Gene Symbol: Gnas
Description: GNAS complex locus
Alias: ALEX, G-alpha-8, Gnas1, Gnpas, Nesp55, SCG6, ALEX, GNAS, SCG6 (secretogranin VI), GNAS (guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha stimulating) complex locus, GNAS complex locus XLas-like, adenylate cyclase-stimulating G alpha protein, guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha s, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G-s, alpha subunit
Species: rat
Products:     Gnas

Top Publications

  1. Wainford R, Kapusta D. Functional selectivity of central G?-subunit proteins in mediating the cardiovascular and renal excretory responses evoked by central ?(2) -adrenoceptor activation in vivo. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;166:210-20 pubmed publisher
  2. Weiss U, Ischia R, Eder S, Lovisetti Scamihorn P, Bauer R, Fischer Colbrie R. Neuroendocrine secretory protein 55 (NESP55): alternative splicing onto transcripts of the GNAS gene and posttranslational processing of a maternally expressed protein. Neuroendocrinology. 2000;71:177-86 pubmed
    ..This locus encoded for the Neuroendocrine Secretory Protein with an apparent molecular weight of 55,000 (NESP55), which is transcribed exclusively from the maternal allele...
  3. Jakobsen A, Ahlman H, Kolby L, Abrahamsson J, Fischer Colbrie R, Nilsson O. NESP55, a novel chromogranin-like peptide, is expressed in endocrine tumours of the pancreas and adrenal medulla but not in ileal carcinoids. Br J Cancer. 2003;88:1746-54 pubmed
    Neuroendocrine secretory protein 55, NESP55, is an acidic protein belonging to the chromogranin family. The distribution of NESP55 in human tumours is not known...
  4. Fischer Colbrie R, Eder S, Lovisetti Scamihorn P, Becker A, Laslop A. Neuroendocrine secretory protein 55: a novel marker for the constitutive secretory pathway. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;971:317-22 pubmed
    ..We have recently cloned neuroendocrine secretory protein 55 (NESP55), a protein that shares several features with the class of chromogranins...
  5. Yu S, Gavrilova O, Chen H, Lee R, Liu J, Pacak K, et al. Paternal versus maternal transmission of a stimulatory G-protein alpha subunit knockout produces opposite effects on energy metabolism. J Clin Invest. 2000;105:615-23 pubmed
    Heterozygous disruption of Gnas, the gene encoding the stimulatory G-protein alpha subunit (G(s)alpha), leads to distinct phenotypes depending on whether the maternal (m-/+) or paternal (+/p-) allele is disrupted...
  6. Hillhouse E, Grammatopoulos D. The molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the biological activity of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors: implications for physiology and pathophysiology. Endocr Rev. 2006;27:260-86 pubmed
    ..The type of activating agonist, receptor, and target cell appears to play a major role in determining the overall signaling and biological responses in health and disease. ..
  7. Eaton S, Hough T, Fischer Colbrie R, Peters J. Maternal inheritance of the Gnas cluster mutation Ex1A-T affects size, implicating NESP55 in growth. Mamm Genome. 2013;24:276-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The remaining protein in this cluster, NESP55, has not yet been shown to be involved in growth...
  8. Andrade Lopes A, Pires Oliveira M, Menezes Rodrigues F, Godinho R. Functional characterization of heterotrimeric G-proteins in rat diaphragm muscle. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2011;175:212-9 pubmed publisher
  9. Ahrens W, Hiort O, Staedt P, Kirschner T, Marschke C, Kruse K. Analysis of the GNAS1 gene in Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:4630-4 pubmed
    ..Different inactivating mutations of the gene GNAS1 encoding Gsalpha lead to a reduced Gsalpha protein activity in patients with AHO and pseudohypoparathyroidism type ..

