Gene Symbol: Gpx1
Description: glutathione peroxidase 1
Alias: GSHPx, GSHPx-1, glutathione peroxidase 1, GPx-1, cellular glutathione peroxidase
Species: rat
Products:     Gpx1

Top Publications

  1. Forgione M, Weiss N, Heydrick S, Cap A, Klings E, Bierl C, et al. Cellular glutathione peroxidase deficiency and endothelial dysfunction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;282:H1255-61 pubmed
    b>Cellular glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1) is the most abundant intracellular isoform of the GPx antioxidant enzyme family...
  2. Zachwieja J, Bobkowski W, Dobrowolska Zachwieja A, Zaniew M, Maciejewski J. Decreased antioxidant activity in hypercholesterolemic children with nephrotic syndrome. Med Sci Monit. 2003;9:CR235-9 pubmed
    ..65+/-6.99 U/g Hb vs. 33.84+/-13.11 U/g Hb, p=0.010). There was no significant difference in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity between the 3 groups. Reduced antioxidant activity may be related to lipid abnormalities in NS. ..
  3. Hu Y, Diamond A. Role of glutathione peroxidase 1 in breast cancer: loss of heterozygosity and allelic differences in the response to selenium. Cancer Res. 2003;63:3347-51 pubmed
    A role for allelic variation within the gene for the antioxidant selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1) in the risk or etiology of breast cancer was investigated...
  4. Blankenberg S, Rupprecht H, Bickel C, Torzewski M, Hafner G, Tiret L, et al. Glutathione peroxidase 1 activity and cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:1605-13 pubmed
    Cellular antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase 1 and superoxide dismutase have a central role in the control of reactive oxygen species...
  5. Hamanishi T, Furuta H, Kato H, Doi A, Tamai M, Shimomura H, et al. Functional variants in the glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) gene are associated with increased intima-media thickness of carotid arteries and risk of macrovascular diseases in japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes. 2004;53:2455-60 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that functional variants in the GPx-1 gene are associated with increased IMT of carotid arteries and risk of cardiovascular and peripheral vascular diseases in type 2 diabetic patients. ..
  6. Drew J, Farquharson A, Arthur J, Morrice P, Duthie G. Novel sites of cytosolic glutathione peroxidase expression in colon. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:6135-9 pubmed
    ..This study reports evidence of both common sites of Gpx1 and Gpx2 expression in rat colon and sites that are exclusive to each isoform...
  7. Han Y, Kim H, Kim E, Kim K, Hong S, Park H, et al. ROR? decreases oxidative stress through the induction of SOD2 and GPx1 expression and thereby protects against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in mice. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2014;21:2083-94 pubmed publisher
    ..ROR? or CS treatment induced the mRNA level of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), through the ROR? response elements located in the upstream promoters of Sod2 and Gpx1...
  8. Bruin J, Petre M, Lehman M, Raha S, Gerstein H, Morrison K, et al. Maternal nicotine exposure increases oxidative stress in the offspring. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008;44:1919-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that beta-cell apoptosis in the fetal and neonatal pancreas may be the result of a direct effect of nicotine via its receptor and that this effect may be mediated through increased oxidative stress. ..
  9. Esworthy R, Mann J, Sam M, Chu F. Low glutathione peroxidase activity in Gpx1 knockout mice protects jejunum crypts from gamma-irradiation damage. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000;279:G426-36 pubmed
    b>Gpx1 knockout (KO) mice had a higher number of regenerating crypts in the jejunum than did Gpx2-KO or wild-type mice analyzed 4 days after > or =10 Gy gamma-irradiation...

More Information


  1. Lei C, Niu X, Wei J, Zhu J, Zhu Y. Interaction of glutathione peroxidase-1 and selenium in endemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Clin Chim Acta. 2009;399:102-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from this unique disease may have broad implications for a gene-environment reaction in the etiology of other diseases. ..
  2. Wolf N, Penn P, Pendergrass W, Van Remmen H, Bartke A, Rabinovitch P, et al. Age-related cataract progression in five mouse models for anti-oxidant protection or hormonal influence. Exp Eye Res. 2005;81:276-85 pubmed
    ..Model 1, mice null for the anti-oxidant gene glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) had significantly advanced cataracts in older mice vs. same age controls...
  3. Legault J, Carrier C, Petrov P, Renard P, Remacle J, Mirault M. Mitochondrial GPx1 decreases induced but not basal oxidative damage to mtDNA in T47D cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;272:416-22 pubmed
    ..The potential protection of mtDNA by glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1) was investigated in GPx1-proficient (GPx-2) and GPx1-deficient (Hygro-3) human breast T47D cell transfectants...
