Gene Symbol: Gnao1
Description: G protein subunit alpha o1
Alias: Gnao, RATBPGTPC, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(o) subunit alpha, GTP-binding protein alpha o, guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha activating activity polypeptide O, guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha O polypeptide 1
Species: rat
Products:     Gnao1

Top Publications

  1. Strittmatter S, Valenzuela D, Kennedy T, Neer E, Fishman M. G0 is a major growth cone protein subject to regulation by GAP-43. Nature. 1990;344:836-41 pubmed
    ..It does so through an amino-terminal domain homologous to G-linked transmembrane receptors. Thus, G0 in the growth cone may be regulated by intracellular as well as extracellular signals. ..
  2. Nishida M, Maruyama Y, Tanaka R, Kontani K, Nagao T, Kurose H. G alpha(i) and G alpha(o) are target proteins of reactive oxygen species. Nature. 2000;408:492-5 pubmed
    ..We conclude that G alpha(i) and G alpha(o) are critical targets of oxidative stress for activation of ERK. ..
  3. Jones D, Reed R. Molecular cloning of five GTP-binding protein cDNA species from rat olfactory neuroepithelium. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:14241-9 pubmed
    ..In olfactory tissue, G alpha s was the most abundant of these messages and in combination with the biochemical studies suggests that G alpha s is the G-protein component of the olfactory signal transduction cascade. ..
  4. Wainford R, Kurtz K, Kapusta D. Central G-alpha subunit protein-mediated control of cardiovascular function, urine output, and vasopressin secretion in conscious Sprague-Dawley rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;295:R535-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight the novel selective central Galpha-subunit protein-mediated control of cardiovascular vs. renal excretory function. ..
  5. Mostany R, Diaz A, Valdizán E, Rodríguez Muñoz M, Garzón J, Hurlé M. Supersensitivity to mu-opioid receptor-mediated inhibition of the adenylyl cyclase pathway involves pertussis toxin-resistant Galpha protein subunits. Neuropharmacology. 2008;54:989-97 pubmed publisher
  6. Möller D, Kling R, Skultety M, Leuner K, Hubner H, Gmeiner P. Functionally selective dopamine D?, D? receptor partial agonists. J Med Chem. 2014;57:4861-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Ligand efficacy and selectivity between D(2S) and D3 activation were strongly influenced by regiochemistry and the nature of functional groups attached to the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine moiety. ..
  7. Roman D, Blazer L, Monroy C, Neubig R. Allosteric inhibition of the regulator of G protein signaling-Galpha protein-protein interaction by CCG-4986. Mol Pharmacol. 2010;78:360-5 pubmed publisher
  8. Saitoh O, Kubo Y, Odagiri M, Ichikawa M, Yamagata K, Sekine T. RGS7 and RGS8 differentially accelerate G protein-mediated modulation of K+ currents. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:9899-904 pubmed
    ..These acceleration properties of RGS proteins may play important roles in the rapid regulation of neuronal excitability and the cellular responses to short-lived stimulations. ..
  9. Lelianova V, Davletov B, Sterling A, Rahman M, Grishin E, Totty N, et al. Alpha-latrotoxin receptor, latrophilin, is a novel member of the secretin family of G protein-coupled receptors. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:21504-8 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that latrophilin may bind unidentified endogenous ligands and transduce signals into nerve terminals, thus implicating G proteins in the control of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. ..

More Information


  1. Yang J, Cai W, Lu X, Liu S, Zhao S. RNA-Sequencing Analyses Demonstrate the Involvement of Canonical Transient Receptor Potential Channels in Rat Tooth Germ Development. Front Physiol. 2017;8:455 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that GNAO1, ENO1, EFNB1, CALM1, SIAH2, ATP6V0A1, KDELR2, GTPBP1, POLR2C, SORT1, and members of the canonical transient ..
  2. Clark M, Harrison C, Zhong H, Neubig R, Traynor J. Endogenous RGS protein action modulates mu-opioid signaling through Galphao. Effects on adenylyl cyclase, extracellular signal-regulated kinases, and intracellular calcium pathways. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:9418-25 pubmed
  3. Shangguan Y, Hall K, Neubig R, Wiley J. Diabetic neuropathy: inhibitory G protein dysfunction involves PKC-dependent phosphorylation of Goalpha. J Neurochem. 2003;86:1006-14 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that diminished inhibitory G protein function observed in DRGs neurons from diabetic rats involves an isoform-specific PKC-dependent pathway. ..
