Gene Symbol: Grin1
Description: glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 1
Alias: GluN1, NMDAR1, NR1, glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1, N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1, NMD-R1, NMDA R1 receptor C1 cassette, glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit zeta-1, glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 1, neurotransmitter receptor
Species: rat
Products:     Grin1

Top Publications

  1. Waxman E, Lynch D. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype mediated bidirectional control of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:29322-33 pubmed
    ..Conantokin G, an antagonist of NR1/2A/2B and NR1/2B receptors, inhibits p38 phosphorylation, while NR1/2B-specific antagonists prevent the rapid ..
  2. Riou M, Stroebel D, Edwardson J, Paoletti P. An alternating GluN1-2-1-2 subunit arrangement in mature NMDA receptors. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35134 pubmed publisher homomers, NMDARs are obligatory heteromers composed of homologous but distinct subunits, most usually of the GluN1 and GluN2 types...
  3. Furukawa H, Singh S, Mancusso R, Gouaux E. Subunit arrangement and function in NMDA receptors. Nature. 2005;438:185-92 pubmed
    ..These receptors are heteromeric ion channels that for activation require binding of glycine and glutamate to the NR1 and NR2 subunits, respectively...
  4. Karakas E, Simorowski N, Furukawa H. Subunit arrangement and phenylethanolamine binding in GluN1/GluN2B NMDA receptors. Nature. 2011;475:249-53 pubmed publisher
    ..form heteromeric ion channels and become activated after concurrent binding of glycine and glutamate to the GluN1 and GluN2 subunits, respectively...
  5. Papadakis M, Hawkins L, Stephenson F. Appropriate NR1-NR1 disulfide-linked homodimer formation is requisite for efficient expression of functional, cell surface N-methyl-D-aspartate NR1/NR2 receptors. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:14703-12 pubmed
    A c-Myc epitope-tagged N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1-2a subunit was generated, NR1-2a(c-Myc), where the tag was inserted after amino acid 81...
  6. Bendova Z, Sumova A, Mikkelsen J. Circadian and developmental regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor 1 mRNA splice variants and N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor 3 subunit expression within the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus. Neuroscience. 2009;159:599-609 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the circadian expression of the NMDAR1 subunit in the adult rat SCN and depict its splice variants that may constitute the functional receptor channel in ..
  7. Zhou Q, Caudle R, Price D, Del Valle Pinero A, Verne G. Selective up-regulation of NMDA-NR1 receptor expression in myenteric plexus after TNBS induced colitis in rats. Mol Pain. 2006;2:3 pubmed
    ..We investigated regulation of NMDA-NR1 receptor gene expression in TNBS induced colitis in rats...
  8. Ng D, Pitcher G, Szilard R, Sertié A, Kanisek M, Clapcote S, et al. Neto1 is a novel CUB-domain NMDA receptor-interacting protein required for synaptic plasticity and learning. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e41 pubmed publisher
  9. Iwasato T, Datwani A, Wolf A, Nishiyama H, Taguchi Y, Tonegawa S, et al. Cortex-restricted disruption of NMDAR1 impairs neuronal patterns in the barrel cortex. Nature. 2000;406:726-31 pubmed
    ..We have generated mice in which deletion of the NMDAR1 (NR1) gene is restricted to excitatory cortical neurons, and here we show that sensory periphery-related patterns ..

More Information


  1. Del Valle Pinero A, Suckow S, Zhou Q, Perez F, Verne G, Caudle R. Expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1 splice variants and NR2 subunit subtypes in the rat colon. Neuroscience. 2007;147:164-73 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of the NMDA receptor NR1 splice variants and the NR2 subunit subtypes in the rat colon...
  2. Qiu S, Hua Y, Yang F, Chen Y, Luo J. Subunit assembly of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors analyzed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24923-30 pubmed
    ..NMDA receptors are thought to be tetrameric complexes mainly composed of NMDA receptor (NR)1 and NR2 subunits. The NR1 subunits are required for the formation of functional NMDA receptor channels, whereas the NR2 subunits modify ..
  3. Bird G, Lash L, Han J, Zou X, Willis W, Neugebauer V. Protein kinase A-dependent enhanced NMDA receptor function in pain-related synaptic plasticity in rat amygdala neurones. J Physiol. 2005;564:907-21 pubmed
    ..protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated enhanced NMDA-receptor function and increased phosphorylation of NMDA-receptor 1 (NR1) subunits...
