Gnrh1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Gnrh1
Description: gonadotropin releasing hormone 1
Alias: Gnrh, Gnrha, Lhrh, Rgnrhg1, SH-4, progonadoliberin-1, Putative protein SH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (luteinizing-releasing hormone), luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, progonadoliberin I
Species: rat
Products:     Gnrh1

Top Publications

  1. Chan Y, de Guillebon A, Lang Muritano M, Plummer L, Cerrato F, Tsiaras S, et al. GNRH1 mutations in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11703-8 pubmed publisher
    ..be mutated in patients with IHH, yet to date no mutations have been identified in the most obvious candidate gene, GNRH1 itself, which encodes the preprohormone that is ultimately processed to produce GnRH...
  2. Bouligand J, Ghervan C, Tello J, Brailly Tabard S, Salenave S, Chanson P, et al. Isolated familial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and a GNRH1 mutation. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2742-8 pubmed publisher
    We investigated whether mutations in the gene encoding gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1) might be responsible for idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) in humans...
  3. Gore A, Attardi B, DeFranco D. Glucocorticoid repression of the reproductive axis: effects on GnRH and gonadotropin subunit mRNA levels. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006;256:40-8 pubmed
    ..Rats were treated either chronically or acutely with glucocorticoids, and circulating gonadotropins, GnRH mRNA levels, and gonadotropin subunit mRNAs levels were measured...
  4. Kinsey Jones J, Li X, Luckman S, O Byrne K. Effects of kisspeptin-10 on the electrophysiological manifestation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator activity in the female rat. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1004-8 pubmed
    ..are extraordinarily potent in stimulating gonadotropic hormone secretion via an action on the hypothalamic GnRH neural system...
  5. Parhar I, Soga T, Ogawa S, Ogawa S, Pfaff D, Sakuma Y. Nonmammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone molecules in the brain of promoter transgenic rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:5880-5 pubmed
    Mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH1) and nonmammalian immunoreactive GnRH subtypes were examined in transgenic rats carrying an enhanced GFP (EGFP) reporter gene driven by a rat GnRH1 promoter...
  6. Iwasa T, Matsuzaki T, Murakami M, Kinouchi R, Gereltsetseg G, Yamamoto S, et al. Delayed puberty in prenatally glucocorticoid administered female rats occurs independently of the hypothalamic Kiss1-Kiss1r-GnRH system. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2011;29:183-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously reported that decreased action of hypothalamic kisspeptin, which is a positive regulator of GnRH, contributes to the delayed onset of puberty in undernutrition-induced IUGR rats...
  7. Kelley C, Givens M, Rave Harel N, Nelson S, Anderson S, Mellon P. Neuron-restricted expression of the rat gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene is conferred by a cell-specific protein complex that binds repeated CAATT elements. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:2413-25 pubmed
    b>GnRH gene expression is restricted to a tiny population of neurons scattered throughout the mediobasal hypothalamus...
  8. Scott H, Zoeller R, Rudeen P. Acute prenatal ethanol exposure and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone messenger RNA expression in the fetal mouse brain. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1995;19:153-9 pubmed
    ..the effects of acute ethanol exposure on the number of neurons expressing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) messenger RNA (mRNA) has been analyzed...
  9. Woller M, Tannenbaum P, Schultz Darken N, Eshelman B, Abbott D. Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone release from hypothalamic explants of male marmoset monkeys compared with male rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298:R70-8 pubmed publisher
    The present study was conducted to quantify in vitro gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release parameters in the male marmoset...
  10. Suzuki A, Ji G, Numabe Y, Ishii K, Muramatsu M, Kamoi K. Large-scale investigation of genomic markers for severe periodontitis. Odontology. 2004;92:43-7 pubmed
    ..volunteers and patients with severe periodontitis in the following genes; gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory 1 (PIK3R1), dipeptidylpeptidase 4 (DPP4), fibrinogen-like 2 (FGL2), and ..

Detail Information

Publications84

  1. Chan Y, de Guillebon A, Lang Muritano M, Plummer L, Cerrato F, Tsiaras S, et al. GNRH1 mutations in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11703-8 pubmed publisher
    ..be mutated in patients with IHH, yet to date no mutations have been identified in the most obvious candidate gene, GNRH1 itself, which encodes the preprohormone that is ultimately processed to produce GnRH...