  4. Fujii T, Endo T, Fujii J, Taniguchi N. Differential expression of glutathione reductase and cytosolic glutathione peroxidase, GPX1, in developing rat lungs and kidneys. Free Radic Res. 2002;36:1041-9 pubmed
    A mutant rat GPX1 (a cytosolic predominant form), in which the selenocysteine residue in the catalytic center was replaced by cysteine, was prepared and an antibody against the mutant enzyme was raised...
  5. Miyamoto S, Dupas C, Murota K, Terao J. Phospholipid hydroperoxides are detoxified by phospholipase A2 and GSH peroxidase in rat gastric mucosa. Lipids. 2003;38:641-9 pubmed
  6. Sunde R, Thompson K, Evenson J, Thompson B. Blood glutathione peroxidase-1 mRNA levels can be used as molecular biomarkers to determine dietary selenium requirements in rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2009;234:1271-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that blood glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx1) mRNA was expressed at levels comparable to major tissues in rats and humans...
  7. Necheles T, Maldonado N, Barquet Chediak A, Allen D. Homozygous erythrocyte glutathione-peroxidase deficiency: clinical and biochemical studies. Blood. 1969;33:164-9 pubmed
  8. Gueven N, Luff J, Peng C, Hosokawa K, Bottle S, Lavin M. Dramatic extension of tumor latency and correction of neurobehavioral phenotype in Atm-mutant mice with a nitroxide antioxidant. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006;41:992-1000 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that antioxidant therapy has considerable potential in the management of ataxia telangiectasia and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders where oxidative stress is implicated...
  9. Hellmich H, Garcia J, Shimamura M, Shah S, Avila M, Uchida T, et al. Traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic hypotension suppress neuroprotective gene expression in injured hippocampal neurons. Anesthesiology. 2005;102:806-14 pubmed
    ..In injured CA3 neurons, expression of the neuroprotective genes glutathione peroxidase 1, heme oxygenase 1, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor was significantly decreased compared with that ..
  10. Gosbell A, Stefanovic N, Scurr L, Pete J, Kola I, Favilla I, et al. Retinal light damage: structural and functional effects of the antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-1. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:2613-22 pubmed
    The role of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1) in protecting the retina against photo-oxidative damage was investigated in GPx1-deficient and wild-type mice...
  11. Esworthy R, Binder S, Doroshow J, Chu F. Microflora trigger colitis in mice deficient in selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase and induce Gpx2 gene expression. Biol Chem. 2003;384:597-607 pubmed
    ..germ-free GPX-DKO mice developed severe acute colitis while their littermates with at least one wild-type Gpx1 or Gpx2 gene remained virtually symptom-free. Microflora also affected Gpx2 gene expression...
  12. Krzystek Korpacka M, Neubauer K, Berdowska I, Zielinski B, Paradowski L, Gamian A. Impaired erythrocyte antioxidant defense in active inflammatory bowel disease: impact of anemia and treatment. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010;16:1467-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Erythrocyte activities of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1) were determined in 174 IBD patients and 105 controls and referred to IBD activity, inflammation severity, ..
  13. Priyanka H, Krishnan H, Singh R, Hima L, ThyagaRajan S. Estrogen modulates in vitro T cell responses in a concentration- and receptor-dependent manner: effects on intracellular molecular targets and antioxidant enzymes. Mol Immunol. 2013;56:328-39 pubmed publisher
  14. Esworthy R, Ho Y, Chu F. The Gpx1 gene encodes mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase in the mouse liver. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997;340:59-63 pubmed
    Mitochondria have GPX and PHGPX activity. It has been an unsettled issue whether mitochondrial GPX is encoded by Gpx1. Unlike the Gpx4 gene which encodes PHGPX with alternative transcription and translation start sites determining the ..
  15. Trifa A, Bănescu C, Dima D, Bojan A, Tevet M, Moldovan V, et al. Among a panel of polymorphisms in genes related to oxidative stress, CAT-262 C>T, GPX1 Pro198Leu and GSTP1 Ile105Val influence the risk of developing BCR-ABL negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. Hematology. 2016;21:520-5 pubmed publisher
    ..relationship between six polymorphisms in genes related to oxidative stress, namely CAT-262 C>T, MnSOD Ala16Val, GPX1 Pro198Leu, GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes, and GSTP1 Ile105Val, and the occurrence of BCR-ABL negative ..
