Gene Symbol: Gria1
Description: glutamate ionotropic receptor AMPA type subunit 1
Alias: GluA1, gluR-A, glutamate receptor 1, AMPA-selective glutamate receptor 1, GluR1, gluR-1, gluR-K1, glutamate receptor A, glutamate receptor subunit GluR1, glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 1, glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA1 (alpha 1)
Species: rat
Products:     Gria1

Top Publications

  1. Yao G, Zong Y, Gu S, Zhou J, Xu H, Mathews I, et al. Crystal structure of the glutamate receptor GluA1 N-terminal domain. Biochem J. 2011;438:255-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We report in the present study a 2.5 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution crystal structure of the ATD of GluA1. Comparative analyses of the structure of GluA1-ATD and other subunits sheds light on our understanding of how ATD ..
  2. Hu H, Real E, Takamiya K, Kang M, LeDoux J, Huganir R, et al. Emotion enhances learning via norepinephrine regulation of AMPA-receptor trafficking. Cell. 2007;131:160-73 pubmed
    ..Toward this aim, we have examined the role of NE in contextual memory formation and in the synaptic delivery of GluR1-containing alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors during long-..
  3. Shi S, Hayashi Y, Esteban J, Malinow R. Subunit-specific rules governing AMPA receptor trafficking to synapses in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Cell. 2001;105:331-43 pubmed
    ..In hippocampus, most AMPA-Rs are hetero-oligomers composed of GluR1/GluR2 or GluR2/GluR3 subunits. Here we show that these AMPA-R forms display different synaptic delivery mechanisms...
  4. Man H, Sekine Aizawa Y, Huganir R. Regulation of {alpha}-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor trafficking through PKA phosphorylation of the Glu receptor 1 subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3579-84 pubmed
    ..studies have shown that activation of PKA regulates the membrane trafficking of the AMPA receptor Glu receptor 1 (GluR1) subunit, but the role of direct phosphorylation of GluR1 in regulating receptor redistribution is not clear...
  5. Leonard A, Davare M, Horne M, Garner C, Hell J. SAP97 is associated with the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor GluR1 subunit. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:19518-24 pubmed
    ..AMPA receptors are probably tetramers and are formed by two or more of the four AMPA receptor subunits GluR1-4. GluR1 possesses a C-terminal consensus sequence for interactions with PDZ domains of SAPs...
  6. Oh M, Derkach V, Guire E, Soderling T. Extrasynaptic membrane trafficking regulated by GluR1 serine 845 phosphorylation primes AMPA receptors for long-term potentiation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:752-8 pubmed
    ..Using a quantitative assay of net serine 845 (Ser-845) phosphorylation in the GluR1 subunit of AMPARs, we investigated the relationship between phospho-Ser-845, GluR1 surface expression, and ..
  7. Sommer B, Keinanen K, Verdoorn T, Wisden W, Burnashev N, Herb A, et al. Flip and flop: a cell-specific functional switch in glutamate-operated channels of the CNS. Science. 1990;249:1580-5 pubmed
    ..These results identify a switch in the molecular and functional properties of glutamate receptors operated by alternative splicing. ..
  8. Liu W, Yuen E, Yan Z. The stress hormone corticosterone increases synaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors via serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) regulation of the GDI-Rab4 complex. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:6101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It provides a potential mechanism underlying the role of corticosteroid stress hormone in up-regulating excitatory synaptic efficacy in cortical neurons. ..
  9. Jensen V, Kaiser K, Borchardt T, Adelmann G, Rozov A, Burnashev N, et al. A juvenile form of postsynaptic hippocampal long-term potentiation in mice deficient for the AMPA receptor subunit GluR-A. J Physiol. 2003;553:843-56 pubmed
    ..Our results show that in the developing hippocampus synaptic plasticity can be expressed by AMPA receptors lacking the GluR-A subunit. ..

More Information


  1. Lee H, Takamiya K, Han J, Man H, Kim C, Rumbaugh G, et al. Phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor GluR1 subunit is required for synaptic plasticity and retention of spatial memory. Cell. 2003;112:631-43 pubmed
    ..We previously reported that phosphorylation of the GluR1 subunit of AMPA receptors, which mediate rapid excitatory transmission in the brain, is modulated during LTP and ..
  2. Appleby V, Corrêa S, Duckworth J, Nash J, Noel J, Fitzjohn S, et al. LTP in hippocampal neurons is associated with a CaMKII-mediated increase in GluA1 surface expression. J Neurochem. 2011;116:530-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the effects of transient depolarisation on the surface expression of GluA1 and GluA2 subunits of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor and found a preferential ..
