Gene Symbol: Gria2
Description: glutamate ionotropic receptor AMPA type subunit 2
Alias: GluA2, GluR-K2, GluR2, gluR-B, glutamate receptor 2, AMPA-selective glutamate receptor 2, glutamate receptor B, glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2
Species: rat
Products:     Gria2

Top Publications

  1. Liu B, Liao M, Mielke J, Ning K, Chen Y, Li L, et al. Ischemic insults direct glutamate receptor subunit 2-lacking AMPA receptors to synaptic sites. J Neurosci. 2006;26:5309-19 pubmed
    ..Ischemic insults promote internalization of glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2)-containing AMPARs from synaptic sites via clathrin-dependent endocytosis and facilitate delivery of GluR2-lacking ..
  2. Lu W, Ziff E. PICK1 interacts with ABP/GRIP to regulate AMPA receptor trafficking. Neuron. 2005;47:407-21 pubmed
    PICK1 and ABP/GRIP bind to the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluR2 subunit C terminus. Transfer of the receptor from ABP/GRIP to PICK1, facilitated by GluR2 S880 phosphorylation, may initiate receptor trafficking...
  3. Srivastava S, Osten P, Vilim F, Khatri L, Inman G, States B, et al. Novel anchorage of GluR2/3 to the postsynaptic density by the AMPA receptor-binding protein ABP. Neuron. 1998;21:581-91 pubmed
    ..related to glutamate receptor-interacting protein (GRIP) with two sets of three PDZ domains, which binds the GluR2/3 AMPA receptor subunits. ABP exhibits widespread CNS expression and is found at the postsynaptic membrane...
  4. Bagal A, Kao J, Tang C, Thompson S. Long-term potentiation of exogenous glutamate responses at single dendritic spines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:14434-9 pubmed
    ..These changes are consistent with an increase in the proportion of GluR2-containing AMPARs in the spine head...
  5. Lomeli H, Mosbacher J, Melcher T, Hoger T, Geiger J, Kuner T, et al. Control of kinetic properties of AMPA receptor channels by nuclear RNA editing. Science. 1994;266:1709-13 pubmed
    ..quot; The extent of editing at this site progresses with brain development in a manner specific for subunit and splice form, and edited channels possess faster recovery rates from desensitization. ..
  6. Osten P, Srivastava S, Inman G, Vilim F, Khatri L, Lee L, et al. The AMPA receptor GluR2 C terminus can mediate a reversible, ATP-dependent interaction with NSF and alpha- and beta-SNAPs. Neuron. 1998;21:99-110 pubmed
    In this study, we demonstrate specific interaction of the GluR2 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor subunit C-terminal peptide with an ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and alpha- and ..
  7. Ye B, Liao D, Zhang X, Zhang P, Dong H, Huganir R. GRASP-1: a neuronal RasGEF associated with the AMPA receptor/GRIP complex. Neuron. 2000;26:603-17 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that GRASP-1 may regulate neuronal ras signaling and contribute to the regulation of AMPA receptor distribution by NMDA receptor activity. ..
  8. Adesnik H, Nicoll R. Conservation of glutamate receptor 2-containing AMPA receptors during long-term potentiation. J Neurosci. 2007;27:4598-602 pubmed
    ..Here, we rigorously test these hypotheses and conclude that calcium-permeable AMPA receptors are not inserted during LTP nor does potentiation require ongoing activity to be maintained. ..
  9. Narisawa Saito M, Iwakura Y, Kawamura M, Araki K, Kozaki S, Takei N, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates surface expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid receptors by enhancing the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor/GluR2 interaction in developing neocortical neurons. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40901-10 pubmed
    ..After the single transfection of GluR2 cDNA or GluR1 cDNA into HEK/TrkB cells, BDNF triggered the translocation of GluR2 but not that of GluR1...

More Information


  1. Dunah A, Hueske E, Wyszynski M, Hoogenraad C, Jaworski J, Pak D, et al. LAR receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases in the development and maintenance of excitatory synapses. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:458-67 pubmed
    ..Cadherin, beta-catenin and GluR2/3 are tyrosine phosphoproteins that coimmunoprecipitate with liprin-alpha and GRIP from rat brain extracts...