  2. Bouligand J, Ghervan C, Tello J, Brailly Tabard S, Salenave S, Chanson P, et al. Isolated familial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and a GNRH1 mutation. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2742-8 pubmed publisher
    We investigated whether mutations in the gene encoding gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1) might be responsible for idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) in humans...
  3. Gore A, Attardi B, DeFranco D. Glucocorticoid repression of the reproductive axis: effects on GnRH and gonadotropin subunit mRNA levels. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006;256:40-8 pubmed
    ..Rats were treated either chronically or acutely with glucocorticoids, and circulating gonadotropins, GnRH mRNA levels, and gonadotropin subunit mRNAs levels were measured...
  4. Kinsey Jones J, Li X, Luckman S, O Byrne K. Effects of kisspeptin-10 on the electrophysiological manifestation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator activity in the female rat. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1004-8 pubmed
    ..are extraordinarily potent in stimulating gonadotropic hormone secretion via an action on the hypothalamic GnRH neural system...
  5. Parhar I, Soga T, Ogawa S, Ogawa S, Pfaff D, Sakuma Y. Nonmammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone molecules in the brain of promoter transgenic rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:5880-5 pubmed
    Mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH1) and nonmammalian immunoreactive GnRH subtypes were examined in transgenic rats carrying an enhanced GFP (EGFP) reporter gene driven by a rat GnRH1 promoter...
  6. Iwasa T, Matsuzaki T, Murakami M, Kinouchi R, Gereltsetseg G, Yamamoto S, et al. Delayed puberty in prenatally glucocorticoid administered female rats occurs independently of the hypothalamic Kiss1-Kiss1r-GnRH system. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2011;29:183-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously reported that decreased action of hypothalamic kisspeptin, which is a positive regulator of GnRH, contributes to the delayed onset of puberty in undernutrition-induced IUGR rats...
  7. Kelley C, Givens M, Rave Harel N, Nelson S, Anderson S, Mellon P. Neuron-restricted expression of the rat gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene is conferred by a cell-specific protein complex that binds repeated CAATT elements. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:2413-25 pubmed
    b>GnRH gene expression is restricted to a tiny population of neurons scattered throughout the mediobasal hypothalamus...
  8. Scott H, Zoeller R, Rudeen P. Acute prenatal ethanol exposure and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone messenger RNA expression in the fetal mouse brain. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1995;19:153-9 pubmed
    ..the effects of acute ethanol exposure on the number of neurons expressing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) messenger RNA (mRNA) has been analyzed...
  9. Woller M, Tannenbaum P, Schultz Darken N, Eshelman B, Abbott D. Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone release from hypothalamic explants of male marmoset monkeys compared with male rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298:R70-8 pubmed publisher
    The present study was conducted to quantify in vitro gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release parameters in the male marmoset...
  10. Suzuki A, Ji G, Numabe Y, Ishii K, Muramatsu M, Kamoi K. Large-scale investigation of genomic markers for severe periodontitis. Odontology. 2004;92:43-7 pubmed
    ..volunteers and patients with severe periodontitis in the following genes; gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory 1 (PIK3R1), dipeptidylpeptidase 4 (DPP4), fibrinogen-like 2 (FGL2), and ..
  11. Quennell J, Mulligan A, Tups A, Liu X, Phipps S, Kemp C, et al. Leptin indirectly regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal function. Endocrinology. 2009;150:2805-12 pubmed publisher
    The adipose-derived hormone leptin communicates information about metabolic status to the hypothalamic GnRH neuronal system. It is unclear whether leptin can act directly on GnRH neurons. To examine this, we used three approaches...
  12. Johnston J, Messager S, Ebling F, Williams L, Barrett P, Hazlerigg D. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone drives melatonin receptor down-regulation in the developing pituitary gland. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:2831-5 pubmed
    ..the transcription factor, early growth response factor-1, which is induced by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and trans-activates LH beta expression, attenuated Pitx-1-induced MT(1)-luciferase activity...
  13. Pimpinelli F, Parenti M, Guzzi F, Piva F, Hokfelt T, Maggi R. Presence of delta opioid receptors on a subset of hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Brain Res. 2006;1070:15-23 pubmed
    Opioid peptides exert an inhibitory effect on hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion mainly by interacting with mu-opioid receptors...