  3. Morton Jones R, Cannell M, Housley G. Ca2+ entry via AMPA-type glutamate receptors triggers Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release from ryanodine receptors in rat spiral ganglion neurons. Cell Calcium. 2008;43:356-66 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate functional coupling between somatic AMPA-type glutamate receptors and intracellular Ca(2+) stores via RyR-dependent CICR in primary auditory neurons. ..
  4. Namba H, Nagano T, Iwakura Y, Xiong H, Jourdi H, Takei N, et al. Transforming growth factor alpha attenuates the functional expression of AMPA receptors in cortical GABAergic neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006;31:628-41 pubmed
    ..growth factor alpha (TGFalpha), EGF, or heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF) down-regulated protein expression of the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit in cultured neocortical neurons...
  5. Rumpel S, LeDoux J, Zador A, Malinow R. Postsynaptic receptor trafficking underlying a form of associative learning. Science. 2005;308:83-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the encoding of memories in the lateral amygdala is mediated by AMPA receptor trafficking, is widely distributed, and displays little redundancy. ..
  6. Mammen A, Kameyama K, Roche K, Huganir R. Phosphorylation of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole4-propionic acid receptor GluR1 subunit by calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:32528-33 pubmed
    ..generated two phosphorylation site-specific antibodies to analyze the phosphorylation of the glutamate receptor GluR1 subunit. These antibodies recognize GluR1 only when it is phosphorylated on serine residues 831 or 845...
  7. Lee S, Simonetta A, Sheng M. Subunit rules governing the sorting of internalized AMPA receptors in hippocampal neurons. Neuron. 2004;43:221-36 pubmed
    ..The intracellular accumulation of GluR2 and GluR3 but not GluR1 is enhanced by AMPA, NMDA, or synaptic activity...
  8. Tran L, Keele N. P-chlorophenylalanine increases glutamate receptor 1 transcription in rat amygdala. Neuroreport. 2011;22:758-61 pubmed publisher
    ..with P-chlorophenylalanine, an inhibitor of tyrosine-5-hydroxylase, resulted in a 21-fold increase in glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) mRNA expression in the amygdala...
  9. Hou Q, Zhang D, Jarzylo L, Huganir R, Man H. Homeostatic regulation of AMPA receptor expression at single hippocampal synapses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:775-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the existence of synaptic specificity and the crucial role of AMPAR-gated calcium in homeostatic plasticity in central neurons. ..
  10. Tomita S, Fukata M, Nicoll R, Bredt D. Dynamic interaction of stargazin-like TARPs with cycling AMPA receptors at synapses. Science. 2004;303:1508-11 pubmed
    ..This did not require ion flux or intracellular second messengers. This allosteric mechanism for AMPA receptor dissociation from TARPs may participate in glutamate-mediated internalization of receptors in synaptic plasticity. ..
  11. Schwenk J, Harmel N, Zolles G, Bildl W, Kulik A, Heimrich B, et al. Functional proteomics identify cornichon proteins as auxiliary subunits of AMPA receptors. Science. 2009;323:1313-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that cornichons are intrinsic auxiliary subunits of native AMPARs and provide previously unknown molecular determinants for glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. ..
  12. Esteban J, Shi S, Wilson C, Nuriya M, Huganir R, Malinow R. PKA phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunits controls synaptic trafficking underlying plasticity. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:136-43 pubmed
    ..We found that PKA phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor subunits GluR4 and GluR1 directly controlled the synaptic incorporation of AMPA receptors in organotypic slices from rat hippocampus...
  13. Jin R, Singh S, Gu S, Furukawa H, Sobolevsky A, Zhou J, et al. Crystal structure and association behaviour of the GluR2 amino-terminal domain. EMBO J. 2009;28:1812-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that AMPA receptor GluR1- and GluR2-ATDs form tightly associated dimers and, by the analysis of crystal structures of the GluR2-ATD, ..
  14. Heine M, Groc L, Frischknecht R, Beique J, Lounis B, Rumbaugh G, et al. Surface mobility of postsynaptic AMPARs tunes synaptic transmission. Science. 2008;320:201-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Physiological regulation of postsynaptic receptor mobility affects the fidelity of synaptic transmission by shaping the frequency dependence of synaptic responses. ..
  15. Guntupalli S, Jang S, Zhu T, Huganir R, Widagdo J, Anggono V. GluA1 subunit ubiquitination mediates amyloid-?-induced loss of surface ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:8186-8194 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, activity-dependent ubiquitination of the GluA1 subunit has been shown to regulate the intracellular sorting of AMPARs toward late endosomes for degradation...