  2. Antal M, Fukazawa Y, Eördögh M, Muszil D, Molnar E, Itakura M, et al. Numbers, densities, and colocalization of AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors at individual synapses in the superficial spinal dorsal horn of rats. J Neurosci. 2008;28:9692-701 pubmed publisher
    ..Virtually all (99%) glutamatergic postsynaptic membranes expressed GluR2, and most of them (87%) were also immunoreactive for GluR1...
  3. Myers S, Peters J, Huang Y, Comer M, Barthel F, Dingledine R. Transcriptional regulation of the GluR2 gene: neural-specific expression, multiple promoters, and regulatory elements. J Neurosci. 1998;18:6723-39 pubmed
    To understand how neurons control the expression of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2, we cloned the 5' proximal region of the rat gene and investigated GluR2 promoter activity by transient transfection...
  4. Wyszynski M, Kim E, Dunah A, Passafaro M, Valtschanoff J, Serra Pagès C, et al. Interaction between GRIP and liprin-alpha/SYD2 is required for AMPA receptor targeting. Neuron. 2002;34:39-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, by mediating the targeting of liprin/GRIP-associated proteins, liprin-alpha is important for postsynaptic as well as presynaptic maturation. ..
  5. Lee S, Simonetta A, Sheng M. Subunit rules governing the sorting of internalized AMPA receptors in hippocampal neurons. Neuron. 2004;43:221-36 pubmed
    ..The intracellular accumulation of GluR2 and GluR3 but not GluR1 is enhanced by AMPA, NMDA, or synaptic activity...
  6. Seidenman K, Steinberg J, Huganir R, Malinow R. Glutamate receptor subunit 2 Serine 880 phosphorylation modulates synaptic transmission and mediates plasticity in CA1 pyramidal cells. J Neurosci. 2003;23:9220-8 pubmed
    ..The glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) PDZ ligand domain can be phosphorylated at serine 880 (S880), and this disrupts interactions with GRIP/ABP (..
  7. Katano T, Furue H, Okuda Ashitaka E, Tagaya M, Watanabe M, Yoshimura M, et al. N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) is involved in central sensitization in the spinal cord through GluR2 subunit composition switch after inflammation. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:3161-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Concomitant with the decrease in NSF, GluR2 and GluR3 were decreased and GluR1 was conversely increased in the PSD fraction 24 h after CFA injection...
  8. Shi S, Hayashi Y, Esteban J, Malinow R. Subunit-specific rules governing AMPA receptor trafficking to synapses in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Cell. 2001;105:331-43 pubmed
    ..In hippocampus, most AMPA-Rs are hetero-oligomers composed of GluR1/GluR2 or GluR2/GluR3 subunits. Here we show that these AMPA-R forms display different synaptic delivery mechanisms...
  9. Xia J, Zhang X, Staudinger J, Huganir R. Clustering of AMPA receptors by the synaptic PDZ domain-containing protein PICK1. Neuron. 1999;22:179-87 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PICK1 may play an important role in the modulation of synaptic transmission by regulating the synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors. ..
  10. Jin R, Singh S, Gu S, Furukawa H, Sobolevsky A, Zhou J, et al. Crystal structure and association behaviour of the GluR2 amino-terminal domain. EMBO J. 2009;28:1812-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that AMPA receptor GluR1- and GluR2-ATDs form tightly associated dimers and, by the analysis of crystal structures of the GluR2-ATD, propose ..
  11. Dong H, O Brien R, Fung E, Lanahan A, Worley P, Huganir R. GRIP: a synaptic PDZ domain-containing protein that interacts with AMPA receptors. Nature. 1997;386:279-84 pubmed
    ..GRIP appears to serve as an adapter protein that links AMPA receptors to other proteins and may be critical for the clustering of AMPA receptors at excitatory synapses in the brain. ..
  12. Sobolevsky A, Rosconi M, Gouaux E. X-ray structure, symmetry and mechanism of an AMPA-subtype glutamate receptor. Nature. 2009;462:745-56 pubmed publisher
    ..structure of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-sensitive, homotetrameric, rat GluA2 receptor at 3.6 A resolution in complex with a competitive antagonist...
