glutathione transferase


Gene Symbol: glutathione transferase
Description: glutathione S-transferase alpha 4
Alias: glutathione S-transferase alpha-4, GST 8-8, GST A4-4, GST K, GST Yk, glutathione S-transferase A4, glutathione S-transferase Yk, glutathione transferase
Species: rat

Top Publications

  1. Bhagwat S, Vijayasarathy C, Raza H, Mullick J, Avadhani N. Preferential effects of nicotine and 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamine)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone on mitochondrial glutathione S-transferase A4-4 induction and increased oxidative stress in the rat brain. Biochem Pharmacol. 1998;56:831-9 pubmed
  2. Apidianakis Y, Que Y, Xu W, Tegos G, Zimniak P, Hamblin M, et al. Down-regulation of glutatione S-transferase ? 4 (hGSTA4) in the muscle of thermally injured patients is indicative of susceptibility to bacterial infection. FASEB J. 2012;26:730-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that hGSTA4 down-regulation and the concomitant increase in 4HNE adducts in human muscle are indicative of susceptibility to infection in individuals with severely thermal injuries. ..
  3. Ahmad I, Shukla S, Kumar A, Singh B, Kumar V, Chauhan A, et al. Biochemical and molecular mechanisms of N-acetyl cysteine and silymarin-mediated protection against maneb- and paraquat-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Chem Biol Interact. 2013;201:9-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained thus suggest that NAC and SIL protect MB and/or PQ-induced hepatotoxicity by reducing oxidative stress, inflammation and by modulating xenobitic metabolizing machinery and SIL seems to be more effective. ..
  4. Wang H, Wu G, Park H, Jiang P, Sit W, Van Griensven L, et al. Protective effect of Phellinus linteus polysaccharide extracts against thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rats: a proteomics analysis. Chin Med. 2012;7:23 pubmed publisher
    ..The proteomics data indicate that P. linteus may be protective against TAA-induced liver fibrosis via regulation of oxidative stress pathways, heat shock pathways, and metabolic pathways for amino acids and nucleic acids. ..
  5. Strange R, Jones P, Fryer A. Glutathione S-transferase: genetics and role in toxicology. Toxicol Lett. 2000;112-113:357-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, GST genotypes alone and in combination have been linked with clinical outcome. ..
  6. Reichard J, Vasiliou V, Petersen D. Characterization of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal metabolism in stellate cell lines derived from normal and cirrhotic rat liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1487:222-32 pubmed
  7. Curtis J, Grimsrud P, Wright W, Xu X, Foncea R, Graham D, et al. Downregulation of adipose glutathione S-transferase A4 leads to increased protein carbonylation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Diabetes. 2010;59:1132-42 pubmed publisher
  8. Edalat M, Mannervik B, Axelsson L. Selective expression of detoxifying glutathione transferases in mouse colon: effect of experimental colitis and the presence of bacteria. Histochem Cell Biol. 2004;122:151-9 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the inoculation of GF mice with Lactobacillus GG induced all the intestinal GSTs studied. ..
  9. Shao L, Cui J, Young L, Wang J. The effect of mood stabilizer lithium on expression and activity of glutathione s-transferase isoenzymes. Neuroscience. 2008;151:518-24 pubmed

More Information


  1. Alin P, Jensson H, Cederlund E, Jornvall H, Mannervik B. Cytosolic glutathione transferases from rat liver. Primary structure of class alpha glutathione transferase 8-8 and characterization of low-abundance class Mu glutathione transferases. Biochem J. 1989;261:531-9 pubmed
    ..The amino acid sequence of subunit 8 was determined and showed a typical class Alpha GSH transferase structure including an N-acetylated N-terminal methionine residue. ..
  2. Bjork K, Saarikoski S, Arlinde C, Kovanen L, Osei Hyiaman D, Ubaldi M, et al. Glutathione-S-transferase expression in the brain: possible role in ethanol preference and longevity. FASEB J. 2006;20:1826-35 pubmed
    ..It could, however, underlie observed differences in life span between AA and ANA lines, prompting a utility of this animal model in aging research. ..
  3. Gustafsson A, Nilsson L, Mannervik B. Hybridization of alpha class subunits generating a functional glutathione transferase A1-4 heterodimer. J Mol Biol. 2002;316:395-406 pubmed
    ..The non-additive kinetic properties of the subunits in the heterodimer therefore highlight the importance of fine-tuned subunit interactions for optimal catalytic efficiency of GST A1-1 and GST A4-4. ..
  4. Bruns C, Hubatsch I, Ridderström M, Mannervik B, Tainer J. Human glutathione transferase A4-4 crystal structures and mutagenesis reveal the basis of high catalytic efficiency with toxic lipid peroxidation products. J Mol Biol. 1999;288:427-39 pubmed
    ..b>Glutathione transferase (GST) A4-4 is a key component in the defense against the products of this oxidative stress because, ..
  5. Stenberg G, Ridderström M, Engstrom A, Pemble S, Mannervik B. Cloning and heterologous expression of cDNA encoding class alpha rat glutathione transferase 8-8, an enzyme with high catalytic activity towards genotoxic alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Biochem J. 1992;284 ( Pt 2):313-9 pubmed
    A cDNA clone, lambda GTRA8, encoding rat glutathione transferase subunit 8 has been isolated from a lambda gt10 rat hepatoma cDNA library...
  6. Raza H, Prabu S, Robin M, Avadhani N. Elevated mitochondrial cytochrome P450 2E1 and glutathione S-transferase A4-4 in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: tissue-specific variations and roles in oxidative stress. Diabetes. 2004;53:185-94 pubmed
    ..These results indicate, for the first time, a marked increase in mitochondrial oxidative stress in target tissues of STZ-treated rats and implicate a direct role for mitochondrial CYP2E1 in the generation of intramitochondrial ROS. ..
  7. Kumar A, Ahmad I, Shukla S, Singh B, Patel D, Pandey H, et al. Effect of zinc and paraquat co-exposure on neurodegeneration: Modulation of oxidative stress and expression of metallothioneins, toxicant responsive and transporter genes in rats. Free Radic Res. 2010;44:950-65 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the effect of Zn+PQ was only slightly higher than that of alone, indicating that probably Zn and PQ follow some different molecular events leading to neurodegeneration. ..
  8. Singhal N, Srivastava G, Patel D, Jain S, Singh M. Melatonin or silymarin reduces maneb- and paraquat-induced Parkinson's disease phenotype in the mouse. J Pineal Res. 2011;50:97-109 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that silymarin and melatonin offer nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuroprotection against MB- and PQ-induced PD by the modulation of oxidative stress and apoptotic machinery...
  9. Ström M, Al Nimer F, Lindblom R, Nyengaard J, Piehl F. Naturally occurring genetic variability in expression of Gsta4 is associated with differential survival of axotomized rat motoneurons. Neuromolecular Med. 2012;14:15-29 pubmed publisher
    ..This adds to a large body of evidence implicating lipid peroxidation as an important pathway for neurodegeneration. ..
  10. Ahmad I, Shukla S, Singh D, Chauhan A, Kumar V, Singh B, et al. CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress regulates HO-1 and GST expression in maneb- and paraquat-treated rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Mol Cell Biochem. 2014;393:209-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that CYP2E1 induces iNOS-independent free radical generation and subsequently modulates the Nrf2-dependent HO-1 and 4-HNE-mediated GST expression in maneb- and paraquat-treated PMNs. ..