  4. Cui Z, Wang H, Tan Y, Zaia K, Zhang S, Tsien J. Inducible and reversible NR1 knockout reveals crucial role of the NMDA receptor in preserving remote memories in the brain. Neuron. 2004;41:781-93 pubmed
    ..Thus, our study reveals a hitherto unrecognized role of the NMDA receptor in dynamically maintaining the long-term synaptic stability of memory storage circuits in the brain. ..
  5. Furukawa H, Gouaux E. Mechanisms of activation, inhibition and specificity: crystal structures of the NMDA receptor NR1 ligand-binding core. EMBO J. 2003;22:2873-85 pubmed
    ..NMDA receptors require both glycine and glutamate for activation with NR1 and NR2 forming glycine and glutamate sites, respectively...
  6. Fiorentini C, Gardoni F, Spano P, Di Luca M, Missale C. Regulation of dopamine D1 receptor trafficking and desensitization by oligomerization with glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:20196-202 pubmed
    ..The tagged D1 receptor and NR1 subunit cotransfected in COS-7 cells generated a significant bioluminescence resonance energy transfer signal that ..
  7. Shankar G, Bloodgood B, Townsend M, Walsh D, Selkoe D, Sabatini B. Natural oligomers of the Alzheimer amyloid-beta protein induce reversible synapse loss by modulating an NMDA-type glutamate receptor-dependent signaling pathway. J Neurosci. 2007;27:2866-75 pubmed
    ..Our approach provides a quantitative cellular model for elucidating the molecular basis of Abeta-induced neuronal dysfunction. ..
  8. Zhang R, Li A, Liu B, Wang L, Ren K, Zhang H, et al. IL-1ra alleviates inflammatory hyperalgesia through preventing phosphorylation of NMDA receptor NR-1 subunit in rats. Pain. 2008;135:232-9 pubmed
    ..determined the cell type that produces IL-1beta, the co-localization of IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) and Fos and NR1 in the spinal cord, and the effects of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) on NR1 phosphorylation and hyperalgesia in ..
  9. Tsien J, Huerta P, Tonegawa S. The essential role of hippocampal CA1 NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity in spatial memory. Cell. 1996;87:1327-38 pubmed
    We have produced a mouse strain in which the deletion of the NMDAR1 gene is restricted to the CA1 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus by using a new and general method that allows CA1-restricted gene knockout...
  10. Kussius C, Popescu G. NMDA receptors with locked glutamate-binding clefts open with high efficacy. J Neurosci. 2010;30:12474-9 pubmed publisher
    ..channels are unique in their requirement that both glycine and glutamate bind to homologous regions on GluN1 and GluN2 subunits, respectively, before the channel can open...
  11. Hollmann M, Boulter J, Maron C, Beasley L, Sullivan J, Pecht G, et al. Zinc potentiates agonist-induced currents at certain splice variants of the NMDA receptor. Neuron. 1993;10:943-54 pubmed
    We have determined the gene structure for the NMDA receptor subunit gene NMDAR1. We found eight splice variants that arise from different combinations of a single 5' terminal exon insertion and three different 3' terminal exon deletions, ..
  12. Nakazawa K, Sun L, Quirk M, Rondi Reig L, Wilson M, Tonegawa S. Hippocampal CA3 NMDA receptors are crucial for memory acquisition of one-time experience. Neuron. 2003;38:305-15 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that CA3 NRs play a crucial role in rapid hippocampal encoding of novel information for fast learning of one-time experience. ..
  13. Köhr G, Jensen V, Koester H, Mihaljevic A, Utvik J, Kvello A, et al. Intracellular domains of NMDA receptor subtypes are determinants for long-term potentiation induction. J Neurosci. 2003;23:10791-9 pubmed
    ..hippocampal CA3-to-CA1 synapses of adult mice, different NMDAR subtypes with distinct functionality assemble from NR1 with NR2A and/or NR2B subunits...
  14. Lee C, Gouaux E. Amino terminal domains of the NMDA receptor are organized as local heterodimers. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19180 pubmed publisher obligate heterotetrameric assembly organized as a dimer of dimers, is typically composed of two glycine-binding GluN1 subunits and two glutamate-binding GluN2 subunits...
  15. Inanobe A, Furukawa H, Gouaux E. Mechanism of partial agonist action at the NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors. Neuron. 2005;47:71-84 pubmed
    ..To address the question of partial agonist action at the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor, we performed crystallographic and electrophysiological studies with 1-..
