Gene Symbol: Gnai3
Description: G protein subunit alpha i3
Alias: GIP3A, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(k) subunit alpha, Guanine nucleotide binding, protein, alpha inhibiting polypeptide 3, g(i) alpha-3, guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting 3, guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 3, guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha inhibiting 3
Species: rat
Products:     Gnai3

Top Publications

  1. de Vries L, Mousli M, Wurmser A, Farquhar M. GAIP, a protein that specifically interacts with the trimeric G protein G alpha i3, is a member of a protein family with a highly conserved core domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:11916-20 pubmed
    ..The fact that GAIP and Sst2 interact with G alpha subunits and share a common domain suggests that other members of the GAIP family also interact with G alpha subunits through the 125-amino-acid core domain. ..
  2. Shu F, Ramineni S, Amyot W, Hepler J. Selective interactions between Gi alpha1 and Gi alpha3 and the GoLoco/GPR domain of RGS14 influence its dynamic subcellular localization. Cell Signal. 2007;19:163-76 pubmed
    ..These findings highlight the importance of the GoLoco/GPR domain and its interactions with Gi alpha1/3 in determining RGS14 subcellular localization and linked functions. ..
  3. Sanada K, Tsai L. G protein betagamma subunits and AGS3 control spindle orientation and asymmetric cell fate of cerebral cortical progenitors. Cell. 2005;122:119-31 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our observations indicate that the cell-fate decision of daughter cells is coupled to mitotic-spindle orientation in progenitors. ..
  4. Cadrin M, McFarlane Anderson N, B├ęgin Heick N. Identification and localization of G(i) alpha 3 in the clonal adipocyte cell lines HGFu and Ob17. Biochem Cell Biol. 1993;71:518-21 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate a role for this subunit in vesicular traffic and are in agreement with the view of the adipocyte as a secretory cell. ..
  5. Li Y, Descorbeth M, Anand Srivastava M. Role of oxidative stress in high glucose-induced decreased expression of Gialpha proteins and adenylyl cyclase signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294:H2845-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that high glucose-induced decreased levels of Gialpha proteins and associated signaling in A10 VSMCs may be attributed to the enhanced oxidative stress due to augmented levels of peroxynitrite and not to H2O2. ..
  6. Jones D, Reed R. Molecular cloning of five GTP-binding protein cDNA species from rat olfactory neuroepithelium. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:14241-9 pubmed
    ..In olfactory tissue, G alpha s was the most abundant of these messages and in combination with the biochemical studies suggests that G alpha s is the G-protein component of the olfactory signal transduction cascade. ..
  7. El Andalousi J, Li Y, Anand Srivastava M. Natriuretic peptide receptor-C agonist attenuates the expression of cell cycle proteins and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats: role of Gi proteins and MAPkinase/PI3kinase signaling. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76183 pubmed publisher
    ..It may be suggested that C-ANP4-23 could be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of vascular complications associated with hypertension, atherosclerosis and restenosis. ..
  8. de Vries L, Fischer T, Tronchere H, Brothers G, Strockbine B, Siderovski D, et al. Activator of G protein signaling 3 is a guanine dissociation inhibitor for Galpha i subunits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:14364-9 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of the Galpha subunit and stimulation of heterotrimeric G protein signaling, presumably by stimulating Gbetagamma, extend the possibilities for modulating signal transduction through heterotrimeric G proteins. ..
  9. Sengupta A, Sarkar D. Estrogen inhibits D2S receptor-regulated Gi3 and Gs protein interactions to stimulate prolactin production and cell proliferation in lactotropic cells. J Endocrinol. 2012;214:67-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the suppression of D2S-regulated Gi3 inhibition of Gs protein may be one of the mechanisms controlling E(2)-activated PRL synthesis and cell proliferation in lactotropes. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Cho H, Kehrl J. Localization of Gi alpha proteins in the centrosomes and at the midbody: implication for their role in cell division. J Cell Biol. 2007;178:245-55 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that G(ialpha) proteins and their regulators at these sites may play essential roles during mammalian cell division. ..