More Information


  1. O NEILL C, Wiehager B, Fowler C, Ravid R, Winblad B, Cowburn R. Regionally selective alterations in G protein subunit levels in the Alzheimer's disease brain. Brain Res. 1994;636:193-201 pubmed
    ..The ratio of hippocampal Gs-stimulated to basal adenylyl cyclase activity correlated significantly with the large to small Gs alpha subunit ratio.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  2. Hahn S, Frey U, Siffert W, Tan S, Mann K, Janssen O. The CC genotype of the GNAS T393C polymorphism is associated with obesity and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006;155:763-70 pubmed
    Variants in the Gs protein alpha subunit gene (GNAS1) are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of several endocrine and metabolic disorders...
  3. Schwindinger W, Reese K, Lawler A, Gearhart J, Levine M. Targeted disruption of Gnas in embryonic stem cells. Endocrinology. 1997;138:4058-63 pubmed
    ..As the first step in generating a model of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, the gene encoding G alpha(s) (Gnas) was disrupted in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells by homologous recombination...
  4. Rey R, Venara M, Coutant R, Trabut J, Rouleau S, Lahlou N, et al. Unexpected mosaicism of R201H-GNAS1 mutant-bearing cells in the testes underlie macro-orchidism without sexual precocity in McCune-Albright syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:3538-43 pubmed
    ..bone dysplasia, café-au-lait skin lesions and sexual precocity, results from a somatic activating mutation of the GNAS1 gene, which encodes the Gs-alpha protein involved in signalling of several G-protein-coupled receptors...
  5. Romano D, Magalon K, Pertuit M, Rasolonjanahary R, Barlier A, Enjalbert A, et al. Conditional overexpression of the wild-type Gs alpha as the gsp oncogene initiates chronic extracellularly regulated kinase 1/2 activation and hormone hypersecretion in pituitary cell lines. Endocrinology. 2007;148:2973-83 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of the wild-type G(s)alpha protein as the gsp oncogene initiated chronic activation of endogenous prolactin synthesis and release, as well as chronic activation of ERK1/2-sensitive human prolactin and GH promoters. ..
  6. Wang J, Gilchrist A, Stern P. Antagonist minigenes identify genes regulated by parathyroid hormone through G protein-selective and G protein co-regulated mechanisms in osteoblastic cells. Cell Signal. 2011;23:380-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The minigene effects were mimicked by downstream inhibitors. The dissection of the differential effects of multiple G protein pathways on gene regulation provides a more complete understanding of PTH signaling in osteoblastic cells. ..
  7. Richard N, Abeguilé G, Coudray N, Mittre H, Gruchy N, Andrieux J, et al. A new deletion ablating NESP55 causes loss of maternal imprint of A/B GNAS and autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E863-7 pubmed publisher
    ..They can be either coding [G?s, XL?s, and neuroendocrine secretory protein-55 (NESP55)] or nontranslated (A/B and AS). The paternal AS transcript lies antisense to nesp55.
  8. Mantovani G, Romoli R, Weber G, Brunelli V, De Menis E, Beccio S, et al. Mutational analysis of GNAS1 in patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism: identification of two novel mutations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:4243-8 pubmed
    ..with PHP Ia show a partial deficiency (50%) of Gs activity, due to loss of function mutations in Gsalpha gene (GNAS1). The present study reports clinical, biochemical, and molecular data of 8 unrelated families with PHP Ia and PPHP...
  9. Pak Y, Pham N, Rotin D. Direct binding of the beta1 adrenergic receptor to the cyclic AMP-dependent guanine nucleotide exchange factor CNrasGEF leads to Ras activation. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:7942-52 pubmed
    ..The present study provides the first demonstration of direct physical association between a Ras activator and a GPCR, leading to agonist-induced Ras activation ..
  10. Schmechel A, Grimm M, El Armouche A, Höppner G, Schwoerer A, Ehmke H, et al. Treatment with atorvastatin partially protects the rat heart from harmful catecholamine effects. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;82:100-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism might contribute to protecting the heart from harm induced by chronic isoprenaline infusion without affecting heart rate. ..