  13. Jensen V, Kaiser K, Borchardt T, Adelmann G, Rozov A, Burnashev N, et al. A juvenile form of postsynaptic hippocampal long-term potentiation in mice deficient for the AMPA receptor subunit GluR-A. J Physiol. 2003;553:843-56 pubmed
    ..Our results show that in the developing hippocampus synaptic plasticity can be expressed by AMPA receptors lacking the GluR-A subunit. ..
  14. Schwenk J, Harmel N, Zolles G, Bildl W, Kulik A, Heimrich B, et al. Functional proteomics identify cornichon proteins as auxiliary subunits of AMPA receptors. Science. 2009;323:1313-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that cornichons are intrinsic auxiliary subunits of native AMPARs and provide previously unknown molecular determinants for glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. ..
  15. Hanley J, Khatri L, Hanson P, Ziff E. NSF ATPase and alpha-/beta-SNAPs disassemble the AMPA receptor-PICK1 complex. Neuron. 2002;34:53-67 pubmed
    ..NSF and PICK1 bind the AMPAR GluR2 subunit and are involved in trafficking of AMPARs...
  16. Huang Y, Doherty J, Dingledine R. Altered histone acetylation at glutamate receptor 2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor genes is an early event triggered by status epilepticus. J Neurosci. 2002;22:8422-8 pubmed
    ..assay, we found that acetylation of histone H4 in rat hippocampal CA3 neurons was reduced at the glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2; GRIA2) glutamate receptor promoter but increased at brain-derived neurotrophic factor promoter P2 ..
  17. Sommer B, Keinanen K, Verdoorn T, Wisden W, Burnashev N, Herb A, et al. Flip and flop: a cell-specific functional switch in glutamate-operated channels of the CNS. Science. 1990;249:1580-5 pubmed
    ..These results identify a switch in the molecular and functional properties of glutamate receptors operated by alternative splicing. ..
  18. Ahmadian G, Ju W, Liu L, Wyszynski M, Lee S, Dunah A, et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation of GluR2 is required for insulin-stimulated AMPA receptor endocytosis and LTD. EMBO J. 2004;23:1040-50 pubmed
    ..In HEK293 cells transiently expressing GluR1 or GluR2 mutants containing domain deletions or point mutations in their intracellular carboxyl termini (CT), we found that ..
  19. Nishimune A, Isaac J, Molnar E, Noel J, Nash S, Tagaya M, et al. NSF binding to GluR2 regulates synaptic transmission. Neuron. 1998;21:87-97 pubmed
    ..fusion protein (NSF) interacts directly and selectively with the intracellular C-terminal domain of the GluR2 subunit of AMPA receptors...
  20. Kolleker A, Zhu J, Schupp B, Qin Y, Mack V, Borchardt T, et al. Glutamatergic plasticity by synaptic delivery of GluR-B(long)-containing AMPA receptors. Neuron. 2003;40:1199-212 pubmed
    ..Trafficking of GluR-B(long)-containing receptors thus mediates a GluR-A-independent form of glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the juvenile hippocampus. ..
  21. Rademacher N, Schmerl B, Lardong J, Wahl M, Shoichet S. MPP2 is a postsynaptic MAGUK scaffold protein that links SynCAM1 cell adhesion molecules to core components of the postsynaptic density. Sci Rep. 2016;6:35283 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight a previously unexplored role for MPP2 at postsynaptic sites as a scaffold that links SynCAM1 cell adhesion molecules to core proteins of the postsynaptic density. ..
  22. Deng W, Neve R, Rosenberg P, Volpe J, Jensen F. Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor subunit composition and cAMP-response element-binding protein regulate oligodendrocyte excitotoxicity. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:36004-11 pubmed
    ..Ca2+ permeability of AMPARs is inversely correlated with the abundance of the AMPAR subunit glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2)...
  23. Szczurowska E, Ergang P, Kubová H, Druga R, Salaj M, Mareš P. Influence of early life status epilepticus on the developmental expression profile of the GluA2 subunit of AMPA receptors. Exp Neurol. 2016;283:97-109 pubmed publisher
    ..This permeability, which increases neuronal excitability, is due to the lack of the GluA2 subunit, encoded by the GRIA2A gene, and/or the presence of an unedited GluA2 subunit Q/R site (glutamine instead ..