  16. Ahmed A, Wang S, Chuang H, Oswald R. Mechanism of AMPA receptor activation by partial agonists: disulfide trapping of closed lobe conformations. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:35257-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are consistent the hypothesis that the efficacy is determined at least in part by the stability of the state in which the lobes are fully closed. ..
  17. Sager C, Terhag J, Kott S, Hollmann M. C-terminal domains of transmembrane alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor regulatory proteins not only facilitate trafficking but are major modulators of AMPA receptor function. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:32413-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed the impact of the resulting chimeras on GluR1 functional properties in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells...
  18. Austgen J, Fong A, Foley C, Mueller P, Kline D, Heesch C, et al. Expression of Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors on phenotypically different cells within the nucleus of the solitary tract in the rat. Neuroscience. 2009;159:701-16 pubmed publisher
    ..1+/-0.08). Cells triple labeled for FG, nNOS, and Group I mGluRs were identified in the NTS. Thus, these data provide an anatomical substrate by which Group I mGluRs could modulate activity of CVLM projecting neurons in the NTS. ..
  19. Lax P, Limatola C, Fucile S, Trettel F, Di Bartolomeo S, Renzi M, et al. Chemokine receptor CXCR2 regulates the functional properties of AMPA-type glutamate receptor GluR1 in HEK cells. J Neuroimmunol. 2002;129:66-73 pubmed
    ..cells and cerebellar neurons to investigate whether CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) is functionally coupled to GluR1. The co-expression of CXCR2 with GluR1 in HEK cells increased (i) the GluR1 "apparent" affinity for the ..
  20. Tang Q, Xia Y, Cheng S, Tu B. Modulation of behavior and glutamate receptor mRNA expression in rats after sub-chronic administration of benzo(a)pyrene. Biomed Environ Sci. 2011;24:408-14 pubmed publisher benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] affects spatial learning and short-term memory by modulating the expression of the Gria1 and Grin2a glutamate receptor subunit genes in the hippocampus...
  21. Gauvain G, Chamma I, Chevy Q, Cabezas C, Irinopoulou T, Bodrug N, et al. The neuronal K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 influences postsynaptic AMPA receptor content and lateral diffusion in dendritic spines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:15474-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect correlates with a reduced postsynaptic aggregation of GluR1-containing AMPA receptors and is mimicked by a dominant negative mutant of KCC2 interaction with cytoskeleton but ..
  22. Hildebrand M, Isope P, Miyazaki T, Nakaya T, Garcia E, Feltz A, et al. Functional coupling between mGluR1 and Cav3.1 T-type calcium channels contributes to parallel fiber-induced fast calcium signaling within Purkinje cell dendritic spines. J Neurosci. 2009;29:9668-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data identify a new fast calcium signaling pathway in Purkinje cell dendritic spines triggered by short burst of parallel fiber inputs and mediated by T-type calcium channels and mGluR1s. ..
  23. Zhang X, Jia N, Zhao X, Tang G, Guan L, Wang D, et al. Involvement of pGluR1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 in offspring depression induced by prenatal stress. Neuroscience. 2013;250:333-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In this research, we examined the expression of phosphorylated GluR1 subunit of ionotropic receptor alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), the Na+-..
  24. Cui W, Darby King A, Grimes M, Howland J, Wang Y, McLean J, et al. Odor preference learning and memory modify GluA1 phosphorylation and GluA1 distribution in the neonate rat olfactory bulb: testing the AMPA receptor hypothesis in an appetitive learning model. Learn Mem. 2011;18:283-91 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GluA1 PKA-dependent phosphorylation peaked 10 min after the 10-min training trial and returned to baseline within 90 min...
  25. Wang D, Govindaiah G, Liu R, De Arcangelis V, Cox C, Xiang Y. Binding of amyloid beta peptide to beta2 adrenergic receptor induces PKA-dependent AMPA receptor hyperactivity. FASEB J. 2010;24:3511-21 pubmed publisher induce G-protein/cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling, which controls PKA-dependent phosphorylation of GluR1 and beta(2)AR, and AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs)...
  26. Valero M, Caminos E, Juiz J, Martinez Galan J. TRPC1 and metabotropic glutamate receptor expression in rat auditory midbrain neurons. J Neurosci Res. 2015;93:964-72 pubmed publisher
    ..TRPC1 totally overlapped group I mGluRs, which supports the involvement of TRPC1 in the mGluR pathway and, likely, in auditory signal processing at the midbrain level. . ..