  16. Chang H, Kuo C. The activation gate and gating mechanism of the NMDA receptor. J Neurosci. 2008;28:1546-56 pubmed publisher
    ..of A651(NR2B) into arginine, tryptophan, or phenylalanine, and similar mutations of the corresponding A652 in NR1 also lead to constitutively open channels...
  17. Henderson J, Georgiou J, Jia Z, Robertson J, Elowe S, Roder J, et al. The receptor tyrosine kinase EphB2 regulates NMDA-dependent synaptic function. Neuron. 2001;32:1041-56 pubmed
    ..NMDA-mediated current was reduced in dentate granule neurons in EphB2 null mice, as was synaptically localized NR1 as revealed by immunogold localization...
  18. Popescu G, Robert A, Howe J, Auerbach A. Reaction mechanism determines NMDA receptor response to repetitive stimulation. Nature. 2004;430:790-3 pubmed examining the kinetics of transmitter binding and channel gating in single-channel currents from recombinant NR1/NR2A receptors, that the synaptic response to trains of impulses is determined by the molecular reaction mechanism ..
  19. Moriyoshi K, Masu M, Ishii T, Shigemoto R, Mizuno N, Nakanishi S. Molecular cloning and characterization of the rat NMDA receptor. Nature. 1991;354:31-7 pubmed
    ..The NMDA receptor messenger RNA is expressed in neuronal cells throughout the brain regions, particularly in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and cerebellum. ..
  20. Sugihara H, Moriyoshi K, Ishii T, Masu M, Nakanishi S. Structures and properties of seven isoforms of the NMDA receptor generated by alternative splicing. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;185:826-32 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the NMDA receptor consists of heterogeneous molecules that differ in the extracellular sequence of the amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions. ..
  21. Yang W, Zheng C, Song Q, Yang X, Qiu S, Liu C, et al. A three amino acid tail following the TM4 region of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NR) 2 subunits is sufficient to overcome endoplasmic reticulum retention of NR1-1a subunit. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:9269-78 pubmed
    ..the TM4 region (NR2Delta2) completely eliminated surface expression of the NMDA receptor on co-expression with NR1-1a in HEK293 cells...
  22. Kutsuwada T, Kashiwabuchi N, Mori H, Sakimura K, Kushiya E, Araki K, et al. Molecular diversity of the NMDA receptor channel. Nature. 1992;358:36-41 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the molecular diversity of the epsilon subunit family underlies the functional heterogeneity of the NMDA receptor channel. ..
  23. Nakanishi N, Axel R, Shneider N. Alternative splicing generates functionally distinct N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:8552-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, the complex properties exhibited by the NMDA receptor in neurons can be generated by the expression of a single receptor subunit. ..
  24. Mohn A, Gainetdinov R, Caron M, Koller B. Mice with reduced NMDA receptor expression display behaviors related to schizophrenia. Cell. 1999;98:427-36 pubmed
    ..We report here the generation of mice expressing only 5% of normal levels of the essential NMDAR1 (NR1) subunit...
  25. Snyder E, Nong Y, Almeida C, Paul S, Moran T, Choi E, et al. Regulation of NMDA receptor trafficking by amyloid-beta. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1051-8 pubmed
    ..Dephosphorylation of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B at Tyr1472 correlated with receptor endocytosis. These data indicate a new mechanism by which amyloid-beta can cause synaptic dysfunction and contribute to Alzheimer disease pathology. ..
  26. Gingrich J, Pelkey K, Fam S, Huang Y, Petralia R, Wenthold R, et al. Unique domain anchoring of Src to synaptic NMDA receptors via the mitochondrial protein NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:6237-42 pubmed
  27. Henderson A, Pittman Q, Teskey G. High frequency stimulation alters motor maps, impairs skilled reaching performance and is accompanied by an upregulation of specific GABA, glutamate and NMDA receptor subunits. Neuroscience. 2012;215:98-113 pubmed publisher
    ..This was associated with an up-regulation of the GABA(A)?1 and NR1 receptor subunits 3 weeks after the last stimulation session only...
  28. Kuryatov A, Laube B, Betz H, Kuhse J. Mutational analysis of the glycine-binding site of the NMDA receptor: structural similarity with bacterial amino acid-binding proteins. Neuron. 1994;12:1291-300 pubmed
    ..Site-directed mutagenesis of the NMDAR1 (NR1) subunit revealed that aromatic residues at positions 390, 392, and 466 are crucial determinants of glycine ..
  29. Lee F, Xue S, Pei L, Vukusic B, Chery N, Wang Y, et al. Dual regulation of NMDA receptor functions by direct protein-protein interactions with the dopamine D1 receptor. Cell. 2002;111:219-30 pubmed
    ..regions in the D1 receptor carboxyl tail can directly and selectively couple to NMDA glutamate receptor subunits NR1-1a and NR2A...