  24. Song J, Liu Y, Zhang H, Zhang Q, Niu Q. Effects of exposure to aluminum on long-term potentiation and AMPA receptor subunits in rats in vivo. Biomed Environ Sci. 2014;27:77-84 pubmed publisher
    ..LTP were recorded by field potentiation technique in vivo and the expression of AMPAR subunit proteins (GluR1 and GluR2) in both total and membrane-enriched extracts from the CA1 area of rat hippocampus were detected by Western blot ..
  25. Zhai D, Li S, Wang M, Chin K, Liu F. Disruption of the GluR2/GAPDH complex protects against ischemia-induced neuronal damage. Neurobiol Dis. 2013;54:392-403 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently reported that the GluR2 subunit of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) forms a protein complex with GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase)...
  26. Liu Y, Wang L, Long Z, Wu Y, Wan Q, Jiang J, et al. Inhibiting PTEN protects hippocampal neurons against stretch injury by decreasing membrane translocation of AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65431 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the role of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in GluR2-lacking AMPARs mediated neuronal death was investigated through an in vitro stretch injury model of neurons...
  27. Chen S, Zhou H, Byun H, Pan H. Nerve injury increases GluA2-lacking AMPA receptor prevalence in spinal cords: functional significance and signaling mechanisms. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013;347:765-72 pubmed publisher
    ..AMPARs lacking the GluA2 subunit are permeable to Ca(2+), and their currents show unique inward rectification...
  28. Everts I, Villmann C, Hollmann M. N-Glycosylation is not a prerequisite for glutamate receptor function but Is essential for lectin modulation. Mol Pharmacol. 1997;52:861-73 pubmed
    ..One notable exception is the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor GluR2, which is not affected by ConA...
  29. Lachamp P, Balland B, Tell F, Crest M, Kessler J. Synaptic localization of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 in the rat nucleus tractus solitarii. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;17:892-6 pubmed
    The GluR2 subunit controls several key features of the alpha amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor including calcium permeability, rectification and gating...
  30. Kasper C, Pickering D, Mirza O, Olsen L, Kristensen A, Greenwood J, et al. The structure of a mixed GluR2 ligand-binding core dimer in complex with (S)-glutamate and the antagonist (S)-NS1209. J Mol Biol. 2006;357:1184-201 pubmed
    ..We present here the first X-ray structure of a mixed GluR2 ligand-binding core dimer, with the high-affinity antagonist (S)-8-methyl-5-(4-(N,N-dimethylsulfamoyl)phenyl)-6,7,..
  31. Twomey E, Yelshanskaya M, Grassucci R, Frank J, Sobolevsky A. Channel opening and gating mechanism in AMPA-subtype glutamate receptors. Nature. 2017;549:60-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a framework for understanding gating across the family of ionotropic glutamate receptors and the role of AMPA receptors in excitatory neurotransmission. ..
  32. Xiong H, Cassé F, Zhou M, Xiong Z, Joels M, Martin S, et al. Interactions between N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor and GluA2 contribute to effects of glucocorticoid hormones on AMPA receptor function in the rodent hippocampus. Hippocampus. 2016;26:848-56 pubmed publisher
    ..which specifically block the interaction between N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor (NSF) and the AMPAR-subunit GluA2 prevented the increase in synaptic transmission and surface expression of AMPARs known to occur after ..
  33. Ahmed A, Wang S, Chuang H, Oswald R. Mechanism of AMPA receptor activation by partial agonists: disulfide trapping of closed lobe conformations. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:35257-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are consistent the hypothesis that the efficacy is determined at least in part by the stability of the state in which the lobes are fully closed. ..
  34. Fenwick M, Oswald R. On the mechanisms of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor binding to glutamate and kainate. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:12334-43 pubmed publisher
    ..binding of glutamate and kainate (full and partial agonists, respectively) to a soluble ligand-binding domain of GluR2. Our results provide a structural basis for sequential state models of agonist binding and the free energy changes ..
  35. Brusa R, Zimmermann F, Koh D, Feldmeyer D, Gass P, Seeburg P, et al. Early-onset epilepsy and postnatal lethality associated with an editing-deficient GluR-B allele in mice. Science. 1995;270:1677-80 pubmed
    ..These mice developed seizures and died by 3 weeks of age, showing that GluR-B pre-mRNA editing is essential for brain function. ..
