suggest that the level of synaptic activity may determine the different kinases recruited to regulate M1 mACh receptor desensitization in neurons. ..
  15. Spurney R, Flannery P, Garner S, Athirakul K, Liu S, Guilak F, et al. Anabolic effects of a G protein-coupled receptor kinase inhibitor expressed in osteoblasts. J Clin Invest. 2002;109:1361-71 pubmed
    ..The predominant effect of the transgene, however, was anabolic, as evidenced by an increase in bone density and trabecular bone volume in the transgenic mice compared with nontransgenic littermate controls. ..
  16. Nippert F, Schreckenberg R, Hess A, Weber M, Schluter K. The Effects of Swiprosin-1 on the Formation of Pseudopodia-Like Structures and ?-Adrenoceptor Coupling in Cultured Adult Rat Ventricular Cardiomyocytes. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0167655 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, swiprosin-1 expression correlated with the expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2)...
  17. Schutzer W, Xue H, Reed J, Oyama T, Beard D, Anderson S, et al. Age-related ?-adrenergic receptor-mediated vasorelaxation is changed by altering G protein receptor kinase 2 expression. Vascul Pharmacol. 2011;55:178-88 pubmed publisher
    ..One kinase responsible for desensitization is G protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). We have shown that GRK expression and activity increases with age in Fischer 344 rat aorta...
  18. Xu F, Sun S, Wang X, Ni E, Zhao L, Zhu W. GRK2 Mediates Arginine Vasopressin-Induced Interleukin-6 Production via Nuclear Factor-?B Signaling Neonatal Rat Cardiac Fibroblast. Mol Pharmacol. 2017;92:278-284 pubmed publisher
    ..fibroblasts (NRCFs) throughV1A vasopressin receptor-mediated G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) signaling. In the present study, we investigated the impact of the GRK2-dependent signaling...
  19. Hennenberg M, Trebicka J, Biecker E, Schepke M, Sauerbruch T, Heller J. Vascular dysfunction in human and rat cirrhosis: role of receptor-desensitizing and calcium-sensitizing proteins. Hepatology. 2007;45:495-506 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that in cirrhosis-induced vasodilation, the AT1-R is desensitized by GRK-2 and beta-arrestin-2 and that changed patterns of phosphorylated Ca(2+) sensitizing proteins decrease Ca(2+) sensitivity. ..
  20. Zhang L, Wang X, Cao H, Chen Y, Chen X, Zhao X, et al. Vasopressin V1A receptor mediates cell proliferation through GRK2-EGFR-ERK1/2 pathway in A7r5 cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2016;792:15-25 pubmed publisher response to prolonged stimulation with AVP were abolished by inhibition of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) using specific inhibitors or small hairpin RNA knock-down...
  21. Cipolletta E, Campanile A, Santulli G, Sanzari E, Leosco D, Campiglia P, et al. The G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 plays an essential role in beta-adrenergic receptor-induced insulin resistance. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;84:407-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The cellular levels of G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) increase during chronic betaAR stimulation, leading to betaAR desensitization...
  22. Zhang Y, Luo X, Zhou Y, Wu H, Chen J, Wang Y, et al. 2K1C-activated Angiotensin II (Ang II) exacerbates vascular damage in a rat model of arthritis through the ATR/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Inflamm Res. 2017;66:881-890 pubmed publisher
    ..Expressions of ATR, GRK2, p-ERK1/2, and p-NF-?B were significantly increased in the aorta of AA combined with 2K1C rats...
  23. Williams M, Hata J, Schroder J, Rampersaud E, Petrofski J, Jakoi A, et al. Targeted beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (betaARK1) inhibition by gene transfer in failing human hearts. Circulation. 2004;109:1590-3 pubmed
    ..Thus, betaARK1 inhibition may represent a therapeutic strategy for human HF. ..
  24. Le Sommer C, Barrows N, Bradrick S, Pearson J, Garcia Blanco M. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 promotes flaviviridae entry and replication. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1820 pubmed publisher
    ..The YFV host candidate GRK2 (also known as ADRBK1) was validated both in siRNA-mediated knockdown HuH-7 cells and in GRK(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts...
  25. Lipfert J, Odemis V, Engele J. Grk2 is an essential regulator of CXCR7 signalling in astrocytes. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2013;33:111-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that Grk2 mediates signalling of SDF-1/CXCL12-bound CXCR7 as suggested by the finding that SDF-1/CXCL12-induced activation of ..