  14. Rick F, Szalontay L, Schally A, Block N, Nadji M, Szepeshazi K, et al. Combining growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonist with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist greatly augments benign prostatic hyperplasia shrinkage. J Urol. 2012;187:1498-504 pubmed publisher
  15. Kriszt R, Winkler Z, Polyák Ã, Kuti D, Molnár C, Hrabovszky E, et al. Xenoestrogens Ethinyl Estradiol and Zearalenone Cause Precocious Puberty in Female Rats via Central Kisspeptin Signaling. Endocrinology. 2015;156:3996-4007 pubmed publisher
    ..uterine weight and the number of antral follicles in the ovary, and resulted in the increased central expression of gnrh. These changes occurred in parallel with an earlier increase of kiss1 mRNA in the anteroventral and rostral ..
  16. Cheng M, Ye X, Miao Y, Chen A, Zheng G. [Experimental study on therapeutic effect of Dabuyin Wan on true precocious puberty in female rats]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2013;38:386-90 pubmed
    ..expressions of GnRH, GPR54 and Kiss-1 mRNA in hypothalamus were measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR to investigate the possible ..
  17. Abel M, Wootton A, Wilkins V, Huhtaniemi I, Knight P, Charlton H. The effect of a null mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene on mouse reproduction. Endocrinology. 2000;141:1795-803 pubmed
    ..In the male, however, inability to respond to FSH does not impair fertility, although testicular weight is reduced, and feedback regulation of pituitary gonadotropins and intratesticular paracrine interactions may be disturbed. ..
  18. Wu L, Liu W, Bayaer N, Gu W, Song J. Exogenous leptin administered intramuscularly induces sex hormone disorder and Ca loss via downregulation of Gnrh and PI3K expression. Exp Anim. 2014;63:447-57 pubmed
    ..polymerase chain reaction analysis of neuropeptide Y, pro-opiomelanocortin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gnrh) mRNA, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr) mRNA expression; and western blotting analysis of enzyme ..
  19. Ohkura S, Uenoyama Y, Yamada S, Homma T, Takase K, Inoue N, et al. Physiological role of metastin/kisspeptin in regulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in female rats. Peptides. 2009;30:49-56 pubmed publisher
    ..to unravel the physiological role of metastin/kisspeptin in the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release...
  20. Li X, Kinsey Jones J, Cheng Y, Knox A, Lin Y, Petrou N, et al. Kisspeptin signalling in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus regulates GnRH pulse generator frequency in the rat. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8334 pubmed publisher
    ..As the ARC is known to be the site of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator we explored whether kisspeptin-GPR54 signalling in the ARC regulates GnRH pulses...
  21. Paruthiyil S, El Majdoubi M, Conti M, Weiner R. Phosphodiesterase expression targeted to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons inhibits luteinizing hormone pulses in transgenic rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:17191-6 pubmed
    Experiments in the GT1 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) cell line have shown that the cAMP signaling pathway plays a central role in regulating the excitability of the cells...
  22. Li X, Kang X, Deng Q, Cai J, Wang Z. Combination of a GnRH agonist with an antagonist prevents flare-up effects and protects primordial ovarian follicles in the rat ovary from cisplatin-induced toxicity: a controlled experimental animal study. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013;11:16 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus far, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (GnRHa) and antagonist (GnRHant) are reported to act as protective agents of the ovary in chemotherapy through the ..
  23. Koyama M, Yin C, Ishii H, Sakuma Y, Kato M. Somatostatin inhibition of GnRH neuronal activity and the morphological relationship between GnRH and somatostatin neurons in rats. Endocrinology. 2012;153:806-14 pubmed publisher
    In rodents, GnRH neurons are diffusely distributed from the medial septum through to the medial preoptic area and control gonadal functions through the pituitary...
  24. Kelly M, Ronnekleiv O, Eskay R. Immunocytochemical localization of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in neurons in the medial basal hypothalamus of the female rat. Exp Brain Res. 1982;48:97-106 pubmed
    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)-neurons were localized with a LHRH antiserum (WP-1) in the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) of the female rat using the sagittal hypothalamic slice preparation in combination with the peroxidase-..