  16. Subudhi U, Chainy G. Expression of hepatic antioxidant genes in l-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroid rats: regulation by vitamin E and curcumin. Chem Biol Interact. 2010;183:304-16 pubmed publisher
    ..decreased the transcript levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) and glutathione reductase (GR) in liver...
  17. Harmon J, Bogdani M, Parazzoli S, Mak S, Oseid E, Berghmans M, et al. beta-Cell-specific overexpression of glutathione peroxidase preserves intranuclear MafA and reverses diabetes in db/db mice. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4855-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that enhancement of intrinsic antioxidant defenses of the beta-cell protects it against deterioration during hyperglycemia...
  18. Lee S, Sirajudeen K, Sundaram A, Zakaria R, Singh H. Effects of antenatal, postpartum and post-weaning melatonin supplementation on blood pressure and renal antioxidant enzyme activities in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Physiol Biochem. 2011;67:249-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, it appears that while antenatal and postpartum melatonin supplementation decreases the rate of rise in blood pressure in SHR offspring, it however does not alter the tendency of offspring of SHR to develop hypertension. ..
  19. Sunde R, Thompson K. Dietary selenium requirements based on tissue selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activities in old female rats. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2009;23:132-7 pubmed publisher
    ..05 microg Se/g diet based on liver Se, red blood cell glutathione peroxidase (Gpx1) activity, plasma Gpx3 activity, liver and kidney Gpx1 activity, and liver and kidney Gpx4 activity...
  20. Subudhi U, Chainy G. Curcumin and vitamin E modulate hepatic antioxidant gene expression in PTU-induced hypothyroid rats. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:9849-61 pubmed
    ..genes (Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase; SOD1, Mn superoxide dismutase; SOD2, catalase; CAT, glutathione peroxidase; GPx1 and glutathione reductase; GR) was evaluated using RT-PCR and Western blot analyses...
  21. Suge R, Shimazu T, Hasegawa H, Inoue I, Hayashibe H, Nagasaka H, et al. Cerebral antioxidant enzyme increase associated with learning deficit in type 2 diabetes rats. Brain Res. 2012;1481:97-106 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that diabetes-induced brain impairment, which results in learning deficits, may have occurred before the appearance of the symptoms of overt diabetes. ..
  22. Bănescu C, Iancu M, Trifa A, Cândea M, Benedek Lázár E, Moldovan V, et al. From Six Gene Polymorphisms of the Antioxidant System, Only GPX Pro198Leu and GSTP1 Ile105Val Modulate the Risk of Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:2536705 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association between CAT C262T, GPX1 Pro198Leu, MnSOD Ala16Val, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 Ile105Val gene polymorphisms and acute myeloid leukemia risk, in ..
  23. Lewis P, Stefanovic N, Pete J, Calkin A, Giunti S, Thallas Bonke V, et al. Lack of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1 accelerates atherosclerosis in diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Circulation. 2007;115:2178-87 pubmed
    Recent clinical studies have suggested a major protective role for the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1) in diabetes-associated atherosclerosis...
  24. Zeng M, Li X, Liu Y, Zhao H, Zhou J, Li K, et al. A high-selenium diet induces insulin resistance in gestating rats and their offspring. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;52:1335-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Dietary Se produced dose-dependent increases in Gpx1 mRNA or GPX1 activity in pancreas, liver, and erythrocytes of dams. The 3.0mg Se/kg diet decreased Selh (P<0...
  25. Colak E, Majkic Singh N, Stankovic S, Srecković Dimitrijević V, Djordjevic P, Lalic K, et al. Parameters of antioxidative defense in type 2 diabetic patients with cardiovascular complications. Ann Med. 2005;37:613-20 pubmed
  26. Naithani R, Chandra J, Bhattacharjee J, Verma P, Narayan S. Peroxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in children with beta-thalassemia major. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006;46:780-5 pubmed
    ..Our study results suggest that iron overload causes peroxidative damage in beta-thalassemia and antioxidant systems try to compensate for reducing lipid peroxidation to lower tissue damage. ..
  27. Esworthy R, Aranda R, Martin M, Doroshow J, Binder S, Chu F. Mice with combined disruption of Gpx1 and Gpx2 genes have colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001;281:G848-55 pubmed
    Glutathione peroxidase (GPX)-1 and gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium-specific GPX (GPX-GI), encoded by Gpx1 and Gpx2, provide most GPX activity in GI epithelium...
  28. Winter J, Gong Y, Grant P, Wild C. Glutathione peroxidase 1 genotype is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Coron Artery Dis. 2003;14:149-53 pubmed
    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases including atherosclerosis. Human glutathione peroxidase 1 (hgpx1) participates in limiting cellular damage caused by oxidation...