  36. Irier H, Shaw R, Lau A, Feng Y, Dingledine R. Translational regulation of GluR2 mRNAs in rat hippocampus by alternative 3' untranslated regions. J Neurochem. 2009;109:584-94 pubmed publisher
    The glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) subunit determines many of the functional properties of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate subtype of glutamate receptor...
  37. Madden D. The structure and function of glutamate receptor ion channels. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2002;3:91-101 pubmed
  38. Kastning K, Kukhtina V, Kittler J, Chen G, Pechstein A, Enders S, et al. Molecular determinants for the interaction between AMPA receptors and the clathrin adaptor complex AP-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:2991-6 pubmed
    ..A synaptotagmin 1-derived AP-2 binding peptide competes the interaction of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 with AP-2mu and increases the number of surface active glutamate receptors in living neurons...
  39. Zhou W, Zhou L, Zhang S, Liu B, Leng Y, Zhou R, et al. The changes in mGluR2 and mGluR7 expression in rat medial vestibular nucleus and flocculus following unilateral labyrinthectomy. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:22857-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that mGluR2 and mGluR7 may contribute to the early rebalancing of spontaneous resting activity in the MVN. ..
  40. Ampuero E, Rubio F, Falcon R, Sandoval M, Diaz Veliz G, Gonzalez R, et al. Chronic fluoxetine treatment induces structural plasticity and selective changes in glutamate receptor subunits in the rat cerebral cortex. Neuroscience. 2010;169:98-108 pubmed publisher
    ..alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor subunit levels (NR1, NR2A, NR2B, GluR1 and GluR2) were analysed in the forebrain by both western blot of homogenates and immunohistochemistry...
  41. Xu J, Yu L, Zhang J, Cai R, Sun X. Early continuous white noise exposure alters l-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor subunit glutamate receptor 2 and gamma-aminobutyric acid type a receptor subunit beta3 protein expression in rat auditory cortex. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:614-9 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanisms of these physiological changes after noise rearing, we studied expression of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 and GABA(A) receptor subunit beta3 in the auditory cortex after noise rearing...
  42. Zhang J, Wang Y, Chi Z, Keuss M, Pai Y, Kang H, et al. The AAA+ ATPase Thorase regulates AMPA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity and behavior. Cell. 2011;145:284-99 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies an AAA+ ATPase that plays a critical role in regulating the surface expression of AMPAR and thereby regulates synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. ..
  43. Peddie C, Davies H, Colyer F, Stewart M, Rodriguez J. Colocalisation of serotonin2A receptors with the glutamate receptor subunits NR1 and GluR2 in the dentate gyrus: an ultrastructural study of a modulatory role. Exp Neurol. 2008;211:561-73 pubmed publisher
    ..NMDA) and amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits NR1 and GluR2 in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) in order to investigate whether 5-HT(2A)R location is compatible with a ..
  44. Pan L, Wu H, Shen C, Shi Y, Jin W, Xia J, et al. Clustering and synaptic targeting of PICK1 requires direct interaction between the PDZ domain and lipid membranes. EMBO J. 2007;26:4576-87 pubmed
    ..motif did not affect the interaction between PICK1 and AMPA receptors, the mutant PICK1 was unable to cluster the GluR2 subunit of the receptor...
  45. Aruscavage P, Bass B. A phylogenetic analysis reveals an unusual sequence conservation within introns involved in RNA editing. RNA. 2000;6:257-69 pubmed
    ..The approximately 600-nt intron 13 of gluR-C was particularly remarkable, showing >94% nucleotide identity between human and chicken, organisms estimated to have diverged 310 million years ago. ..
  46. Perestenko P, Henley J. Characterization of the intracellular transport of GluR1 and GluR2 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor subunits in hippocampal neurons. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:43525-32 pubmed
    ..Here, using virally expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP)-GluR1 and GFP-GluR2 and confocal photobleach techniques we show near real-time movement of these subunits in living cultured ..
  47. Taylor E, Wang K, Nelson A, Bredemann T, Fraser K, Clinton S, et al. O-GlcNAcylation of AMPA receptor GluA2 is associated with a novel form of long-term depression at hippocampal synapses. J Neurosci. 2014;34:10-21 pubmed publisher
    Serine phosphorylation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunits GluA1 and GluA2 modulates AMPAR trafficking during long-term changes in strength of hippocampal excitatory transmission required for normal learning and memory...