  27. Gross M, Sheinin A, Nesher E, Tikhonov T, Baranes D, Pinhasov A, et al. Early onset of cognitive impairment is associated with altered synaptic plasticity and enhanced hippocampal GluA1 expression in a mouse model of depression. Neurobiol Aging. 2015;36:1938-52 pubmed publisher
    ..elevated protein levels of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluA1 in the hippocampi of Sub mice, which was exacerbated with age...
  28. Sinnen B, Bowen A, Forte J, Hiester B, Crosby K, Gibson E, et al. Optogenetic Control of Synaptic Composition and Function. Neuron. 2017;93:646-660.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..More broadly, this approach introduces the precise spatiotemporal control of optogenetics to the molecular control of synaptic function. ..
  29. Zhang X, Lee T, Davidson C, Lazarus C, Wetsel W, Ellinwood E. Reversal of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and associated phosphorylation of the NR2B and GluR1 subunits of the NMDA and AMPA receptors. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007;32:377-87 pubmed
    ..were associated with parallel alterations in expression levels and/or phosphorylation changes in the NR2B and GluR1 subunits of the respective NMDA and AMPA receptors...
  30. Huang P, Sun Y, Gou W, Zhang R. [Effect of behavioral training on learning and memory capacity and changes of hippocampal NR2B and GluR1 expressions in FGR offspring rats]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2010;30:708-11 pubmed
    To study the effect of behavioral training on the learning and memory abilities and changes of NR2B and GluR1 expressions in the hippocampus of offspring rats with fetal growth retardation (FGR)...
  31. Bie B, Brown D, Naguib M. Increased synaptic GluR1 subunits in the anterior cingulate cortex of rats with peripheral inflammation. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;653:26-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, an increased distribution of the synaptic GluR1 subunit was observed in the ACC neurons...
  32. Caudal D, Godsil B, Mailliet F, Bergerot D, Jay T. Acute stress induces contrasting changes in AMPA receptor subunit phosphorylation within the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15282 pubmed publisher
    ..After stress, the phosphorylation of Ser831-GluA1 was markedly decreased in the mPFC and DH, whereas the phosphorylation of Ser845-GluA1 was increased in the ..
  33. Lise M, Wong T, Trinh A, Hines R, Liu L, Kang R, et al. Involvement of myosin Vb in glutamate receptor trafficking. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:3669-78 pubmed
    ..populations and associates with the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate-type glutamate receptor subunit GluR1. In developing hippocampal neurons, expression of the tail domain of myosin Vb, but not myosin Va, ..
  34. Xiang X, Hao W, Kosten T. [Sex difference in performance in elevated plus maze and hippocampal GluR1 level]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2011;36:750-3 pubmed publisher
    To explore whether sex difference exists in the performance in each arm of elevated plus maze (EPM) and GluR1 level in the hippocampus of female and male Sprague-Dawley rats...
  35. Lecrux C, Nicole O, Chazalviel L, Catone C, Chuquet J, Mackenzie E, et al. Spontaneously hypertensive rats are highly vulnerable to AMPA-induced brain lesions. Stroke. 2007;38:3007-15 pubmed
    ..Striatal levels of AMPA receptors subunits, GluR1 and GluR2, were not different between SHRs and WKYs...
  36. Misra C, Restituito S, Ferreira J, Rameau G, Fu J, Ziff E. Regulation of synaptic structure and function by palmitoylated AMPA receptor binding protein. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;43:341-52 pubmed publisher
    ..viral expression of pABP-L increased AMPAR mediated mEPSC amplitude and frequency and elevated surface levels of GluR1 and GluR2, suggesting an increase in AMPA receptors at individual synapses...
  37. Levenson J, Qiu S, Weeber E. The role of reelin in adult synaptic function and the genetic and epigenetic regulation of the reelin gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1779:422-31 pubmed publisher
  38. Song J, Shen G, Greenfield L, Tietz E. Benzodiazepine withdrawal-induced glutamatergic plasticity involves up-regulation of GluR1-containing alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors in Hippocampal CA1 neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007;322:569-81 pubmed
    ..As GluR1-containing AMPARs are critical for activity-dependent alterations in excitatory strength, we sought to determine ..
  39. Yokoi N, Fukata Y, Sekiya A, Murakami T, Kobayashi K, Fukata M. Identification of PSD-95 Depalmitoylating Enzymes. J Neurosci. 2016;36:6431-44 pubmed publisher
    ..the palmitoylation stoichiometry and the depalmitoylation kinetics of representative synaptic proteins, PSD-95, GluA1, GluN2A, mGluR5, G?q, and HRas. Unexpectedly, palmitate on all of them did not turn over in neurons...