  30. Nakazawa K, Quirk M, Chitwood R, Watanabe M, Yeckel M, Sun L, et al. Requirement for hippocampal CA3 NMDA receptors in associative memory recall. Science. 2002;297:211-8 pubmed
    ..These results provide direct evidence for CA3 NMDA receptor involvement in associative memory recall. ..
  31. Nagy G, Watanabe M, Fukaya M, Todd A. Synaptic distribution of the NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor in the rat lumbar spinal cord revealed with an antigen-unmasking technique. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:3301-12 pubmed
    ..Three families of NMDA receptor subunit have been identified: NR1, NR2 (A-D) and NR3 (A and B)...
  32. Karakas E, Furukawa H. Crystal structure of a heterotetrameric NMDA receptor ion channel. Science. 2014;344:992-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show the crystal structure of the intact heterotetrameric GluN1-GluN2B NMDA receptor ion channel at 4 angstroms...
  33. Planells Cases R, Sun W, Ferrer Montiel A, Montal M. Molecular cloning, functional expression, and pharmacological characterization of an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit from human brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:5057-61 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the cDNA clone hNR1 codes for a human brain NMDA receptor subunit cognate to the rodent and murine brain NR1 subunits.
  34. Wood D, Buse J, Wellman C, Rebec G. Differential environmental exposure alters NMDA but not AMPA receptor subunit expression in nucleus accumbens core and shell. Brain Res. 2005;1042:176-83 pubmed
    ..with dopamine regulate motivational and associative processing in this brain region, we assessed expression of the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and the GluR1 subunit of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-..
  35. Huang Y, Lin Y, Brown T, Han M, SAAL D, Neve R, et al. CREB modulates the functional output of nucleus accumbens neurons: a critical role of N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) receptors. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:2751-60 pubmed
    ..Green, T., Saal, D., Marie, H., Neve, R., Nestler, E. J., and Malenka, R. C. (2006) Nat. Neurosci. 9, 475-477), may counteract drug-induced maladaptations in the NAc and thus ameliorate the addictive state. ..
  36. Kinnunen A, Koenig J, Bilbe G. Repeated variable prenatal stress alters pre- and postsynaptic gene expression in the rat frontal pole. J Neurochem. 2003;86:736-48 pubmed
    ..with the NMDA receptor/postsynaptic density complex and the vesicle exocytosis machinery including NMDA receptor NR1 and NR2A subunits, densin-180, brain enriched guanylate kinase-associated protein, synaptosome-associated protein ..
  37. Cravens C, Vargas Pinto N, Christian K, Nakazawa K. CA3 NMDA receptors are crucial for rapid and automatic representation of context memory. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:1771-80 pubmed
    ..It appears that rapid and automatic context memory representations from one-time experience are mediated, at least in part, by CA3 NMDA receptors. ..
  38. Gong H, Zheng F, Zhang C, Chen X, Liu J, Yue X. Propofol protects hippocampal neurons from apoptosis in ischemic brain injury by increasing GLT-1 expression and inhibiting the activation of NMDAR via the JNK/Akt signaling pathway. Int J Mol Med. 2016;38:943-50 pubmed publisher increase in cell apoptosis, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and N-methyl-D?aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NR1 and NR2B) activation, as well as to a decrease in cell viability and a decrease in Akt activation...
  39. Sinner B, Friedrich O, Lindner R, Bundscherer A, Graf B. Long-term NMDA receptor inhibition affects NMDA receptor expression and alters glutamatergic activity in developing rat hippocampal neurons. Toxicology. 2015;333:147-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytosolic Ca(2+)-concentration was determined by fluorescence microscopy and the expression of the NMDA subunits NR1, NR2A and 2B was assessed by qRT-PCR, whereas Western blots and activated Caspase-3 served to measure the extent of ..
  40. Gascón S, Garcia Gallo M, Renart J, Díaz Guerra M. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of the NR1 but not the NR2 subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor induced by inhibition of the N-glycosylation in cortical neurons. J Neurosci Res. 2007;85:1713-23 pubmed
    ..We use first heterologous systems of NMDAR expression in which NR1 and NR2A subunits are synthesized in nonneuronal cells...
  41. Li S, Nai Q, Lipina T, Roder J, Liu F. ?7nAchR/NMDAR coupling affects NMDAR function and object recognition. Mol Brain. 2013;6:58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that ?7nAchR/NMDAR coupling may selectively affect some aspects of learning and memory. ..