  48. Rössner B, Klingler M, Bulat T, Sase A, Zeilinger A, Spitzwieser M, et al. Hippocampal GluA2 and GluA4 protein but not corresponding mRNA and promoter methylation levels are modulated at retrieval in spatial learning of the rat. Amino Acids. 2017;49:117-127 pubmed publisher
    ..Training in the MWM at retrieval may, therefore, involve GluA2 and GluA4 subunits that may be regulated by protein stability or trafficking as protein determinations were ..
  49. Tokuoka H, Goda Y. Activity-dependent coordination of presynaptic release probability and postsynaptic GluR2 abundance at single synapses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:14656-61 pubmed publisher
    ..while concurrently measuring postsynaptic AMPA receptor abundance at the same synapse by immunolabeling surface GluR2. We find no appreciable correlation between p(r) and the level of surface synaptic GluR2 under basal condition, ..
  50. Momiyama A, Silver R, Hausser M, Notomi T, Wu Y, Shigemoto R, et al. The density of AMPA receptors activated by a transmitter quantum at the climbing fibre-Purkinje cell synapse in immature rats. J Physiol. 2003;549:75-92 pubmed
    ..whole-cell AMPA currents displayed roughly linear current-voltage relationships, consistent with the presence of GluR2 subunits in synaptic and extrasynaptic AMPARs...
  51. Kamphuis W, Dijk F, O Brien B. Gene expression of AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits in rod-type ON bipolar cells of rat retina. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:1085-92 pubmed
    ..2003) J. Comp. Neurol., 455, 172-186] of mGluR6 with the ionotropic AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 in rod bipolar cells of rat retina...
  52. Okada O, Odai K, Sugimoto T, Ito E. Molecular dynamics simulations for glutamate-binding and cleft-closing processes of the ligand-binding domain of GluR2. Biophys Chem. 2012;162:35-44 pubmed publisher of ionotropic glutamate receptors is controlled by the structural change of the ligand-binding domain of GluR2. We examined the roles of residues in the glutamate-binding and cleft-closing mechanisms by molecular dynamics (MD)..
  53. Li L, Wang H, Ghafari M, An G, Korz V, Lubec G. Dorsal hippocampal brain receptor complexes linked to the protein synthesis-dependent late phase (LTP) in the rat. Brain Struct Funct. 2015;220:1051-62 pubmed publisher
    ..gel electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometrical identification of the NR1-GluA1-GluA2 complex was used to provide evidence for complex formation...
  54. Deng Y, Xie J, Wang H, Lei W, Chen Q, Reiner A. Differential localization of the GluR1 and GluR2 subunits of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor among striatal neuron types in rats. J Chem Neuroanat. 2007;33:167-92 pubmed
    ..We therefore used immunolabeling to assess the frequency and abundance of GluR1 and GluR2, the most common AMPA subunits in striatum, in the main striatal neuron types...
  55. Su C, D amour J, Lee M, Lin H, Manders T, Xu D, et al. Persistent pain alters AMPA receptor subunit levels in the nucleus accumbens. Mol Brain. 2015;8:46 pubmed publisher
    ..GluA1 levels were elevated in the CFA model after a period (7 d) of persistent pain, leading to the formation of GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors. As pain symptoms began to resolve, however, GluA1 levels returned to baseline...
  56. Beske P, Byrnes N, Astruc Diaz F, Jackson D. Identification of NADPH oxidase as a key mediator in the post-ischemia-induced sequestration and degradation of the GluA2 AMPA receptor subunit. J Neurochem. 2015;132:504-19 pubmed publisher
    ..This change in AMPAR subunit composition leads to an increase in surface expression of GluA2-lacking Ca(2+) /Zn(2+) permeable AMPARs...
  57. Szabo A, Somogyi J, Cauli B, Lambolez B, Somogyi P, Lamsa K. Calcium-permeable AMPA receptors provide a common mechanism for LTP in glutamatergic synapses of distinct hippocampal interneuron types. J Neurosci. 2012;32:6511-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The strong inward rectification and calcium permeability of AMPARs is explained by a low level of GluA2 subunit mRNA expression...
