Gene Symbol: Glrx
Description: glutaredoxin
Alias: Glrx1, Grx, glutaredoxin-1, TTase-1, glutaredoxin (thioltransferase), glutaredoxin 1 (thioltransferase), thioltransferase-1
Species: rat
Products:     Glrx

Top Publications

  1. GALLOGLY M, Shelton M, Qanungo S, Pai H, Starke D, Hoppel C, et al. Glutaredoxin regulates apoptosis in cardiomyocytes via NFkappaB targets Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL: implications for cardiac aging. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010;12:1339-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Since glutaredoxin (Grx) specifically catalyzes protein deglutathionylation, we examined its status with aging and its influence on ..
  2. Murata H, Ihara Y, Nakamura H, Yodoi J, Sumikawa K, Kondo T. Glutaredoxin exerts an antiapoptotic effect by regulating the redox state of Akt. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:50226-33 pubmed
    Glutaredoxin (GRX) is a small dithiol protein involved in various cellular functions, including the redox regulation of certain enzyme activities...
  3. Pai H, Starke D, Lesnefsky E, Hoppel C, Mieyal J. What is the functional significance of the unique location of glutaredoxin 1 (GRx1) in the intermembrane space of mitochondria?. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007;9:2027-33 pubmed
    Glutaredoxins (GRx) catalyze reversible protein glutathionylation...
  4. Lancel S, Zhang J, Evangelista A, Trucillo M, Tong X, Siwik D, et al. Nitroxyl activates SERCA in cardiac myocytes via glutathiolation of cysteine 674. Circ Res. 2009;104:720-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, HNO increases the maximal activation of SERCA via S-glutathiolation at cysteine 674...
  5. Ehrhart J, Gluck M, Mieyal J, Zeevalk G. Functional glutaredoxin (thioltransferase) activity in rat brain and liver mitochondria. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2002;8:395-400 pubmed
    Glutaredoxin (Grx) is a specific and efficient catalyst of glutathione-dependent deglutathionylation of protein-SS-glutathione mixed disulfides...
  6. Lim C, Cater M, Mercer J, La Fontaine S. Copper-dependent interaction of glutaredoxin with the N termini of the copper-ATPases (ATP7A and ATP7B) defective in Menkes and Wilson diseases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;348:428-36 pubmed
  7. Gao X, Qanungo S, Pai H, Starke D, Steller K, Fujioka H, et al. Aging-dependent changes in rat heart mitochondrial glutaredoxins--Implications for redox regulation. Redox Biol. 2013;1:586-98 pubmed publisher
    ..increase in susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to apoptosis was attributable to decrease in cytosolic glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1) and concomitant decrease in NF-?B-mediated expression of anti-apoptotic proteins...
  8. Kobayashi M, Nakamura H, Yodoi J, Shiota K. Immunohistochemical localization of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin in mouse embryos and fetuses. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2000;2:653-63 pubmed
    ..have not been investigated systematically, we examined the ontogenesis of thioredoxin (TRX) and glutaredoxin (GRX) in mouse embryos and fetuses by using immunohistochemical methods...
  9. Aon Bertolino M, Romero J, Galeano P, Holubiec M, Badorrey M, Saraceno G, et al. Thioredoxin and glutaredoxin system proteins-immunolocalization in the rat central nervous system. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1810:93-110 pubmed publisher
    ..this work was to study the distribution of the following proteins of the thioredoxin and glutathione/glutaredoxin (Grx) systems in the rat CNS by immunohistochemistry: Trx1, Trx2, TrxR1, TrxR2, Txnip, Grx1, Grx2, Grx3, Grx5, and ?-GCS,..