  11. Cioffi J, Erbe C, Raphael R, Kwitek A, Tiwari U, Jacob H, et al. Expression of G-protein alpha subunit genes in the vestibular periphery of Rattus norvegicus and their chromosomal mapping. Acta Otolaryngol. 2003;123:1027-34 pubmed
    ..The characterization of G-protein alpha subunit gene expression in the vestibular periphery and the chromosomal localization of these genes in the rat revealed that a diverse group of these second messengers are expressed. ..
  12. Hynes T, Mervine S, Yost E, Sabo J, Berlot C. Live cell imaging of Gs and the beta2-adrenergic receptor demonstrates that both alphas and beta1gamma7 internalize upon stimulation and exhibit similar trafficking patterns that differ from that of the beta2-adrenergic receptor. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:44101-12 pubmed
    ..Because Rab11 regulates traffic through recycling endosomes, co-localization of alphas and beta1gamma7 on these endosomes may indicate a means of recycling specific alphasbetagamma combinations to the plasma membrane. ..
  13. Yu J, Dave R, Allen J, Sarma T, Rasenick M. Cytosolic G{alpha}s acts as an intracellular messenger to increase microtubule dynamics and promote neurite outgrowth. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:10462-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These data serve to link G-protein signaling with modulation of the cytoskeleton and cell morphology. ..
  14. Liu Z, Segawa H, Aydin C, Reyes M, Erben R, Weinstein L, et al. Transgenic overexpression of the extra-large Gs? variant XL?s enhances Gs?-mediated responses in the mouse renal proximal tubule in vivo. Endocrinology. 2011;152:1222-33 pubmed publisher
    ..222 ± 41 pg/ml; P < 0.05). After crossing the rptXL?s mice to mice with ablation of maternal Gnas exon 1 (E1(m-/+)), male offspring carrying both the XL?s transgene and maternal Gnas exon 1 ablation (rptXL?s/E1(m-/..
  15. Bastepe M, Juppner H. GNAS locus and pseudohypoparathyroidism. Horm Res. 2005;63:65-74 pubmed
    ..Most of these PHP forms are caused by defects in GNAS (20q13.3), an imprinted gene locus with multiple transcriptional units...
  16. Weinstein L, Gejman P, Friedman E, Kadowaki T, Collins R, Gershon E, et al. Mutations of the Gs alpha-subunit gene in Albright hereditary osteodystrophy detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:8287-90 pubmed
  17. Wand G, Levine M, Zweifel L, Schwindinger W, Abel T. The cAMP-protein kinase A signal transduction pathway modulates ethanol consumption and sedative effects of ethanol. J Neurosci. 2001;21:5297-303 pubmed
    ..Thus, the cAMP-PKA signal transduction pathway is critical in modulating sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol as well as influencing alcohol consumption. ..
  18. Klemke M, Pasolli H, Kehlenbach R, Offermanns S, Schultz G, Huttner W. Characterization of the extra-large G protein alpha-subunit XLalphas. II. Signal transduction properties. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:33633-40 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that in neuroendocrine cells, the two related G proteins, Galphas and XLalphas, exhibit distinct properties with regard to receptor-mediated activation but converge onto the same effector system, adenylyl cyclase. ..
  19. Pasolli H, Klemke M, Kehlenbach R, Wang Y, Huttner W. Characterization of the extra-large G protein alpha-subunit XLalphas. I. Tissue distribution and subcellular localization. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:33622-32 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the physiological role of XLalphas is at the plasma membrane, where it presumably is involved in signal transduction processes characteristic of neuroendocrine cells. ..
  20. de Sanctis L, Romagnolo D, Olivero M, Buzi F, Maghnie M, Scirè G, et al. Molecular analysis of the GNAS1 gene for the correct diagnosis of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy and pseudohypoparathyroidism. Pediatr Res. 2003;53:749-55 pubmed
    ..Heterozygous mutations in the GNAS1 gene encoding the Gsalpha protein have been identified both in PHP-Ia and in pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP),..