  58. Wang X, MCCOY P, Rodriguiz R, Pan Y, Je H, Roberts A, et al. Synaptic dysfunction and abnormal behaviors in mice lacking major isoforms of Shank3. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:3093-108 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that loss of major Shank3 species produces biochemical, cellular and morphological changes, leading to behavioral abnormalities in mice that bear similarities to human ASD patients with SHANK3 mutations. ..
  59. Lise M, Wong T, Trinh A, Hines R, Liu L, Kang R, et al. Involvement of myosin Vb in glutamate receptor trafficking. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:3669-78 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a novel mechanism for the transport of a specific glutamate receptor subunit in neurons mediated by a member of the myosin V family. ..
  60. Shmelkov S, Hormigo A, Jing D, Proenca C, Bath K, Milde T, et al. Slitrk5 deficiency impairs corticostriatal circuitry and leads to obsessive-compulsive-like behaviors in mice. Nat Med. 2010;16:598-602, 1p following 602 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our studies identify Slitrk5 as an essential molecule at corticostriatal synapses and provide a new mouse model of OCD-like behaviors. ..
  61. Zhang L, Li Y, Meng K, Xie W. [The expressions of AMPAR/GluR2 in hippocampal CA1 area of rats before and after late-phase long-term potentiation reversal]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2010;62:23-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, no significant difference was observed in the intensity of AMPAR/GluR2 immunoreactivity in CA1 area among control group, LTP group and LTP reversal group...
  62. Nakatsu Y, Kotake Y, Takishita T, Ohta S. Long-term exposure to endogenous levels of tributyltin decreases GluR2 expression and increases neuronal vulnerability to glutamate. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;240:292-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term exposure to 20 nM TBT decreased the mRNA expression of glutamate receptors NR1, NR2A, GluR1 and GluR2, and increased that of NR2B, GluR3 and GluR4. GluR2 protein was also reduced by long-term exposure to TBT...
  63. Dixon R, Mellor J, Hanley J. PICK1-mediated glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) trafficking contributes to cell death in oxygen/glucose-deprived hippocampal neurons. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:14230-5 pubmed publisher
    ..and glucose deprivation (OGD) induces delayed cell death in hippocampal CA1 neurons via Ca(2+)/Zn(2+)-permeable, GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors (AMPARs)...
  64. Zhao Y, Chen S, Yoshioka C, Baconguis I, Gouaux E. Architecture of fully occupied GluA2 AMPA receptor-TARP complex elucidated by cryo-EM. Nature. 2016;536:108-11 pubmed
    ..Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the homomeric rat GluA2 AMPA receptor saturated with TARP ?2 subunits, which shows how the TARPs are arranged with four-fold symmetry ..
  65. Levy R, Aoki C. Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors occur at postsynaptic densities of AMPA receptor-positive and -negative excitatory synapses in rat sensory cortex. J Neurosci. 2002;22:5001-15 pubmed
    ..dual immunolabeling and electron microscopy to examine the distribution of alpha7nAChR relative to AMPAR (GluR1, GluR2, and GluR3 subunits combined) at excitatory synapses in somatosensory cortex of adult and 1-week-old rats...
  66. Tobi D. Dynamical differences of hemoglobin and the ionotropic glutamate receptor in different states revealed by a new dynamics alignment method. Proteins. 2017;85:1507-1517 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study exemplifies the use of dynamics comparison as a tool to study protein function. Proteins 2017; 85:1507-1517. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  67. Ishida K, Kotake Y, Miyara M, Aoki K, Sanoh S, Kanda Y, et al. Involvement of decreased glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 expression in lead-induced neuronal cell death. J Toxicol Sci. 2013;38:513-21 pubmed
    Lead is known to induce neurotoxicity, particularly in young children, and GluR2, an AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit, plays an important role in neuronal cell survival...
  68. Jourdi H, Kabbaj M. Acute BDNF treatment upregulates GluR1-SAP97 and GluR2-GRIP1 interactions: implications for sustained AMPA receptor expression. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57124 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that acute BDNF treatment upregulates the interactions between AMPAr subunits (GluR1 and GluR2) with their scaffold proteins SAP97 and GRIP1, respectively, leading to prolonged increased accumulation of both ..
  69. Nakazawa K, Tadakuma T, Nokihara K, Ito M. Antibody specific for phosphorylated AMPA-type glutamate receptors at GluR2 Ser-696. Neurosci Res. 1995;24:75-86 pubmed
    ..of 17 synthetic peptides derived from the transmembrane-3 (TM3) domain to the end of C-terminal of a rat glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2)...