  25. Burger L, Haisenleder D, Aylor K, Marshall J. Regulation of intracellular signaling cascades by GNRH pulse frequency in the rat pituitary: roles for CaMK II, ERK, and JNK activation. Biol Reprod. 2008;79:947-53 pubmed publisher
    Pulsatile GnRH (GNRH) differentially regulates LH and FSH subunit genes, with faster frequencies favoring Lhb transcription and slower favoring Fshb...
  26. Mansuy V, Geller S, Rey J, Campagne C, Boccard J, Poulain P, et al. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of proliferating and differentiated GnRH-expressing GnV-3 cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;332:97-105 pubmed publisher
    b>GnRH neurons provide the primary driving force upon the neuroendocrine reproductive axis...
  27. Maione L, Albarel F, Bouchard P, Gallant M, Flanagan C, Bobe R, et al. R31C GNRH1 mutation and congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69616 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss-of-function mutations of GNRH1 gene are a very rare cause of autosomal recessive nCHH...
  28. Valenca M, Wetsel W, Culler M, Negro Vilar A. Differential secretion of proLHRH fragments in response to [K+], prostaglandin E2 and C kinase activation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1988;55:95-100 pubmed
    ProLHRH contains the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) decapeptide and a 56 amino acid peptide designated gonadotropin-releasing hormone-associated peptide (GAP)...
  29. Wilson T, Yu Lee L, Kelley M. Coordinate gene expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and the LHRH-receptor after prolactin stimulation in the rat Nb2 T-cell line: implications for a role in immunomodulation and cell cycle gene expression. Mol Endocrinol. 1995;9:44-53 pubmed
    ..One of these genes, LHRH, has not previously been reported to respond in this manner, although we and others have reported its presence in ..
  30. Prestifilippo J, Fernandez Solari J, De Laurentiis A, Mohn C, de la Cal C, Reynoso R, et al. Acute effect of manganese on hypothalamic luteinizing hormone releasing hormone secretion in adult male rats: involvement of specific neurotransmitter systems. Toxicol Sci. 2008;105:295-302 pubmed publisher
    Manganese chloride (MnCl2) is capable of stimulating luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) secretion in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats through the activation of the hypothalamic nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/..
  31. Ciccone N, Lacza C, Hou M, Gregory S, Kam K, Xu S, et al. A composite element that binds basic helix loop helix and basic leucine zipper transcription factors is important for gonadotropin-releasing hormone regulation of the follicle-stimulating hormone beta gene. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:1908-23 pubmed publisher
    ..remains poorly understood, but is known to involve the complex interplay of multiple endocrine factors including GnRH. We have identified a GnRH-responsive element within the rat FSHbeta promoter containing an E-box and partial cAMP ..
  32. Wang L, Cao H, Jiang N, Zhang N, Zhang J, Hou R, et al. Differential expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in pancreas during rat pregnancy. Endocrine. 2009;36:538-45 pubmed publisher
    Many studies have shown that there is a relationship between gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and glucose metabolism, but little is known about the effects of GnRH on the pancreas...
  33. Adelman J, Bond C, Douglass J, Herbert E. Two mammalian genes transcribed from opposite strands of the same DNA locus. Science. 1987;235:1514-7 pubmed
    ..One gene (strand) encodes gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). A second gene, SH, is transcribed from the other DNA strand to produce RNA of undefined function...
  34. Zakharova L, Malyukova I, Adamskaya E, Kuznetsova T, Shishkina I. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in thymus and hypothalamus of rat fetuses: suppressing effect of antagonist and of antibodies on concanavalin A-induced proliferation of thymocytes. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000;65:1135-9 pubmed
    The effect of endogenous luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) on the proliferation induced by concanavalin A (Con A) in rat fetal thymocytes was studied...
  35. Yin W, Wu D, Noel M, Gore A. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuroterminals and their microenvironment in the median eminence: effects of aging and estradiol treatment. Endocrinology. 2009;150:5498-508 pubmed publisher
    The GnRH decapeptide controls reproductive function through its release from neuroendocrine terminals in the median eminence, a site where there is a convergence of numerous nerve terminals and glial cells...