  40. Dijk F, Kamphuis W. Ischemia-induced alterations of AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit. Expression patterns in the rat retina--an immunocytochemical study. Brain Res. 2004;997:207-21 pubmed
    ..ischemia/reperfusion leads to alterations in the expression of AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) subunits GluR1-4...
  41. Liu M, Li J, Dai P, Zhao F, Zheng G, Jing J, et al. Microglia activation regulates GluR1 phosphorylation in chronic unpredictable stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. Stress. 2015;18:96-106 pubmed publisher
    ..CUS also induced hippocampal microglial activation and attenuated phosphorylation of glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1 or GluA1)...
  42. Wang Y, Mu X, Wu J, Wu A, Fang L, Li J, et al. Differential roles of phosphorylated AMPA receptor GluR1 subunits at Serine-831 and Serine-845 sites in spinal cord dorsal horn in a rat model of post-operative pain. Neurochem Res. 2011;36:170-6 pubmed publisher
    ..that the enhanced levels of phosphorylated ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor GluR1 subunits at Serine-831 (pGluR1-Ser-831) and Serine-845 (pGluR1-Ser-845) in the spinal cord dorsal horn are ..
  43. Boulter J, Hollmann M, O Shea Greenfield A, Hartley M, Deneris E, Maron C, et al. Molecular cloning and functional expression of glutamate receptor subunit genes. Science. 1990;249:1033-7 pubmed
    Three closely related genes, GluR1, GluR2, and GluR3, encode receptor subunits for the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate...
  44. Kim S, Ziff E. Calcineurin mediates synaptic scaling via synaptic trafficking of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors. PLoS Biol. 2014;12:e1001900 pubmed publisher
    ..serine/threonine phosphatase, increases synaptic expression of Ca2+-permeable AMPARs (CPARs) by stabilizing GluA1 phosphorylation; and (3) Ca2+ influx via CPARs restores CREB phosphorylation as a homeostatic response by Ca2+-..
  45. Hollmann M, Rogers S, O Shea Greenfield A, Deneris E, Hughes T, Gasic G, et al. Glutamate receptor GluR-K1: structure, function, and expression in the brain. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1990;55:41-55 pubmed
  46. Ahn S, Choe E. Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors increases serine phosphorylation of GluR1 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors in the rat dorsal striatum. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;329:1117-26 pubmed publisher, we investigated the regulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor GluR1 subunit phosphorylation by the stimulation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the rat dorsal ..
  47. Choi J, Svensson C, Koehrn F, Bhuskute A, Sorkin L. Peripheral inflammation induces tumor necrosis factor dependent AMPA receptor trafficking and Akt phosphorylation in spinal cord in addition to pain behavior. Pain. 2010;149:243-53 pubmed publisher
    ..the present study, intraplantar carrageenan induced increased mechanical allodynia, phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and GluR1 ser 845 (PKA site) as well as GluR1, but not GluR2 movement into neuronal membranes...
  48. Moult P, Cross A, Santos S, Carvalho A, Lindsay Y, Connolly C, et al. Leptin regulates AMPA receptor trafficking via PTEN inhibition. J Neurosci. 2010;30:4088-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that leptin preferentially increases the cell surface expression of GluR1 and the synaptic density of GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors in adult hippocampal slices...
  49. Xia H, von Zastrow M, Malenka R. A novel anterograde trafficking signal present in the N-terminal extracellular domain of ionotropic glutamate receptors. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:47765-9 pubmed
    ..assembly and surface expression, we have epitope-tagged the N-terminal domain of the AMPA receptor subunit, GluR1, and expressed it in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and hippocampal neurons...
  50. Kennedy M, Davison I, Robinson C, Ehlers M. Syntaxin-4 defines a domain for activity-dependent exocytosis in dendritic spines. Cell. 2010;141:524-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Stx4 defines an exocytic zone that directs membrane fusion for postsynaptic plasticity, revealing a novel specialization for local membrane traffic in dendritic spines. ..
  51. Andin J, Hallbeck M, Mohammed A, Marcusson J. Influence of environmental enrichment on steady-state mRNA levels for EAAC1, AMPA1 and NMDA2A receptor subunits in rat hippocampus. Brain Res. 2007;1174:18-27 pubmed
  52. Tomita S, Stein V, Stocker T, Nicoll R, Bredt D. Bidirectional synaptic plasticity regulated by phosphorylation of stargazin-like TARPs. Neuron. 2005;45:269-77 pubmed
    ..These results establish stargazin as a critical substrate in the bidirectional control of synaptic strength, which is thought to underlie aspects of learning and memory. ..