More Information


  1. Figtree G, Liu C, Bibert S, Hamilton E, Garcia A, White C, et al. Reversible oxidative modification: a key mechanism of Na+-K+ pump regulation. Circ Res. 2009;105:185-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Glutathionylation was reversed after addition of superoxide dismutase. Glutaredoxin 1, which catalyzes deglutathionylation, coimmunoprecipitated with beta(1) subunit and, when included in patch ..
  2. Shelton M, Kern T, Mieyal J. Glutaredoxin regulates nuclear factor kappa-B and intercellular adhesion molecule in Müller cells: model of diabetic retinopathy. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:12467-74 pubmed
    ..protein function, and its reversal (deglutathionylation) is catalyzed specifically and efficiently by glutaredoxin (GRx, thioltransferase), a thioldisulfide oxidoreductase...
  3. Reinbothe T, Ivarsson R, Li D, Niazi O, Jing X, Zhang E, et al. Glutaredoxin-1 mediates NADPH-dependent stimulation of calcium-dependent insulin secretion. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:893-900 pubmed publisher
    ..exocytosis in pancreatic beta-cells, an effect suggested to involve the cytosolic redox protein glutaredoxin-1 (GRX-1)...
  4. Ivarsson R, Quintens R, Dejonghe S, Tsukamoto K, In t Veld P, Renstrom E, et al. Redox control of exocytosis: regulatory role of NADPH, thioredoxin, and glutaredoxin. Diabetes. 2005;54:2132-42 pubmed
    ..Effects of NADPH on exocytosis are proposed to be mediated by the redox proteins glutaredoxin (GRX) and thioredoxin (TRX) on the basis of the following evidence: 1) Expression of GRX mRNA is very high in beta-cells ..
  5. Gonzalez Fernandez R, Gaytan F, Martínez Galisteo E, Porras P, Padilla C, Sanchez Criado J, et al. Expression of glutaredoxin (thioltransferase) in the rat ovary during the oestrous cycle and postnatal development. J Mol Endocrinol. 2005;34:625-35 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we have prepared specific antibodies against rat Grx and have used them to localize the protein in the ovaries of rats during postnatal development and during the ..
  6. Porras P, Pedrajas J, Martínez Galisteo E, Padilla C, Johansson C, Holmgren A, et al. Glutaredoxins catalyze the reduction of glutathione by dihydrolipoamide with high efficiency. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;295:1046-51 pubmed
    Glutaredoxins (Grx) are small (approximately 12kDa) proteins which catalyze thiol disulfide oxidoreductions involving glutathione (GSH) and disulfides in proteins or small molecules...
  7. Padilla C, Martínez Galisteo E, Barcena J, Spyrou G, Holmgren A. Purification from placenta, amino acid sequence, structure comparisons and cDNA cloning of human glutaredoxin. Eur J Biochem. 1995;227:27-34 pubmed
    ..A cDNA that encodes the entire glutaredoxin gene (grx) and flanking sequences was isolated from a human spleen cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence of this cDNA (0...
  8. Shelton M, Distler A, Kern T, Mieyal J. Glutaredoxin regulates autocrine and paracrine proinflammatory responses in retinal glial (muller) cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:4760-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects correlate with a novel finding that secretion of interleukin-6 was elevated in the cultures of Grx overexpressing cells. Also, pure interleukin-6 increased Grx1 and ICAM-1 in the rMC-1 cells...
  9. Kanda M, Ihara Y, Murata H, Urata Y, Kono T, Yodoi J, et al. Glutaredoxin modulates platelet-derived growth factor-dependent cell signaling by regulating the redox status of low molecular weight protein-tyrosine phosphatase. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:28518-28 pubmed
    Glutaredoxin (GRX) is a glutathione-disulfide oxidoreductase involved in various cellular functions, including the redox-dependent regulation of certain integral proteins...
  10. Urata Y, Ihara Y, Murata H, Goto S, Koji T, Yodoi J, et al. 17Beta-estradiol protects against oxidative stress-induced cell death through the glutathione/glutaredoxin-dependent redox regulation of Akt in myocardiac H9c2 cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:13092-102 pubmed
    The GSH/glutaredoxin (GRX) system is involved in the redox regulation of certain enzyme activities, and this system protects cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis by regulating the redox state of Akt (Murata, H., Ihara, Y., Nakamura, H...
  11. Terada T, Okamoto K, Nishikawa J, Miura T, Nishinaka T, Nishihara T. Site-directed mutagenesis of rat thioltransferase: effects of essential cysteine residues for the protection against oxidative stress. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2010;24:60-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thioltransferase can be important for survival of bacterial cells under oxidative stress. ..
  12. Picklo M, Idso J, Jackson M. S-Glutathionylation of hepatic and visceral adipose proteins decreases in obese rats. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21:297-305 pubmed publisher
    ..However, levels of GLRX1 were elevated 70% in the adipose tissue of the obese, 45% fat calorie-fed rats...
  13. Takagi Y, Nakamura T, Nishiyama A, Nozaki K, Tanaka T, Hashimoto N, et al. Localization of glutaredoxin (thioltransferase) in the rat brain and possible functional implications during focal ischemia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;258:390-4 pubmed
    We investigated the distribution of glutaredoxin (GRX, thioltransferase) in the rat brain using the in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical methods. GRX mRNA and GRX were expressed widely in the rat brain...