  2. Mannoury La Cour C, El Mestikawy S, Hanoun N, Hamon M, Lanfumey L. Regional differences in the coupling of 5-hydroxytryptamine-1A receptors to G proteins in the rat brain. Mol Pharmacol. 2006;70:1013-21 pubmed
    ..Such a disparity in G-protein coupling might explain regional differences in adaptive regulations of brain 5-HT1A receptors. ..
  3. Clement N, Glorian M, Raymondjean M, Andreani M, Limon I. PGE2 amplifies the effects of IL-1beta on vascular smooth muscle cell de-differentiation: a consequence of the versatility of PGE2 receptors 3 due to the emerging expression of adenylyl cyclase 8. J Cell Physiol. 2006;208:495-505 pubmed
    ..Using real time PCR, pharmacological tools and small interfering RNA (siRNA), we demonstrated that the different integration of PGE2 signals depends on the upregulation of calcium/calmodulin stimulable adenylyl cyclase 8. ..
  4. Sarkar O, Li Y, Anand Srivastava M. Nitric oxide attenuates overexpression of Gi? proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells from SHR: Role of ROS and ROS-mediated signaling. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179301 pubmed publisher
  5. Linder M, Ewald D, Miller R, Gilman A. Purification and characterization of Go alpha and three types of Gi alpha after expression in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:8243-51 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the hypothesis that G protein beta gamma subunits are primarily responsible for inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity. ..
  6. Padia S, Carey R. AT2 receptors: beneficial counter-regulatory role in cardiovascular and renal function. Pflugers Arch. 2013;465:99-110 pubmed publisher
  7. Straiker A, Borden C, Sullivan J. G-protein alpha subunit isoforms couple differentially to receptors that mediate presynaptic inhibition at rat hippocampal synapses. J Neurosci. 2002;22:2460-8 pubmed
    ..Differential coupling of G-protein alpha subunits may be a means of achieving specificity between different GPCRs and their molecular targets for mediating presynaptic inhibition. ..
  8. Ali El Basyuni Y, Li Y, Anand Srivastava M. Knockdown of Inhibitory Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein Gi?-2 by Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides Attenuates the Development of Hypertension and Tachycardia in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5: pubmed
    ..These results suggested that the enhanced expression of Gi?-2 but not Gi?-3 protein plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and tachycardia in SHRs. ..
  9. Tall G, Krumins A, Gilman A. Mammalian Ric-8A (synembryn) is a heterotrimeric Galpha protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:8356-62 pubmed
    ..Ric-8A interacts with GDP-bound Galpha proteins, stimulates release of GDP, and forms a stable nucleotide-free transition state complex with the Galpha protein; this complex dissociates upon binding of GTP to Galpha. ..
  10. de Vries L, Elenko E, Hubler L, Jones T, Farquhar M. GAIP is membrane-anchored by palmitoylation and interacts with the activated (GTP-bound) form of G alpha i subunits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:15203-8 pubmed
    ..This motif, present in cysteine string proteins found on synaptic vesicles, pancreatic zymogen granules, and chromaffin granules, suggests GAIP's possible involvement in membrane trafficking. ..
  11. Kimple A, Soundararajan M, Hutsell S, Roos A, Urban D, Setola V, et al. Structural determinants of G-protein alpha subunit selectivity by regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2). J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19402-11 pubmed publisher
  12. Kimple R, de Vries L, Tronchere H, Behe C, Morris R, Gist Farquhar M, et al. RGS12 and RGS14 GoLoco motifs are G alpha(i) interaction sites with guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor Activity. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:29275-81 pubmed
    ..The presence of two, independent G alpha interaction sites suggests that RGS12 and RGS14 participate in a complex coordination of G-protein signaling beyond simple G alpha GAP activity. ..