  53. Wyszynski M, Valtschanoff J, Naisbitt S, Dunah A, Kim E, Standaert D, et al. Association of AMPA receptors with a subset of glutamate receptor-interacting protein in vivo. J Neurosci. 1999;19:6528-37 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these findings support a role for GRIP in the synaptic anchoring of AMPA receptors but also suggest that GRIP has additional functions unrelated to the binding of AMPA receptors. ..
  54. Tarazi F, Moran Gates T, Gardner M, Graulich A, Lamy C, Liégeois J. Long-term effects of JL 13, a potential atypical antipsychotic, on ionotropic glutamate receptors. J Mol Neurosci. 2007;32:192-8 pubmed
    ..Long-term effects of JL 13 on ionotropic Glu receptors, as well as on other dopamine and serotonin receptors, support the atypical antipsychotic profile of this novel agent. ..
  55. Guan Y, Guo W, Zou S, Dubner R, Ren K. Inflammation-induced upregulation of AMPA receptor subunit expression in brain stem pain modulatory circuitry. Pain. 2003;104:401-13 pubmed
    ..We analyzed mRNA and protein levels of the GluR1 and GluR2 AMPA receptor subunits in the RVM at 2h to 14 days post-inflammation...
  56. Brachet A, Norwood S, Brouwers J, Palomer E, Helms J, Dotti C, et al. LTP-triggered cholesterol redistribution activates Cdc42 and drives AMPA receptor synaptic delivery. J Cell Biol. 2015;208:791-806 pubmed publisher
    ..A reduction in cholesterol, in turn, leads to the activation of Cdc42 and the mobilization of GluA1-containing α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) from Rab11-..
  57. Gan Q, Dai J, Zhou H, Wollmuth L. The Transmembrane Domain Mediates Tetramerization of α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) Receptors. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:6595-606 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the isolated TMD of the GluA1 AMPAR is fully capable of tetramerization...
  58. Dias R, Ribeiro J, Sebastião A. Enhancement of AMPA currents and GluR1 membrane expression through PKA-coupled adenosine A(2A) receptors. Hippocampus. 2012;22:276-91 pubmed publisher the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), as well as in the membrane levels of GluR1 subunits phosphorylated at the PKA site (Ser845)...
  59. Harms K, Tovar K, Craig A. Synapse-specific regulation of AMPA receptor subunit composition by activity. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6379-88 pubmed
    ..However, silenced neurons could not recruit the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit GluR1 as efficiently when competing with active neighbors...
  60. Fukata Y, Tzingounis A, Trinidad J, Fukata M, Burlingame A, Nicoll R, et al. Molecular constituents of neuronal AMPA receptors. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:399-404 pubmed
    ..AMPARs: an immature complex with the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone immunoglobulin-binding protein and a mature complex containing GluR1, TARPs, and PSD-95. These studies establish TARPs as the auxiliary components of neuronal AMPARs.
  61. Nikandrova Y, Jiao Y, Baucum A, Tavalin S, Colbran R. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II binds to and phosphorylates a specific SAP97 splice variant to disrupt association with AKAP79/150 and modulate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) activ. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:923-34 pubmed publisher
    Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) promotes trafficking and activation of the GluR1 subunit of alpha-amino- 3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) during synaptic plasticity...
  62. Wood D, Buse J, Wellman C, Rebec G. Differential environmental exposure alters NMDA but not AMPA receptor subunit expression in nucleus accumbens core and shell. Brain Res. 2005;1042:176-83 pubmed
    ..this brain region, we assessed expression of the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and the GluR1 subunit of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor in the NAcc core and shell ..
  63. Jacob A, Weinberg R. The organization of AMPA receptor subunits at the postsynaptic membrane. Hippocampus. 2015;25:798-812 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that GluA1 concentrates away from the center of the synapse, extending at least 25 nm beyond the synaptic specialization; in ..
  64. Mack V, Burnashev N, Kaiser K, Rozov A, Jensen V, Hvalby O, et al. Conditional restoration of hippocampal synaptic potentiation in Glur-A-deficient mice. Science. 2001;292:2501-4 pubmed dependent on l-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptors containing the glutamate receptor A (GluR-A) subunit...
  65. Martínez Turrillas R, Del Rio J, Frechilla D. Neuronal proteins involved in synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors in rat hippocampus by antidepressant drugs. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;353:750-5 pubmed
    ..Both antidepressants increased the interaction of GluR1 subunit with stargazin and of GluR2/3 with NSF...