  21. Kato N, Bihoreau M, Lathrop G, Rapp J. Localization of the rat stimulatory G-protein alpha subunit (GNPAS) gene to rat chromosome 3 by linkage analysis. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:628-9 pubmed
  22. Li Y, Dahlstrom A. Peripheral projections of NESP55 containing neurons in the rat sympathetic ganglia. Auton Neurosci. 2008;141:1-9 pubmed publisher
    The peripheral projections of neurons expressing neuroendocrine secretory protein 55 (NESP55), a novel member of the chromogranin family, were studied by retrograde tracing technique...
  23. Freson K, Jaeken J, Van Helvoirt M, de Zegher F, Wittevrongel C, Thys C, et al. Functional polymorphisms in the paternally expressed XLalphas and its cofactor ALEX decrease their mutual interaction and enhance receptor-mediated cAMP formation. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:1121-30 pubmed
    ..A second open reading frame (ORF) in XL-exon1, that completely overlaps the XL-domain ORF, encodes ALEX, which is translated from the XLalphas mRNA and binds the XL-domain of XLalphas...
  24. Kim E, Sohn S, Lee M, Park C, Jung J, Park S. Effect of gsp oncogene on somatostatin receptor subtype 1 and 2 mRNA levels in GHRH-responsive GH3 cells. Pituitary. 2005;8:155-62 pubmed
    ..GH3 cells permanently transfected with GHRH-R can be used for in vitro studies of actions of GHRH. ..
  25. Liu J, Chen M, Deng C, Bourc his D, Nealon J, Erlichman B, et al. Identification of the control region for tissue-specific imprinting of the stimulatory G protein alpha-subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:5513-8 pubmed
    b>Gnas is a complex gene with multiple imprinted promoters. The upstream Nesp and Nespas/Gnasxl promoters are paternally and maternally methylated, respectively...
  26. Kim S, Kim J, Choi K, Ma S, Oh Y, Jung J, et al. Indomethacin enhances shuttling of aquaporin-2 despite decreased abundance in rat kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15:2998-3005 pubmed
    ..The generation of cAMP provoked by arginine vasopressin, sodium fluoride, or forskolin was blunted. These results suggest that indomethacin increases the shuttling of AQP2 while it decreases its abundance in the collecting duct. ..
  27. Swaroop A, Agarwal N, Gruen J, Bick D, Weissman S. Differential expression of novel Gs alpha signal transduction protein cDNA species. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:4725-9 pubmed
    ..Differential expression of alternatively spliced Gs alpha species suggests novel signal transducing pathways. ..
  28. Gallego M, Setién R, Puebla L, Boyano Adánez M, Arilla E, Casis O. alpha1-Adrenoceptors stimulate a Galphas protein and reduce the transient outward K+ current via a cAMP/PKA-mediated pathway in the rat heart. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;288:C577-85 pubmed
    ..We conclude that alpha(1)-adrenoceptor stimulation reduces the amplitude of the I(to) by activating a G(alphas) protein and the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade, which in turn leads to I(to) channel phosphorylation. ..
  29. Liu Z, Turan S, Wehbi V, Vilardaga J, Bastepe M. Extra-long G?s variant XL?s protein escapes activation-induced subcellular redistribution and is able to provide sustained signaling. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:38558-69 pubmed publisher
    Murine models indicate that G?s and its extra-long variant XL?s, both of which are derived from GNAS, markedly differ regarding their cellular actions, but these differences are unknown...
  30. Freson K, Izzi B, Labarque V, Van Helvoirt M, Thys C, Wittevrongel C, et al. GNAS defects identified by stimulatory G protein alpha-subunit signalling studies in platelets. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:4851-9 pubmed publisher
    b>GNAS is an imprinted region that gives rise to several transcripts, antisense transcripts, and noncoding RNAs, including transcription of RNA encoding the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsalpha)...