  42. Nakatsu Y, Kotake Y, Takishita T, Ohta S. Long-term exposure to endogenous levels of tributyltin decreases GluR2 expression and increases neuronal vulnerability to glutamate. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;240:292-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term exposure to 20 nM TBT decreased the mRNA expression of glutamate receptors NR1, NR2A, GluR1 and GluR2, and increased that of NR2B, GluR3 and GluR4...
  43. Mashkina A, Cizkova D, Vanicky I, Boldyrev A. NMDA receptors are expressed in lymphocytes activated both in vitro and in vivo. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:901-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that expression of NMDA receptors in lymphocytes is regulated by central nervous system, which controls the inflammation process. ..
  44. Li Y, Erzurumlu R, Chen C, Jhaveri S, Tonegawa S. Whisker-related neuronal patterns fail to develop in the trigeminal brainstem nuclei of NMDAR1 knockout mice. Cell. 1994;76:427-37 pubmed
    ..We applied the gene targeting to the NMDAR1 gene and created a mutant mouse that lacks functional NMDA receptors...
  45. Vance K, Simorowski N, Traynelis S, Furukawa H. Ligand-specific deactivation time course of GluN1/GluN2D NMDA receptors. Nat Commun. 2011;2:294 pubmed publisher
    ..One unique property of GluN1/GluN2D NMDA receptors is an unusually prolonged deactivation time course following the removal of L-glutamate...
  46. Balasuriya D, Goetze T, Barrera N, Stewart A, Suzuki Y, Edwardson J. ?-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors adopt different subunit arrangements. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:21987-98 pubmed publisher
    ..e. 1/2/1/2) subunit arrangement, the GluN1/GluN2A NMDA receptor adopts an adjacent (i.e. 1/1/2/2) arrangement...
  47. Wernicke C, Samochowiec J, Schmidt L, Winterer G, Smolka M, Kucharska Mazur J, et al. Polymorphisms in the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 and 2B subunits are associated with alcoholism-related traits. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54:922-8 pubmed
    ..We investigated the silent G2108A and C2664T polymorphisms of the NMDAR1 and the NMDAR2B genes, respectively...
  48. Nagy J, Kolok S, Dezso P, Boros A, Szombathelyi Z. Differential alterations in the expression of NMDA receptor subunits following chronic ethanol treatment in primary cultures of rat cortical and hippocampal neurones. Neurochem Int. 2003;42:35-43 pubmed
    ..evidence for increased expression of the NR2B and the C1 and C2' cassette containing splice variant forms of the NR1 subunit proteins in ethanol pre-treated cultures in further experiments using a flow cytometry based ..
  49. Qi D, Li W. Effects of electroacupuncture on expression of c-fos protein and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 in the rostral ventromedial medulla of rats with chronic visceral hyperalgesia. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2012;10:416-23 pubmed
    ..EA) in relieving chronic visceral hyperalgesia and the possible involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NR1) in rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) of the brain in an IBS rat model...
  50. Müller B, Kistner U, Kindler S, Chung W, Kuhlendahl S, Fenster S, et al. SAP102, a novel postsynaptic protein that interacts with NMDA receptor complexes in vivo. Neuron. 1996;17:255-65 pubmed
    ..These data represent direct evidence that in vivo SAP102 is involved in linking NMDA receptors to the submembraneous cytomatrix associated with postsynaptic densities at excitatory synapses. ..
  51. Schmidt C, Hollmann M. Apparent homomeric NR1 currents observed in Xenopus oocytes are caused by an endogenous NR2 subunit. J Mol Biol. 2008;376:658-70 pubmed publisher
    Functional N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors NMDARs are thought to be heteromeric receptor complexes consisting of NR1 and NR2 subunits...
  52. Pelkey K, Askalan R, Paul S, Kalia L, Nguyen T, Pitcher G, et al. Tyrosine phosphatase STEP is a tonic brake on induction of long-term potentiation. Neuron. 2002;34:127-38 pubmed
    ..Thus, STEP acts as a tonic brake on synaptic transmission by opposing Src-dependent upregulation of NMDARs. ..
  53. Lou Y, Wang W, Li P, Duan R, Pei L. [Interrelationship between change of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NR1) expressing in hippocampus and impairment of learning and memory after epilepsy]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2007;38:949-53 pubmed
    The changes of transcription factors CREB and glutamate receptor N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subtype NR1 expressing in hippocampus and the relationship between CREB or NR1 expression change and learning or memory deficit after ..