  26. Du Q, Han L, Jiang J, Xu Y, Li W, Li P, et al. Glytan decreases portal pressure via mesentery vasoconstriction in portal hypertensive rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20:16674-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Glytan can increase mesenteric ET-1 content and inhibit ETBR, eNOS, GRK2, and β-arrestin 2 expression in the mesentery...
  27. Jafferjee M, Reyes Valero T, Marrero C, McCrink K, Brill A, Lymperopoulos A. GRK2 Up-Regulation Creates a Positive Feedback Loop for Catecholamine Production in Chromaffin Cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2016;30:372-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we looked at the potential signaling mechanisms that bring about this GRK2 elevation in chromaffin cells...
  28. Theccanat T, Philip J, Razzaque A, Ludmer N, Li J, Xu X, et al. Regulation of cellular oxidative stress and apoptosis by G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2; The role of NADPH oxidase 4. Cell Signal. 2016;28:190-203 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that GRK2, a critical regulator of myocardial β-AR signaling, plays an important role in mediating cellular oxidative ..
  29. Hejnova L, Skrabalova J, Novotny J. Prolonged Morphine Treatment Alters Expression and Plasma Membrane Distribution of ?-Adrenergic Receptors and Some Other Components of Their Signaling System in Rat Cerebral Cortex. J Mol Neurosci. 2017;63:364-376 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no change in quantity of G proteins and some other signaling molecules (AC-IV, AC-V/VI, GRK2, GRK5, GRK6, and ?-arrestin) compared with controls...
  30. Jaber M, Koch W, Rockman H, Smith B, Bond R, Sulik K, et al. Essential role of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 in cardiac development and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:12974-9 pubmed
  31. El Armouche A, Eschenhagen T. Beta-adrenergic stimulation and myocardial function in the failing heart. Heart Fail Rev. 2009;14:225-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Which lessons can be drawn from studies in genetically engineered mice, which from (pharmaco) genetic studies? Finally, what are promising targets downstream of beta-adrenergic receptors that go beyond the current neurohumoral blockade? ..
  32. Bychkov E, Zurkovsky L, Garret M, Ahmed M, Gurevich E. Distinct cellular and subcellular distributions of G protein-coupled receptor kinase and arrestin isoforms in the striatum. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48912 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that GRK isoforms GRK2 and GRK5 are similarly expressed in direct and indirect pathway neurons in the rat striatum...
  33. Ogasawara J, Sanpei M, Rahman N, Sakurai T, Kizaki T, Hitomi Y, et al. Beta-adrenergic receptor trafficking by exercise in rat adipocytes: roles of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-2, beta-arrestin-2, and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. FASEB J. 2006;20:350-2 pubmed
    ..However, the decreased protein expression of beta2-AR at 24 h might be due to some change occurring at the translational levels. ..
  34. Park S, Choi D, Kim C. Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy: relation to beta-adrenergic receptor kinase-1 (betaARK1) in peripheral lymphocytes. J Hypertens. 2004;22:1025-32 pubmed
  35. Kuwasako K, Kitamura K, Nagata S, Hikosaka T, Kato J. Function of the cytoplasmic tail of human calcitonin receptor-like receptor in complex with receptor activity-modifying protein 2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;392:380-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the hCRLR C-tail is crucial for AM-evoked cAMP production and internalization of the CRLR/RAMP2, while the receptor internalization is dependent on the aforementioned GPCR kinases, but not Gs coupling. ..
  36. Cobelens P, Kavelaars A, Heijnen C, Ribas C, Mayor F, Penela P. Hydrogen peroxide impairs GRK2 translation via a calpain-dependent and cdk1-mediated pathway. Cell Signal. 2007;19:269-77 pubmed
    ..G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) plays a key role in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling modulation, and its expression levels are ..
  37. Haga T. Molecular properties of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci. 2013;89:226-56 pubmed
    ..This paper summarizes the molecular properties of muscarinic receptors with reference to the historical background and bias to studies performed in our laboratories...
  38. Chen L, Yang Z, Chen W. Parallel increase in secretory activity between N-glycosylated and nonglycosylated α-amylase without protein synthesis after short-term β-adrenergic receptor activation in isolated rat parotid acinar cells. Anal Quant Cytopathol Histpathol. 2014;36:279-84 pubmed
    ..There seems to be a dissociation of α-amylase synthesis from secretion within 30 minutes. ..
  39. Lombardi M, Vroon A, Sodaar P, van Muiswinkel F, Heijnen C, Kavelaars A. Down-regulation of GRK2 after oxygen and glucose deprivation in rat hippocampal slices: role of the PI3-kinase pathway. J Neurochem. 2007;102:731-40 pubmed
    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) modulates G protein-coupled receptor desensitization and signaling. We previously described down-regulation of GRK2 expression in vivo in rat neonatal brain following hypoxia-ischemia...