  4. Itoh H, Kozasa T, Nagata S, Nakamura S, Katada T, Ui M, et al. Molecular cloning and sequence determination of cDNAs for alpha subunits of the guanine nucleotide-binding proteins Gs, Gi, and Go from rat brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:3776-80 pubmed
    ..The Go alpha clone encoded a sequence of 310 amino acid residues that lacked the NH2 terminus. The homology of the alpha subunits of Gs, Gi, Go, transducin, and ras-encoded protein is discussed. ..
  5. Exner T, Jensen O, Mann M, Kleuss C, Nurnberg B. Posttranslational modification of Galphao1 generates Galphao3, an abundant G protein in brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:1327-32 pubmed
    ..The relative amount of Galphao1 and Galphao3 differed from cell type to cell type, indicating an additional principle of G protein regulation. ..
  6. Won J, Park J, Ju H, Kim S, Suh Kim H, Ghil S. The alpha subunit of Go interacts with promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein and modulates its functions. Cell Signal. 2008;20:884-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These results collectively suggest that Goalpha modulates the function of PLZF via direct interactions. Our novel findings provide insights into the diverse cellular roles of Goalpha and its coupled receptor. ..
  7. Bangasser D, Curtis A, Reyes B, Bethea T, Parastatidis I, Ischiropoulos H, et al. Sex differences in corticotropin-releasing factor receptor signaling and trafficking: potential role in female vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15:877, 896-904 pubmed publisher
  8. Yoo J, Yang Y, Choi I, Shangguan Y, Song I, Neubig R, et al. Expression of novel splice variants of the G protein subunit, Go alpha, is tissue-specific and age-dependent in the rat. Gene. 2002;296:249-55 pubmed
    ..The age-dependent and tissue-specific expression of the G(o)alpha1 splice variants presage a broader functional role than has been observed historically with G(o). ..
  9. Jiang M, Spicher K, Boulay G, Wang Y, Birnbaumer L. Most central nervous system D2 dopamine receptors are coupled to their effectors by Go. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:3577-82 pubmed
    ..In agreement with this, the effect of GTP on dopamine binding to D2 receptors in double Gi1 plus Gi2- and Gi1 plus Gi3-deficient mice was essentially unaffected. ..
  10. Bhamre S, Wang H, Friedman E. Serotonin-mediated palmitoylation and depalmitoylation of G alpha proteins in rat brain cortical membranes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998;286:1482-9 pubmed
  11. Caulfield M, Jones S, Vallis Y, Buckley N, Kim G, Milligan G, et al. Muscarinic M-current inhibition via G alpha q/11 and alpha-adrenoceptor inhibition of Ca2+ current via G alpha o in rat sympathetic neurones. J Physiol. 1994;477 ( Pt 3):415-22 pubmed
    ..4. We conclude that M1 muscarinic receptor inhibition of IK(M) is transduced by G alpha q and/or G alpha 11, and that G alpha o transduces alpha-adrenoceptor inhibition of ICa. ..
  12. Mannoury La Cour C, El Mestikawy S, Hanoun N, Hamon M, Lanfumey L. Regional differences in the coupling of 5-hydroxytryptamine-1A receptors to G proteins in the rat brain. Mol Pharmacol. 2006;70:1013-21 pubmed
    ..Such a disparity in G-protein coupling might explain regional differences in adaptive regulations of brain 5-HT1A receptors. ..
  13. Casas González P, Ruiz Martínez A, García Sáinz J. Lysophosphatidic acid induces alpha1B-adrenergic receptor phosphorylation through G beta gamma, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, protein kinase C and epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1633:75-83 pubmed
    ..This is the first demonstration of a role of EGF receptor transactivation in the phosphorylation of a G protein-coupled receptor. ..
  14. Parolaro D, Rubino T, Gori E, Massi P, Bendotti C, Patrini G, et al. In situ hybridization reveals specific increases in G alpha s and G alpha o mRNA in discrete brain regions of morphine-tolerant rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1993;244:211-22 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that in discrete brain regions altered G protein expression is part of the adaptive changes underlying opiate tolerance. ..