  70. Utvik J, Haglerød C, Mylonakou M, Holen T, Kropf M, Hirling H, et al. Neuronal enriched endosomal protein of 21 kDa colocalizes with glutamate receptor subunit GLUR2/3 at the postsynaptic membrane. Neuroscience. 2009;158:96-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Using immunogold electron microscopy, we show that NEEP21 is colocalized with the AMPAR subunits GluR2/3 in postsynaptic spines...
  71. Takamiya K, Kostourou V, Adams S, Jadeja S, Chalepakis G, Scambler P, et al. A direct functional link between the multi-PDZ domain protein GRIP1 and the Fraser syndrome protein Fras1. Nat Genet. 2004;36:172-7 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that GRIP1 is required for normal cell-matrix interactions during early embryonic development and that inactivation of Grip1 causes Fraser syndrome-like defects in mice. ..
  72. Nishizaki T, Matsumura T. The aniracetam metabolite 2-pyrrolidinone induces a long-term enhancement in AMPA receptor responses via a CaMKII pathway. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;98:130-4 pubmed
    ..acid (AMPA) receptors, heteromerically formed of GluR1,2 (GluR1 and GluR2), GluR1,3 (GluR1 and GluR3), and GluR1,2,3 (GluR1, GluR2, and GluR3), expressed in Xenopus oocytes...
  73. Lin J, Ju W, Foster K, Lee S, Ahmadian G, Wyszynski M, et al. Distinct molecular mechanisms and divergent endocytotic pathways of AMPA receptor internalization. Nat Neurosci. 2000;3:1282-90 pubmed
    ..dependent on protein phosphatases and sequence determinants within the cytoplasmic tails of GluR1 and GluR2 subunits...
  74. Chen S, Zhao Y, Wang Y, Shekhar M, Tajkhorshid E, Gouaux E. Activation and Desensitization Mechanism of AMPA Receptor-TARP Complex by Cryo-EM. Cell. 2017;170:1234-1246.e14 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we elucidate structures of the GluA2-TARP ?2 complex in the presence of the partial agonist kainate or the full agonist quisqualate together with a ..
  75. Chen P, Song J, Luo L, Cheng Q, Xiao H, Gong S. Gene expression of NMDA and AMPA receptors in different facial motor neurons. Laryngoscope. 2016;126:E6-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Messenger RNA (mRNA) of AMPAR subunits (GluR1, GluR2, GluR3, and GluR4) and NMDAR subunits (NR1, NR2a, NR2b, NR2c, and NR2d) was detected in reinnervating and dormant ..
  76. Migues P, Hardt O, Finnie P, Wang Y, Nader K. The maintenance of long-term memory in the hippocampus depends on the interaction between N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor and GluA2. Hippocampus. 2014;24:1112-9 pubmed publisher
    The maintenance of established memories has recently been shown to involve the stabilization of GluA2-containing AMPA receptors (GluA2/AMPARs) at postsynaptic membranes...
  77. Nagano I, Murakami T, Shiote M, Abe K, Itoyama Y. Ventral root avulsion leads to downregulation of GluR2 subunit in spinal motoneurons in adult rats. Neuroscience. 2003;117:139-46 pubmed
    ..Ventral root avulsion resulted in a 60% loss of motor neurons by 14 days after surgery. GluR2 labeling in motor neurons was markedly decreased after avulsion, but before the onset of motor neuron death, while ..
  78. Sivakumar V, Foulds W, Luu C, Ling E, Kaur C. Hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell damage through activation of AMPA receptors and the neuroprotective effects of DNQX. Exp Eye Res. 2013;109:83-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The involvement of AMPA receptors in damaging the RGCs is evidenced by suppression of intracellular Ca(2+) influx by DNQX which also decreased ROS generation and cell death by 50%. ..
  79. Majdi M, Ribeiro da Silva A, Cuello A. Variations in excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic protein content in rat cerebral cortex with respect to aging and cognitive status. Neuroscience. 2009;159:896-907 pubmed publisher
    ..was observed in the parietal cortex of AI animals, whereas a significant decrease in AMPA receptor subunit glutamate receptor 2 expression was found in the prefrontal cortex of AI animals...