  29. Weir C, Robaire B. Spermatozoa have decreased antioxidant enzymatic capacity and increased reactive oxygen species production during aging in the Brown Norway rat. J Androl. 2007;28:229-40 pubmed
    ..Glutathione peroxidase (Gpx1, Gpx4) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes had decreased activity in aging spermatozoa...
  30. Nasr M, Fedele M, Esser K, Diamond A. GPx-1 modulates Akt and P70S6K phosphorylation and Gadd45 levels in MCF-7 cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004;37:187-95 pubmed
  31. Cho C, Kato G, Yang S, Bae S, Lee J, Gladwin M, et al. Hydroxyurea-induced expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 in red blood cells of individuals with sickle cell anemia. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010;13:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured the amounts of six antioxidant enzymes-SOD1, catalase, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), as well as peroxiredoxins (Prxs) I, II, and VI-in red blood cells (RBCs) of SCD patients and ..
  32. Vives Corrons J, Pujades M, Aguilar i Bascompte J, Jou J, Rozman C, Ester A. Pyrimidine 5'nucleotidase and several other red cell enzyme activities in beta-thalassaemia trait. Br J Haematol. 1984;56:483-94 pubmed
    ..The present findings provide further information on the metabolic status of RBC in beta-thalassaemia trait and suggest a possible molecular explanation for the frequently observed basophilic stippling in this disease. ..
  33. Chen S, Wang C, Lin F, Young T. Absent effect of zinc deficiency on the oxidative stress of erythrocytes in chronic uremic rats. Chin J Physiol. 2002;45:9-17 pubmed
    ..Plasma copper level may be a marker of RBC-SOD activity. We conclude, in chronic uremia, zinc deficiency doses not result in RBC oxidative stress as plasma copper level is normal, but may affect the absorption of intestinal nutrition. ..
  34. Musicki B, Liu T, Sezen S, Burnett A. Targeting NADPH oxidase decreases oxidative stress in the transgenic sickle cell mouse penis. J Sex Med. 2012;9:1980-7 pubmed publisher
    ..and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD]1, SOD2, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase-1 [GPx1]) were measured by Western blot in penes...
  35. Zhang L, Fujii S, Kosaka H. Effect of oestrogen on reactive oxygen species production in the aortas of ovariectomized Dahl salt-sensitive rats. J Hypertens. 2007;25:407-14 pubmed
    ..In contrast, ovariectomy reduced the expression of ecSOD mRNA and protein and the expression of GPx1 and GPx4 mRNA in the aorta...
  36. Faucher K, Rabinovitch Chable H, Barriere G, Cook Moreau J, Rigaud M. Overexpression of cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) delays endothelial cell growth and increases resistance to toxic challenges. Biochimie. 2003;85:611-7 pubmed
    ..Among them, cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) plays a major role as it reduces a large part of intracellular ROS...
  37. Kretz Remy C, Arrigo A. Modulation of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the 20S proteasome by intracellular redox status: effects of glutathione peroxidase-1 overexpression and antioxidant drugs. Biol Chem. 2003;384:589-95 pubmed
    ..Hence, the intracellular redox status, probably through the level of oxidized proteins, is an important element that can either activate or down-regulate the 20S proteasome chymotrypsin-like activity in living cells. ..
  38. Sadi G, Guray T. Gene expressions of Mn-SOD and GPx-1 in streptozotocin-induced diabetes: effect of antioxidants. Mol Cell Biochem. 2009;327:127-34 pubmed publisher
  39. Sunde R, Evenson J, Thompson K, Sachdev S. Dietary selenium requirements based on glutathione peroxidase-1 activity and mRNA levels and other Se-dependent parameters are not increased by pregnancy and lactation in rats. J Nutr. 2005;135:2144-50 pubmed
    ..The Se requirement for GPX1 activity decreased 25% in pregnancy but not in lactation. GPX1 mRNA required 0...
  40. Prats M, Font R, Garcia C, Muñoz Cortés M, Cabré C, Jariod M, et al. Oxidative stress markers in predicting response to treatment with ferric carboxymaltose in nondialysis chronic kidney disease patients. Clin Nephrol. 2014;81:419-26 pubmed publisher
    ..02). Decreased eGPx activity has adverse influences on response to FCM, suggesting that impaired erythrocyte antioxidant defense may be involved in the response to iron therapy in CKD patients. ..
  41. Fu Y, Sies H, Lei X. Opposite roles of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase-1 in superoxide generator diquat- and peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis and signaling. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:43004-9 pubmed
    ..We determined impacts of a selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) on apoptosis induced by diquat (DQ), a ROS (superoxide) generator, and peroxynitrite (PN), a potent RNS...