  36. Grachev P, Li X, Hu M, Li S, Millar R, Lightman S, et al. Neurokinin B signaling in the female rat: a novel link between stress and reproduction. Endocrinology. 2014;155:2589-601 pubmed publisher
    ..The underlying mechanism involves stress-induced suppression of the GnRH pulse generator, the functional unit of which is considered to be the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus kisspeptin/..
  37. Leclerc G, Boockfor F. Identification of a novel OCT1 binding site that is necessary for the elaboration of pulses of rat GnRH promoter activity. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005;245:86-92 pubmed
    Recent evidence from our laboratory demonstrated that the OCT1 protein was necessary for GnRH gene promoter pulse activity through its interaction with a specific OCT1 binding site (OCT1BS-a, -1,774/-1,781)...
  38. Shacham S, Cheifetz M, Fridkin M, Pawson A, Millar R, Naor Z. Identification of Ser153 in ICL2 of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor as a phosphorylation-independent site for inhibition of Gq coupling. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:28981-8 pubmed
    Type I gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor (GnRHR) is unique among mammalian G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in lacking a C-terminal tail, which is involved in desensitization in GPCRs...
  39. Yang D, Hou T, Yang X, Ma Y, Wang L, Li B. Mechanisms of prostate atrophy after LHRH antagonist cetrorelix injection: an experimental study in a rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2012;32:389-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings strongly suggest that the TGF-? signaling pathway may be one of the major causes responsible for prostate volume reduction in BPH rats after cetrorelix treatment. ..
  40. Leclerc G, Boockfor F. Calcium influx and DREAM protein are required for GnRH gene expression pulse activity. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007;267:70-9 pubmed
    Recent evidence using GT1-7 cells indicates that GnRH pulsatility depends on exocytotic-release and gene transcription events...
  41. Vazquez Martinez R, Leclerc G, Wierman M, Boockfor F. Episodic activation of the rat GnRH promoter: role of the homeoprotein oct-1. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:2093-100 pubmed
    Recent reports demonstrate that the rat GnRH promoter is activated in an episodic fashion in immortalized GnRH neurons, but little information is available on molecular processes that contribute to this phenomenon...
  42. Larco D, Cho Clark M, Mani S, Wu T. The metabolite GnRH-(1-5) inhibits the migration of immortalized GnRH neurons. Endocrinology. 2013;154:783-95 pubmed publisher
    The decapeptide GnRH is an important regulator of reproductive behavior and function. In the extracellular matrix, GnRH is metabolized by the endopeptidase EC3.4.24.15 (EP24.15) to generate the pentapeptide GnRH-(1-5)...
  43. Fujioka H, Kakehashi C, Funabashi T, Akema T. Immunohistochemical evidence for the relationship between microglia and GnRH neurons in the preoptic area of ovariectomized rats with and without steroid replacement. Endocr J. 2013;60:191-6 pubmed
    ..COX-1 and COX-2, are among the important mediators involved in the regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. However, the cellular origin of PGs remains obscure in terms of its relationship to GnRH neurons...
  44. Iijima N, Takumi K, Sawai N, Ozawa H. An immunohistochemical study on the expressional dynamics of kisspeptin neurons relevant to GnRH neurons using a newly developed anti-kisspeptin antibody. J Mol Neurosci. 2011;43:146-54 pubmed publisher
    ..antibody for the investigation of the interaction between kisspeptin fibers and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons...
  45. Kawaminami M, Shibata Y, Yaji A, Kurusu S, Hashimoto I. Prolactin inhibits annexin 5 expression and apoptosis in the corpus luteum of pseudopregnant rats: involvement of local gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Endocrinology. 2003;144:3625-31 pubmed
    ..the expression of annexin 5 and prolactin in the corpus luteum of pseudopregnant rats, with particular interest in GnRH and apoptosis of luteal cells...
  46. Boczek Leszczyk E, Stempniak B, Juszczak M. Vasopressin release from the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system: effects of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), its analogues and melatonin. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;61:459-66 pubmed
    The influence of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its analogues (i.e., agonist and antagonist) on vasopressin (VP) release from the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial (H-N) system was studied both in vitro and in vivo...