  15. Kosloff M, Travis A, Bosch D, Siderovski D, Arshavsky V. Integrating energy calculations with functional assays to decipher the specificity of G protein-RGS protein interactions. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:846-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that our approach can be extended to analyze interaction specificity across other large protein families. ..
  16. Plata Salaman C, Wilson C, Ffrench Mullen J. In vivo IL-1beta-induced modulation of G-protein alphaO subunit subclass in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus: implications to IL-1beta-associated anorexia. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1998;58:188-94 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that anorexia induced by the central administration of IL-1beta involves modification of G-protein alphaO common subunit profile in the central nervous system. ..
  17. Jiang M, Gold M, Boulay G, Spicher K, Peyton M, Brabet P, et al. Multiple neurological abnormalities in mice deficient in the G protein Go. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:3269-74 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that Go plays a major role in motor control, in motor behavior, and in pain perception and also predict involvement of Go in Ca2+ channel regulation by an unknown mechanism. ..
  18. Straiker A, Borden C, Sullivan J. G-protein alpha subunit isoforms couple differentially to receptors that mediate presynaptic inhibition at rat hippocampal synapses. J Neurosci. 2002;22:2460-8 pubmed
    ..Differential coupling of G-protein alpha subunits may be a means of achieving specificity between different GPCRs and their molecular targets for mediating presynaptic inhibition. ..
  19. Rahman M, Ashton A, Meunier F, Davletov B, Dolly J, Ushkaryov Y. Norepinephrine exocytosis stimulated by alpha-latrotoxin requires both external and stored Ca2+ and is mediated by latrophilin, G proteins and phospholipase C. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1999;354:379-86 pubmed
  20. Tanaka M, Treloar H, Kalb R, Greer C, Strittmatter S. G(o) protein-dependent survival of primary accessory olfactory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:14106-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, in the accessory olfactory system, receptor-coupled G proteins are required for cell survival. ..
  21. Tso P, Wong Y. Opioid receptor-like (ORL1) receptor utilizes both G(oA) and G(oB) for signal transduction. Protein Pept Lett. 2006;13:437-41 pubmed
    ..However, development of AC superactivation and loss of ERK1/2 responsiveness induced by chronic activation of the ORL1 receptors remained PTX-sensitive. ..
  22. Kim Y, Oh S. Changes of the level of G protein alpha-subunit mRNA by tolerance to and withdrawal from pentobarbital in rats. Neurochem Res. 2002;27:527-33 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that region-specific changes of G protein alpha-subunit mRNA were involved in the withdrawal from pentobarbital, whereas alpha-subunit is not so highly involved in the pentobarbital tolerance. ..
  23. Zhao Y, Fang Q, Straub S, Sharp G. Both G i and G o heterotrimeric G proteins are required to exert the full effect of norepinephrine on the beta-cell K ATP channel. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:5306-16 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, both G i and G o proteins are required for the full effect of norepinephrine to activate the K ATP channel. ..
  24. Cai G, Wang H, Gao E, Horwitz J, Snyder D, Pelleg A, et al. Reduced adenosine A1 receptor and G alpha protein coupling in rat ventricular myocardium during aging. Circ Res. 1997;81:1065-71 pubmed
  25. Traver S, Bidot C, Spassky N, Baltauss T, de Tand M, Thomas J, et al. RGS14 is a novel Rap effector that preferentially regulates the GTPase activity of galphao. Biochem J. 2000;350 Pt 1:19-29 pubmed
  26. Valenzuela D, Han X, Mende U, Fankhauser C, Mashimo H, Huang P, et al. G alpha(o) is necessary for muscarinic regulation of Ca2+ channels in mouse heart. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:1727-32 pubmed
    ..Other cardiac G alpha subunits cannot substitute. ..
  27. Andreopoulos S, Li P, Warsh J. Developmental expression of G alpha o and G alpha s isoforms in PC12 cells: relationship to neurite outgrowth. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1995;88:30-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, no significant changes were observed in the levels of alpha o or alpha s isoforms following NGF removal. These findings suggest that alpha o isoforms are involved in neuritic extension in PC12 cells. ..
  28. Li P, Andreopoulos S, Wong C, Vecil G, Warsh J. Effect of thyroid deficiency on Go alpha-subunit isoforms in developing rat cerebral cortex. Neurochem Res. 1995;20:1249-55 pubmed
    ..Alternatively, the expression of G alpha o isoforms in developing rat cortex may be controlled by an intrinsic signal(s) that is independent of the thyroid status. ..