  42. Vibet S, Goupille C, Bougnoux P, Steghens J, Gore J, Maheo K. Sensitization by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) of breast cancer cells to anthracyclines through loss of glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) response. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008;44:1483-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This was concomitant with a decreased cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) activity, a crucial enzyme for protection against hydrogen and lipid peroxides, while major antioxidant enzyme ..
  43. Cheng W, Fu Y, Porres J, Ross D, Lei X. Selenium-dependent cellular glutathione peroxidase protects mice against a pro-oxidant-induced oxidation of NADPH, NADH, lipids, and protein. FASEB J. 1999;13:1467-75 pubmed
    Since our prior work indicated that Se-dependent cellular glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) was necessary for protection against paraquat lethality, the present studies were to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms related to that protection...
  44. Maseko T, Dunshea F, Howell K, Cho H, Rivera L, Furness J, et al. Selenium-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom protects against increase in gut permeability ex vivo and up-regulates glutathione peroxidase 1 and 2 in hyperthermally-induced oxidative stress in rats. Nutrients. 2014;6:2478-92 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Thus, dietary Se-enriched A. bisporus protected against increase in ileum permeability and up-regulated GPx-1 and GPx-2 expression, selenoenzymes relevant to mitigating oxidative stress. ..
  45. Crack P, Taylor J, Flentjar N, de Haan J, Hertzog P, Iannello R, et al. Increased infarct size and exacerbated apoptosis in the glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx-1) knockout mouse brain in response to ischemia/reperfusion injury. J Neurochem. 2001;78:1389-99 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Gpx-1 plays an important regulatory role in the protection of neural cells in response to the extreme oxidative stress that is released during ischemia/reperfusion injury. ..
  46. Yeste Velasco M, Alvira D, Sureda F, Rimbau V, Forsby A, Pallas M, et al. DNA low-density array analysis of colchicine neurotoxicity in rat cerebellar granular neurons. Neurotoxicology. 2008;29:309-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with colchicine up-regulated significantly the activity of genes related to oxidative stress: glutathione peroxidase 1 and catalase; altered significantly genes related to cell cycle control (cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent ..
  47. Flentjar N, Crack P, Boyd R, Malin M, de Haan J, Hertzog P, et al. Mice lacking glutathione peroxidase-1 activity show increased TUNEL staining and an accelerated inflammatory response in brain following a cold-induced injury. Exp Neurol. 2002;177:9-20 pubmed
  48. Zabihi S, Wentzel P, Eriksson U. Altered uterine perfusion is involved in fetal outcome of diabetic rats. Placenta. 2008;29:413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal diabetes causes decreased expression of anti-oxidative enzymes and enhanced angiogenesis in the offspring in rats. ..
  49. Faucher K, Rabinovitch Chable H, Cook Moreau J, Barrière G, Sturtz F, Rigaud M. Overexpression of human GPX1 modifies Bax to Bcl-2 apoptotic ratio in human endothelial cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005;277:81-7 pubmed
    ..human endothelial like cell-line overexpressing the organic hydroperoxide-scavenging enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), in the absence of any apoptotic/oxidant stimulus...
  50. Sindhu R, Ehdaie A, Farmand F, Dhaliwal K, Nguyen T, Zhan C, et al. Expression of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in renal insufficiency. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1743:86-92 pubmed
    ..These events point to the role of impaired antioxidant defense system in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress in CRF. ..
  51. Almondes K, de Oliveira T, Siviero Miachon A, Lee M, Rondó P, Loureiro A, et al. Selenium inadequacy is not associated with oxidative stress in child and adolescent acute lymphocytic leukemia survivors. Nutrition. 2014;30:563-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, individuals of the ALL group were with increased oxidative stress compared with the control group, possibly due to previous disease and to intensive polychemotherapy. ..
  52. Staversky R, Watkins R, Wright T, Hernady E, LoMonaco M, D angio C, et al. Normal remodeling of the oxygen-injured lung requires the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip1/WAF1/Sdi1). Am J Pathol. 2002;161:1383-93 pubmed
    ..This observation has important implications for therapeutic strategies designed to attenuate long-term chronic lung disease after oxidant injury. ..
  53. Zarbock R, Hendig D, Szliska C, Kleesiek K, Gotting C. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum: genetic variations in antioxidant genes are risk factors for early disease onset. Clin Chem. 2007;53:1734-40 pubmed
    ..single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes encoding catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) in DNA samples from 117 German PXE patients and 117 healthy age- and sex-matched control ..