  47. True C, Verma S, Grove K, Smith M. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript is a potent stimulator of GnRH and kisspeptin cells and may contribute to negative energy balance-induced reproductive inhibition in females. Endocrinology. 2013;154:2821-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study characterized CART's regulatory influence on GnRH and kisspeptin (Kiss1) cells and determined the sensitivity of different CART populations to negative energy ..
  48. Gao C, Fraeyman N, Eertmans F, Dhooge W, Kaufman J. Further evaluation of the biological activity of the unique gonadotropin-releasing hormone peptide in the guinea pig brain. Neurosci Lett. 2011;487:246-9 pubmed publisher
    In this study we compared the biological activity of a unique form of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the brain of the guinea pig (gpGnRH) with mammalian GnRH (mGnRH)...
  49. Zhou S, Li P. Effects of NELL2 on the regulation of GnRH expression and puberty in female rats. Genet Mol Res. 2014;13:6672-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the effect of NELL2 on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and the initiation of puberty in female rats...
  50. Adelman J, Mason A, Hayflick J, Seeburg P. Isolation of the gene and hypothalamic cDNA for the common precursor of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and prolactin release-inhibiting factor in human and rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:179-83 pubmed
    ..Genomic analyses revealed the presence of a single Gn-RH-PIF gene in human and rat containing sequences corresponding to the cDNA distributed across four exons. ..
  51. Yao B, Huang W, Huang Y, Chui Y, Wang Y, Li H, et al. A study on the localization and distribution of GnRH and its receptor in rat submaxillary glands by immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. Life Sci. 2003;72:2895-904 pubmed
    We investigated the rat submaxillary gland for the presence of GnRH and GnRH receptors, the localization and colocalization of GnRH, GnRH receptor and their mRNA, and studied the sequence of GnRH receptor complementary DNA (cDNA) by ..
  52. Lawson M, Macconell L, Kim J, Powl B, Nelson S, Mellon P. Neuron-specific expression in vivo by defined transcription regulatory elements of the GnRH gene. Endocrinology. 2002;143:1404-12 pubmed
    The GnRH-expressing neurons are the ultimate regulator of reproductive function. GnRH gene expression is limited to this small population of neurons in the hypothalamus...
  53. Hiney J, Sower S, Yu W, McCann S, Dees W. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the preoptic-hypothalamic region of the rat contain lamprey gonadotropin-releasing hormone III, mammalian luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, or both peptides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:2386-91 pubmed
    ..hormone release, is coexpressed in neurons containing mammalian luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (m-LHRH)...
  54. Lebrethon M, Aganina A, Fournier M, Gerard A, Parent A, Bourguignon J. Effects of in vivo and in vitro administration of ghrelin, leptin and neuropeptide mediators on pulsatile gonadotrophin-releasing hormone secretion from male rat hypothalamus before and after puberty. J Neuroendocrinol. 2007;19:181-8 pubmed
    ..aimed to investigate the effects of leptin and ghrelin on pulsatile pulsatile gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in vitro with emphasis on neuropeptide mediators and changes between prepuberty (15 days) and sexual ..
  55. Ray D, Han Y, Franchitto A, Demorrow S, Meng F, Venter J, et al. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulates biliary proliferation by paracrine/autocrine mechanisms. Am J Pathol. 2015;185:1061-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a trophic peptide hormone that modulates reproductive function and proliferation in many cell types...
  56. Haisenleder D, Burger L, Aylor K, Dalkin A, Marshall J. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation of gonadotropin subunit transcription: evidence for the involvement of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (Ca/CAMK II) activation in rat pituitaries. Endocrinology. 2003;144:2768-74 pubmed
    The intracellular pathways mediating GnRH regulation of gonadotropin subunit transcription remain to be fully characterized, and the present study examined whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (Ca/CAMK II) plays a role in the ..
  57. Foradori C, Zimmerman A, Hinds L, Zuloaga K, Breckenridge C, Handa R. Atrazine inhibits pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release without altering GnRH messenger RNA or protein levels in the female rat. Biol Reprod. 2013;88:9 pubmed publisher
    ..of pulsatile LH release without significantly reducing pituitary sensitivity to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist. Accompanying the reduction in the LH surge was an attenuation of GnRH neuronal activation...