  66. Liu T, Jiang C, Fujita T, Luo S, Kumamoto E. Enhancement by interleukin-1? of AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated currents in adult rat spinal superficial dorsal horn neurons. Mol Pain. 2013;9:16 pubmed publisher
    ..Since IL-1? contributes to nociceptive behavior induced by peripheral nerve or tissue injury, the present findings also reveal an important cellular link between neuronal and glial cells in the spinal dorsal horn. ..
  67. Han M, Jiao S, Jia J, Chen Y, Chen C, Gucek M, et al. The novel caspase-3 substrate Gap43 is involved in AMPA receptor endocytosis and long-term depression. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013;12:3719-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study has identified Gap43 as a key caspase-3 substrate involved in LTD and AMPA receptor endocytosis, uncovered a novel postsynaptic function for Gap43 and provided new insights into how long-term synaptic depression is induced. ..
  68. Wang X, MCCOY P, Rodriguiz R, Pan Y, Je H, Roberts A, et al. Synaptic dysfunction and abnormal behaviors in mice lacking major isoforms of Shank3. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:3093-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Shank3(e4-9) mice have reduced levels of Homer1b/c, GKAP and GluA1 at the PSD, and show attenuated activity-dependent redistribution of GluA1-containing AMPA receptors...
  69. Hsu W, Chung H, Wu C, Wu H, Lee Y, Chen E, et al. Glutamate Stimulates Local Protein Synthesis in the Axons of Rat Cortical Neurons by Activating α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) Receptors and Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:20748-60 pubmed publisher
    ..translation in axons begins with the binding of glutamate to the ionotropic AMPA receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 and members of group 2 metabotropic glutamate receptors on the plasma membrane...
  70. Peng X, Ziff E, Carr K. Effects of food restriction and sucrose intake on synaptic delivery of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens. Synapse. 2011;65:1024-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Brief intake of sucrose increased GluR1 in the PSD, regardless of dietary condition, though the net effect was greater in FR than AL subjects...
  71. Ninomiya M, Numakawa T, Adachi N, Furuta M, Chiba S, Richards M, et al. Cortical neurons from intrauterine growth retardation rats exhibit lower response to neurotrophin BDNF. Neurosci Lett. 2010;476:104-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of glutamate receptors such as GluA1 and GluN2A was also suppressed in IUGR-rat cultures...
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    ..Alloxan, an inhibitor of O-GlcNAc transferase, potentiated responses of AMPA receptors composed of the GluR1 subunit expressed in Xenopus oocytes...
  73. Toda A, Huganir R. Regulation of AMPA receptor phosphorylation by the neuropeptide PACAP38. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:6712-7 pubmed publisher
    ..pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP38) alters hippocampal CA1 synaptic strength and GluA1 synaptic localization, its effect on AMPAR phosphorylation state has not been explored...
  74. Anborgh P, Godin C, Pampillo M, Dhami G, Dale L, Cregan S, et al. Inhibition of metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling by the huntingtin-binding protein optineurin. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:34840-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these studies identify a novel mechanism for mGluR desensitization and an additional biochemical link between altered glutamate receptor signaling and Huntington disease. ..
  75. Ampuero E, Rubio F, Falcon R, Sandoval M, Diaz Veliz G, Gonzalez R, et al. Chronic fluoxetine treatment induces structural plasticity and selective changes in glutamate receptor subunits in the rat cerebral cortex. Neuroscience. 2010;169:98-108 pubmed publisher
    ..NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor subunit levels (NR1, NR2A, NR2B, GluR1 and GluR2) were analysed in the forebrain by both western blot of homogenates and immunohistochemistry...
  76. Peineau S, Taghibiglou C, Bradley C, Wong T, Liu L, Lu J, et al. LTP inhibits LTD in the hippocampus via regulation of GSK3beta. Neuron. 2007;53:703-17 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the regulation of GSK3beta activity provides a powerful mechanism to preserve information encoded during LTP from erasure by subsequent LTD, perhaps thereby permitting the initial consolidation of learnt information...
  77. Kott S, Werner M, Körber C, Hollmann M. Electrophysiological properties of AMPA receptors are differentially modulated depending on the associated member of the TARP family. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3780-9 pubmed
    ..encoded by four genes that are differentially spliced to result in the flip or flop versions of the four subunits GluR1 to GluR4. GluR2 is further modified at the so-called Q/R site by posttranscriptional RNA editing...
  78. Itakura M, Watanabe I, Sugaya T, Takahashi M. Direct association of the unique C-terminal tail of transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein ?-8 with calcineurin. FEBS J. 2014;281:1366-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the ?-8 P/A-rich region is essential for binding calcineurin, suggesting that the ?-8/calcineurin complex may regulate AMPA receptor phosphorylation and trafficking. ..