  31. Tsai R, Tai Y, Tzeng J, Cherng C, Yeh C, Wong C. Ultra-low dose naloxone restores the antinociceptive effect of morphine in pertussis toxin-treated rats by reversing the coupling of mu-opioid receptors from Gs-protein to coupling to Gi-protein. Neuroscience. 2009;164:435-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that ultra-low dose naloxone might be clinically valuable in pain management. ..
  32. Merlen C, Fabrega S, Desbuquois B, Unson C, Authier F. Glucagon-mediated internalization of serine-phosphorylated glucagon receptor and Gsalpha in rat liver. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:5697-704 pubmed
  33. Zhang L, Rasenick M. Chronic treatment with escitalopram but not R-citalopram translocates Galpha(s) from lipid raft domains and potentiates adenylyl cyclase: a 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter-independent action of this antidepressant compound. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;332:977-84 pubmed publisher
    ..g., monoamine transporters), several presynaptic and postsynaptic molecules are probably modified during chronic antidepressant treatment, and these additional targets may be required for clinical efficacy of these drugs...
  34. Yajima Y, Akita Y, Saito T, Kawashima S. VIP induces the translocation and degradation of the alpha subunit of Gs protein in rat pituitary GH4C1 cells. J Biochem. 1998;123:1024-30 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that VIP-receptor activates Gsalpha protein and induces the release of Gsalpha from membranes along with its down-regulation in cellular levels. ..
  35. Van Eps N, Preininger A, Alexander N, Kaya A, Meier S, Meiler J, et al. Interaction of a G protein with an activated receptor opens the interdomain interface in the alpha subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9420-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The interdomain opening is coupled to receptor binding via the C-terminal helix of G(?), the extension of which is a high-affinity receptor binding element. ..
  36. Votan Bonamour B, Plauchu H, Guibaud P. [Ectopic crystalline lens linked to its cause (homocyst inuria) by a simple geneological enquiry]. J Genet Hum. 1976;24 Suppl:103-6 pubmed
  37. Sarma T, Koutsouris A, Yu J, Krbanjevic A, Hope T, Rasenick M. Activation of microtubule dynamics increases neuronal growth via the nerve growth factor (NGF)- and Gαs-mediated signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:10045-56 pubmed publisher
  38. El Armouche A, Eschenhagen T. Beta-adrenergic stimulation and myocardial function in the failing heart. Heart Fail Rev. 2009;14:225-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Which lessons can be drawn from studies in genetically engineered mice, which from (pharmaco) genetic studies? Finally, what are promising targets downstream of beta-adrenergic receptors that go beyond the current neurohumoral blockade? ..
  39. Carroll M, Doumad A, Li J, Cheng M, Falck J, McGiff J. Adenosine2A receptor vasodilation of rat preglomerular microvessels is mediated by EETs that activate the cAMP/PKA pathway. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;291:F155-61 pubmed
    ..Thus in rat PGMV activation of A2AR is coupled to EET release upstream of adenylyl cyclase activation and EETs stimulate mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase, resulting in Gsalpha protein activation. ..
  40. Gao X, Sadana R, Dessauer C, Patel T. Conditional stimulation of type V and VI adenylyl cyclases by G protein betagamma subunits. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:294-302 pubmed
    ..Moreover, Gbetagamma subunits derived from a source(s) other than G(i) are necessary for the full activation of hACVI by isoproterenol in intact cells. ..
  41. Bangasser D, Curtis A, Reyes B, Bethea T, Parastatidis I, Ischiropoulos H, et al. Sex differences in corticotropin-releasing factor receptor signaling and trafficking: potential role in female vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15:877, 896-904 pubmed publisher
  42. Charbonneau A, Melancon A, Lavoie C, Lavoie J. Alterations in hepatic glucagon receptor density and in Gsalpha and Gialpha2 protein content with diet-induced hepatic steatosis: effects of acute exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005;289:E8-14 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that liver lipid infiltration plays a role in reducing glucagon action in the liver through a reduction in glucagon receptor density and glucagon-mediated signal transduction. ..