  58. Chamson Reig A, Sorianello E, Catalano P, Fernández M, Pignataro O, Libertun C, et al. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathways in an experimental ovarian tumor. Endocrinology. 2003;144:2957-66 pubmed
    Previous results showed that GnRH signaling is altered in cells from rat luteinized ovarian tumors (tumor group) because it did not activate the phospholipase C pathway, in contrast to control ovarian cells from superovulated prepubertal ..
  59. Dalkin A, Burger L, Aylor K, Haisenleder D, Workman L, Cho S, et al. Regulation of gonadotropin subunit gene transcription by gonadotropin-releasing hormone: measurement of primary transcript ribonucleic acids by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. Endocrinology. 2001;142:139-46 pubmed
    b>GnRH regulates the synthesis and secretion of the pituitary gonadotropins LH and FSH...
  60. Egginger J, Parmentier C, Garrel G, Cohen Tannoudji J, Camus A, Calas A, et al. Direct evidence for the co-expression of URP and GnRH in a sub-population of rat hypothalamic neurones: anatomical and functional correlation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26611 pubmed publisher
    ..with immunohistochemistry, we showed that cell bodies of the rat anterior hypothalamus contained both URP mRNA and GnRH peptide...
  61. Guilgur L, Orti G, Strobl Mazzulla P, Fernandino J, Miranda L, Somoza G. Characterization of the cDNAs encoding three GnRH forms in the pejerrey fish Odontesthes bonariensis (Atheriniformes) and the evolution of GnRH precursors. J Mol Evol. 2007;64:614-27 pubmed
    Most vertebrates express two gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) variants in brain tissue but there is an increasing number of fish species for which a third GnRH form has been detected...
  62. Sengupta A, Chakrabarti N, Sridaran R. Presence of immunoreactive gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and its receptor (GnRHR) in rat ovary during pregnancy. Mol Reprod Dev. 2008;75:1031-44 pubmed
    The present study aims at quantification of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) by radioimmunoassay, relative expression of its mRNA by real-time PCR accompanied by its cellular localization in the rat ovary by immunonohistochemistry (..
  63. Dixit V, Sridaran R, Edmonsond M, Taub D, Thompson W. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone attenuates pregnancy-associated thymic involution and modulates the expression of antiproliferative gene product prohibitin. Endocrinology. 2003;144:1496-505 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we examined the effects of GnRH on pregnancy-induced thymic involution by characterizing the expression patterns of prohibitin (PHB), an ..
  64. Wada I, Sakuma E, Shirasawa N, Wakabayashi K, Otsuka T, Hattori K, et al. Intercellular communications within the rat anterior pituitary. XVI: postnatal changes of distribution of S-100 protein positive cells, connexin 43 and LH-RH positive sites in the pars tuberalis of the rat pituitary gland. An immunohistochemical and . Tissue Cell. 2014;46:33-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested that the folliculo-stellate cell system including the LH-RH neurons in the pars tuberalis participates in the control of LH secretion along with the portal vein system. ..
  65. Mason A, Pitts S, Nikolics K, Szonyi E, Wilcox J, Seeburg P, et al. The hypogonadal mouse: reproductive functions restored by gene therapy. Science. 1986;234:1372-8 pubmed
    The hypogonadal (hpg) mouse lacks a complete gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) gene and consequently cannot reproduce...
  66. Merchenthaler I, Culler M, Negro Vilar A, Petrusz P, Flerko B. The Pro-LHRH system of the rat brain. Effects of changes in the endocrine background. Brain Res Bull. 1988;20:713-20 pubmed
    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone-associated peptide (GAP) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) portions of the LHRH precursor were localized by immunocytochemistry in prepubertal female rats, in adult female rats at ..
  67. Lopez de Maturana R, Pawson A, Lu Z, Davidson L, Maudsley S, Morgan K, et al. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog structural determinants of selectivity for inhibition of cell growth: support for the concept of ligand-induced selective signaling. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:1711-22 pubmed publisher
    b>GnRH and its receptor are expressed in human reproductive tract cancers, and direct antiproliferative effects of GnRH analogs have been demonstrated in cancer cell lines...
  68. Yu W, Karanth S, Walczewska A, Sower S, McCann S. A hypothalamic follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing decapeptide in the rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:9499-503 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that FSHRF might be an analogue of mammalian luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (m-LHRH) and evaluated the activity of many analogues of m-LHRH and of the known LHRHs found in lower forms...