  29. Campbell V, Berrow N, Brickley K, Page K, Wade R, Dolphin A. Voltage-dependent calcium channel beta-subunits in combination with alpha 1 subunits, have a GTPase activating effect to promote the hydrolysis of GTP by G alpha o in rat frontal cortex. FEBS Lett. 1995;370:135-40 pubmed
    ..This may be a mechanism by which calcium channels can normally act to limit the duration of a G-protein modulatory signal. ..
  30. Simon K, Hennen S, Merten N, Blättermann S, Gillard M, Kostenis E, et al. The Orphan G Protein-coupled Receptor GPR17 Negatively Regulates Oligodendrocyte Differentiation via Gαi/o and Its Downstream Effector Molecules. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:705-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We envisage that treatments augmenting PKA and/or EPAC activity represent a beneficial approach for therapeutic enhancement of remyelination in those demyelinating diseases where GPR17 is highly expressed, such as multiple sclerosis. ..
  31. Tall G, Krumins A, Gilman A. Mammalian Ric-8A (synembryn) is a heterotrimeric Galpha protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:8356-62 pubmed
    ..Ric-8A interacts with GDP-bound Galpha proteins, stimulates release of GDP, and forms a stable nucleotide-free transition state complex with the Galpha protein; this complex dissociates upon binding of GTP to Galpha. ..
  32. Yamaguchi Y, Miyagi Y, Baba H. Two-dimensional electrophoresis with cationic detergents: a powerful tool for the proteomic analysis of myelin proteins. Part 2: analytical aspects. J Neurosci Res. 2008;86:766-75 pubmed
  33. Culm K, Lim A, Onton J, Hammer R. Reduced G(i) and G(o) protein function in the rat nucleus accumbens attenuates sensorimotor gating deficits. Brain Res. 2003;982:12-8 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that PPI disruption mediated by D(2)-like receptor activation in the NAc depends on coupling to G(i) and G(o) proteins, alteration of which could cause sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenia. ..
  34. Huang L, Max M, Margolskee R, Su H, Masland R, Euler T. G protein subunit G gamma 13 is coexpressed with G alpha o, G beta 3, and G beta 4 in retinal ON bipolar cells. J Comp Neurol. 2003;455:1-10 pubmed
    ..Gbeta1, 2, and 5 are expressed in partially overlapping subpopulations of cone bipolar cells. Ggamma13 and Gbeta3 and/or Gbeta4, thus, seem selectively to participate in signal transduction by ON bipolar cells. ..
  35. Dhingra A, Jiang M, Wang T, Lyubarsky A, Savchenko A, Bar Yehuda T, et al. Light response of retinal ON bipolar cells requires a specific splice variant of Galpha(o). J Neurosci. 2002;22:4878-84 pubmed
    ..Thus, the light response of the ON bipolar cell is probably carried by its strongly expressed splice variant, Galpha(o1). ..
  36. Schuller U, Lamp E, Schilling K. Developmental expression of heterotrimeric G-proteins in the murine cerebellar cortex. Histochem Cell Biol. 2001;116:149-59 pubmed
  37. Parenti M, Vigano M, Newman C, Milligan G, Magee A. A novel N-terminal motif for palmitoylation of G-protein alpha subunits. Biochem J. 1993;291 ( Pt 2):349-53 pubmed
    ..The non-palmitoylated alpha o mutant is still myristoylated but shows reduced membrane binding, suggesting that reversible palmitoylation may regulate G alpha localization and function. ..
  38. Saitoh O, Kubo Y, Miyatani Y, Asano T, Nakata H. RGS8 accelerates G-protein-mediated modulation of K+ currents. Nature. 1997;390:525-9 pubmed
    ..This property of RGS8 may be crucial for the rapid regulation of neuronal excitability upon stimulation of G-protein-coupled receptors. ..
  39. Ghil S, Choi J, Kim S, Lee Y, Liao Y, Birnbaumer L, et al. Compartmentalization of protein kinase A signaling by the heterotrimeric G protein Go. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:19158-63 pubmed
    ..This regulatory mechanism by which G(o) bifurcates PKA signaling may provide insights into how G(o) regulates complex processes such as neuritogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and cell transformation. ..