  43. Liu J, Nealon J, Weinstein L. Distinct patterns of abnormal GNAS imprinting in familial and sporadic pseudohypoparathyroidism type IB. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:95-102 pubmed
    ..regions (DMRs) located upstream of the Gsalpha promoter (from upstream to downstream): the paternally methylated NESP55 promoter region, the maternally methylated NESP antisense (NESPAS)/XLalphas promoter region and the maternally ..
  44. Hippe H, Lutz S, Cuello F, Knorr K, Vogt A, Jakobs K, et al. Activation of heterotrimeric G proteins by a high energy phosphate transfer via nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) B and Gbeta subunits. Specific activation of Gsalpha by an NDPK B.Gbetagamma complex in H10 cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:7227-33 pubmed
    ..Gbetagamma complexes and which appears to contribute to the receptor-independent activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. ..
  45. Ugur O, Jones T. A proline-rich region and nearby cysteine residues target XLalphas to the Golgi complex region. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:1421-32 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that proline-rich regions can be a Golgi-targeting signal for G protein alpha subunits and possibly for other peripheral membrane proteins as well. ..
  46. Sullivan K, Liao Y, Alborzi A, Beiderman B, Chang F, Masters S, et al. Inhibitory and stimulatory G proteins of adenylate cyclase: cDNA and amino acid sequences of the alpha chains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:6687-91 pubmed
    ..Further comparison of the alpha-chain sequences suggests additional regions that may contribute to interactions with beta gamma subunits and the receptor and effector components of different signal transduction systems. ..
  47. Joiner M, Lise M, Yuen E, Kam A, Zhang M, Hall D, et al. Assembly of a beta2-adrenergic receptor--GluR1 signalling complex for localized cAMP signalling. EMBO J. 2010;29:482-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Assembly of all proteins involved in the classic beta(2)AR-cAMP cascade into a supramolecular signalling complex and thus allows highly localized and selective regulation of one of its major target proteins. ..
  48. Metzler M, Luedecke D, Saeger W, Grueters A, Haberl H, Kiess W, et al. Low prevalence of Gs alpha mutations in ?omatotroph adenomas of children and adolescents. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2006;166:146-51 pubmed
  49. Fröhlich L, Mrakovcic M, Steinborn R, Chung U, Bastepe M, Juppner H. Targeted deletion of the Nesp55 DMR defines another Gnas imprinting control region and provides a mouse model of autosomal dominant PHP-Ib. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9275-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously identified two almost identical GNAS microdeletions extending from exon NESP55 to antisense (AS) exon 3 (delNESP55/delAS3-4)...
  50. Catania A, Lonati C, Sordi A, Carlin A, Leonardi P, Gatti S. The melanocortin system in control of inflammation. ScientificWorldJournal. 2010;10:1840-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This review examines the main signaling circuits in anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions of melanocortins, and the potential therapeutic use of these molecules. ..
  51. Trivedi M, Lokhandwala M. Rosiglitazone restores renal D1A receptor-Gs protein coupling by reducing receptor hyperphosphorylation in obese rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005;289:F298-304 pubmed
  52. Kehlenbach R, Matthey J, Huttner W. XL alpha s is a new type of G protein. Nature. 1994;372:804-9 pubmed
    ..Hence, XL alpha s may mediate the effects of cholera toxin on secretory vesicle formation. ..
  53. Itoh H, Kozasa T, Nagata S, Nakamura S, Katada T, Ui M, et al. Molecular cloning and sequence determination of cDNAs for alpha subunits of the guanine nucleotide-binding proteins Gs, Gi, and Go from rat brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:3776-80 pubmed
    ..The Go alpha clone encoded a sequence of 310 amino acid residues that lacked the NH2 terminus. The homology of the alpha subunits of Gs, Gi, Go, transducin, and ras-encoded protein is discussed. ..