  69. Bond C, Hayflick J, Seeburg P, Adelman J. The rat gonadotropin-releasing hormone: SH locus: structure and hypothalamic expression. Mol Endocrinol. 1989;3:1257-62 pubmed
    The rat GnRH gene as expressed in the central nervous system is comprised of four exons and three introns and spans 4.5 kilobases of genomic DNA...
  70. Srinivasan S, Bunch D, Feng Y, Rodriguiz R, Li M, Ravenell R, et al. Deficits in reproduction and pro-gonadotropin-releasing hormone processing in male Cpefat mice. Endocrinology. 2004;145:2023-34 pubmed
    ..infertility of Cpe(fat/fat) mice has not been systematically investigated, it is thought to be due to a deficit in GnRH processing...
  71. Gomez F, la Fleur S, Weiner R, Dallman M, El Majdoubi M. Decreased gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity is associated with decreased fertility and dysregulation of food intake in the female GPR-4 transgenic rat. Endocrinology. 2005;146:3800-8 pubmed
    Expression of a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase in GnRH neurons in the GPR-4 transgenic rat resulted in decreased LH levels and pulse frequency and diminished fertility...
  72. Prange Kiel J, Jarry H, Schoen M, Kohlmann P, Lohse C, Zhou L, et al. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone regulates spine density via its regulatory role in hippocampal estrogen synthesis. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:417-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In view of the abundant gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) messenger RNA expression in the hippocampus and the direct effect of GnRH on estradiol (E2) synthesis in gonadal ..
  73. Taylor J, Miller B, Gray K, Scott R, Catherino W, Segars J. The mechanism responsible for the supraphysiologic gonadotropin surge in females treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and primed with GnRH antagonist. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:1668-75 pubmed publisher
    ..for the supraphysiologic gonadotropin release from the pituitary induced by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist in female rats primed with GnRH antagonist. Controlled experimental intervention...
  74. Bouret S, De Seranno S, Beauvillain J, Prevot V. Transforming growth factor beta1 may directly influence gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression in the rat hypothalamus. Endocrinology. 2004;145:1794-801 pubmed
    ..immortalized GT1 cells suggest that hypothalamic astrocytes employ TGFbeta(1) to directly regulate the secretion of GnRH, the neurohormone that controls sexual maturation and adult reproductive function...
  75. Schirman Hildesheim T, Bar T, Ben Aroya N, Koch Y. Differential gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression patterns in different tissues of the female rat across the estrous cycle. Endocrinology. 2005;146:3401-8 pubmed
    b>GnRH, the main regulator of reproduction, is produced in a variety of tissues outside of the hypothalamus, its main site of synthesis and release...
  76. Sengupta A, Baker T, Chakrabarti N, Whittaker J, Sridaran R. Localization of immunoreactive gonadotropin-releasing hormone and relative expression of its mRNA in the oviduct during pregnancy in rats. J Histochem Cytochem. 2007;55:525-34 pubmed
    ..was designed to determine the cellular and ultrastructural distribution of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the relative expression of its mRNA in the oviduct of rats during different time points (days 7, 9, 16, and 20)..
  77. Piersma D, Themmen A, Look M, Klijn J, Foekens J, Uitterlinden A, et al. GnRH and LHR gene variants predict adverse outcome in premenopausal breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res. 2007;9:R51 pubmed
    ..We have investigated the prognostic significance of two variants of genes involved in the HPG-axis, the GnRH (encoding gonadotropin-releasing hormone) 16Trp/Ser genotype and the LHR (encoding the luteinizing hormone receptor)..
  78. Yin W, Mendenhall J, Monita M, Gore A. Three-dimensional properties of GnRH neuroterminals in the median eminence of young and old rats. J Comp Neurol. 2009;517:284-95 pubmed publisher
    The decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which regulates reproduction in all vertebrates, is stored in, and secreted from, large dense-core secretory vesicles in nerve terminals in the median eminence...
  79. Allen M, Xu M, Linseman D, Pawlowski J, Bokoch G, Heidenreich K, et al. Adhesion-related kinase repression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression requires Rac activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:38133-40 pubmed
    Recent studies suggest that adhesion-related kinase (Ark) plays a role in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal physiology...