  79. Challenor M, O Hare Doig R, Fuller P, Giacci M, Bartlett C, Wale C, et al. Prolonged glutamate excitotoxicity increases GluR1 immunoreactivity but decreases mRNA of GluR1 and associated regulatory proteins in dissociated rat retinae in vitro. Biochimie. 2015;112:160-71 pubmed publisher
    ..RT-qPCR), to determine the effect of prolonged glutamate excitotoxicity on the expression of mRNA encoding for GluR1 and AMPA receptor regulatory proteins in dissociated rat retinal cultures that include neuronal (retinal ganglion ..
  80. Choi K, Rahman Z, Edwards S, Hall S, Neve R, Self D. Opposite effects of GluR1 and PKA-resistant GluR1 overexpression in the ventral tegmental area on cocaine reinforcement. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;1003:372-4 pubmed
  81. Li L, Wang H, Ghafari M, An G, Korz V, Lubec G. Dorsal hippocampal brain receptor complexes linked to the protein synthesis-dependent late phase (LTP) in the rat. Brain Struct Funct. 2015;220:1051-62 pubmed publisher gel electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometrical identification of the NR1-GluA1-GluA2 complex was used to provide evidence for complex formation...
  82. Hobson B, O Neill C, Levis S, Monteggia L, Neve R, Self D, et al. Adenosine A1 and dopamine d1 receptor regulation of AMPA receptor phosphorylation and cocaine-seeking behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013;38:1974-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoblotting was used to determine whether stimulating D1DR altered synaptic AMPA GluA1 phosphorylation (pGluA1)...
  83. Dixon R, Mellor J, Hanley J. PICK1-mediated glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) trafficking contributes to cell death in oxygen/glucose-deprived hippocampal neurons. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:14230-5 pubmed publisher
  84. Poon M, Chen L. Retinoic acid-gated sequence-specific translational control by RARalpha. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20303-8 pubmed publisher
    ..acts as an RNA-binding protein that associates with a subset of mRNAs, including dendritically localized glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) mRNA...
  85. Hussain N, Diering G, Sole J, Anggono V, Huganir R. Sorting Nexin 27 regulates basal and activity-dependent trafficking of AMPARs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:11840-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of SNX27 abolishes recruitment of surface AMPARs during chemical LTP. Collectively, our data suggest a role for SNX27 in modulating synaptic plasticity through regulated interaction with AMPARs. ..
  86. Jaafari N, Konopacki F, Owen T, Kantamneni S, Rubin P, Craig T, et al. SUMOylation is required for glycine-induced increases in AMPA receptor surface expression (ChemLTP) in hippocampal neurons. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e52345 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that protein SUMOylation is required for insertion of the GluA1 AMPAR subunit following transient glycine-evoked increase in AMPA receptor surface expression (ChemLTP) in ..
  87. Deng Y, Xie J, Wang H, Lei W, Chen Q, Reiner A. Differential localization of the GluR1 and GluR2 subunits of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor among striatal neuron types in rats. J Chem Neuroanat. 2007;33:167-92 pubmed
    ..We therefore used immunolabeling to assess the frequency and abundance of GluR1 and GluR2, the most common AMPA subunits in striatum, in the main striatal neuron types...
  88. Seo S, Oh J, Choe E. Protein kinase G increases AMPA receptor GluR1 phosphorylation at serine 845 after repeated cocaine administration in the rat nucleus accumbens. Neurosci Lett. 2013;544:147-51 pubmed publisher
    The regulation of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor GluR1 subunit phosphorylation at serine 845 (GluR1-Ser845) by protein kinase G (PKG) activation was investigated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) after ..
  89. Nakazawa K, Tadakuma T, Nokihara K, Ito M. Antibody specific for phosphorylated AMPA-type glutamate receptors at GluR2 Ser-696. Neurosci Res. 1995;24:75-86 pubmed
    ..Another peptide containing Thr-692 of a rat GluRA, clone almost identical to GluR1, was phosphorylated by PKC but not by PKG...
  90. Madden D. The structure and function of glutamate receptor ion channels. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2002;3:91-101 pubmed
  91. Lu W, Isozaki K, Roche K, Nicoll R. Synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors is regulated by a CaMKII site in the first intracellular loop of GluA1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:22266-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Although there is an extensive literature on the role of the GluA1 C-tail in AMPAR trafficking, there is no effect of overexpressing the C-tail on basal transmission...