  40. Lorenz K, Lohse M, Quitterer U. Protein kinase C switches the Raf kinase inhibitor from Raf-1 to GRK-2. Nature. 2003;426:574-9 pubmed
    ..A physiological role for this mechanism is shown in cardiomyocytes in which the downregulation of RKIP restrains beta-adrenergic signalling and contractile activity. ..
  41. Rockman H, Chien K, Choi D, Iaccarino G, Hunter J, Ross J, et al. Expression of a beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 inhibitor prevents the development of myocardial failure in gene-targeted mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:7000-5 pubmed
    ..These findings implicate abnormal betaAR-G protein coupling in the pathogenesis of the failing heart and point the way toward development of agents to inhibit betaARK1 as a novel mode of therapy. ..
  42. Liu S, Premont R, Singh S, Rockey D. Caveolin 1 and G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase-2 Coregulate Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:896-907 pubmed publisher
    ..eNOS activity in sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) via its interaction with G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2) that also post-translationally modifies eNOS...
  43. Rengo G, Leosco D, Zincarelli C, Marchese M, Corbi G, Liccardo D, et al. Adrenal GRK2 lowering is an underlying mechanism for the beneficial sympathetic effects of exercise training in heart failure. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;298:H2032-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently reported that adrenal G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2), an enzyme that regulates the sympathoinhibitory alpha(2)-adrenoceptors (alpha(2)-ARs) present in the CA-producing ..
  44. Nakamura J. Protein kinase C attenuates beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated lipolysis, probably through inhibition of the beta1-adrenergic receptor system. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006;447:1-10 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that conventional and novel PKCs attenuate lipolysis mediated by beta-adrenergic receptors, probably through inhibition of the beta1-adrenergic receptor system. ..
  45. Chen Y, Xu F, Zhang L, Wang X, Wang Y, Woo A, et al. GRK2/β-arrestin mediates arginine vasopressin-induced cardiac fibroblast proliferation. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2017;44:285-293 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of G protein-coupled receptor kinase2 (GRK2) by the inhibitory peptide GRK2-Ct or knock-down of GRK2 suppressed AVP-induced BrdU incorporation and the ..
  46. Horinouchi T, Hoshi A, Harada T, Higa T, Karki S, Terada K, et al. Endothelin-1 suppresses insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake via GPCR kinase 2 in skeletal muscle cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2016;173:1018-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The C-terminus region of GPCR kinase 2 (GRK2-ct), a dominant negative GRK2, was overexpressed in L6 cells using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer...
  47. Lymperopoulos A, Rengo G, Funakoshi H, Eckhart A, Koch W. Adrenal GRK2 upregulation mediates sympathetic overdrive in heart failure. Nat Med. 2007;13:315-23 pubmed the adrenal gland, triggered by increased expression and activity of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2)...
  48. Du Q, Han L, Jiang J, Li P, Wang X, Jia X. Increased endothelin receptor B and G protein coupled kinase-2 in the mesentery of portal hypertensive rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:2065-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, expression of G protein coupled kinase-2 (GRK2) and ?-arrestin 2, which influence endothelin receptor sensitivity, were also studied by Western blot...
  49. Lombardi M, Kavelaars A, Schedlowski M, Bijlsma J, Okihara K, van de Pol M, et al. Decreased expression and activity of G-protein-coupled receptor kinases in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. FASEB J. 1999;13:715-25 pubmed
  50. Brackley A, Sarrami S, Gomez R, Guerrero K, Jeske N. Identification of a signaling cascade that maintains constitutive ?-opioid receptor incompetence in peripheral sensory neurons. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:8762-8772 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently identified a novel role for G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) that renders DOR analgesically incompetent at the plasma membrane...
  51. Lee M, Partridge N. Parathyroid hormone signaling in bone and kidney. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2009;18:298-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies demonstrate the involvement of novel factors as well as additional roles for previously identified downstream factors of PTH. ..
  52. Barreto Ortiz S, Hori D, Nomura Y, Yun X, Jiang H, Yong H, et al. Opsin 3 and 4 mediate light-induced pulmonary vasorelaxation that is potentiated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 inhibition. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2018;314:L93-L106 pubmed publisher
    ..We discovered Opsin 3 (Opn3), Opn4, and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in rat pulmonary arteries (PAs) and in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), where the opsins interact ..