  13. Strakova Z, Soloff M. Coupling of oxytocin receptor to G proteins in rat myometrium during labor: Gi receptor interaction. Am J Physiol. 1997;272:E870-6 pubmed
    ..Thus the established increased sensitivity of the myometrium to OT at term could be the result of both upregulation of OTRs and an increase in the fraction of receptors coupled to signal transduction components, one of which is Gi...
  14. Sattar A, Boinpally R, Stromer M, Jena B. G(alpha)(i3) in pancreatic zymogen granules participates in vesicular fusion. J Biochem. 2002;131:815-20 pubmed
    ..Our studies suggest a possible role for ZG-associated G(alpha)(i3) in ZG-PM fusion. ..
  15. Hashim S, Anand Srivastava M. Losartan-induced attenuation of blood pressure in L-NAME hypertensive rats is associated with reversal of the enhanced expression of Gi alpha proteins. J Hypertens. 2004;22:181-90 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the implication of AT1 receptors in enhanced expression of Gi alpha proteins and increased blood pressure in L-NAME-induced hypertension. ..
  16. Berg K, Zardeneta G, Hargreaves K, Clarke W, Milam S. Integrins regulate opioid receptor signaling in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Neuroscience. 2007;144:889-97 pubmed
    ..g. Galphai vs. Galphas). Collectively, these data provide the first evidence that specific integrins regulate opioid receptor signaling in sensory neurons. ..
  17. Song K, Peterson Y, Freidman A, Blumer J, Sato M, Lanier S. Identification and characterization of a G-protein regulatory motif in WAVE1. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:1993-8 pubmed
    ..The docking of Gialpha within a WAVE1 scaffolding complex may facilitate dynamic cycling and/or targeting for efficient and localized control of actin polymerization. ..
  18. Pattingre S, De Vries L, Bauvy C, Chantret I, Cluzeaud F, Ogier Denis E, et al. The G-protein regulator AGS3 controls an early event during macroautophagy in human intestinal HT-29 cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:20995-1002 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that AGS3 is a novel partner of the Galphai3 protein in the control of a major catabolic pathway. ..
  19. Wang Y, Wu L, Ge M. [Alterations of cardiac Gi protein alpha subunits during ischemia-reperfusion in rats]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 1998;50:514-8 pubmed
    ..The results suggested that the increased expression of cardiac Gi may contribute to the dysfunction of adenyl cyclase signal transduction system and the impaired cardiac function during ischemia-reperfusion. ..
  20. Jain M, Lim C, Nagata K, Davis V, Milstone D, Liao R, et al. Targeted inactivation of Galpha(i) does not alter cardiac function or beta-adrenergic sensitivity. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;280:H569-75 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate no observable role for inhibitory G proteins in mediating basal cardiac function or sensitivity to beta-AR stimulation in nonpathological myocardium...
  21. Wang X, Fan X, Cai L, Liu S, Cong X, Chen X. Lysophosphatidic acid rescues bone mesenchymal stem cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis. 2015;20:273-84 pubmed publisher
  22. Head B, Patel H, Roth D, Lai N, Niesman I, Farquhar M, et al. G-protein-coupled receptor signaling components localize in both sarcolemmal and intracellular caveolin-3-associated microdomains in adult cardiac myocytes. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:31036-44 pubmed
  23. Nafisi H, Banihashemi B, Daigle M, Albert P. GAP1(IP4BP)/RASA3 mediates Galphai-induced inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:35908-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a novel mechanism for dopamine D2S-induced inhibition of ERK1/2 and indicate that RASA3 links Galphai proteins to inhibit Gq-induced Ras/ERK1/2 activation. ..
  24. Ihnatovych I, Novotny J, Haugvicova R, Bourova L, Mares P, Svoboda P. Opposing changes of trimeric G protein levels during ontogenetic development of rat brain. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2002;133:57-67 pubmed
    ..Differential expression of the individual alpha subunits of trimeric G proteins during postnatal development suggests their different roles in maturation of the brain tissue. ..