Gene Symbol: Gjd2
Description: gap junction protein, delta 2
Alias: Cx36, Gja9, gap junction delta-2 protein, connexin-36, gap junction alpha-9 protein, gap junction membrane channel protein alpha 9
Species: rat
Products:     Gjd2

Top Publications

  1. Deans M, Gibson J, Sellitto C, Connors B, Paul D. Synchronous activity of inhibitory networks in neocortex requires electrical synapses containing connexin36. Neuron. 2001;31:477-85 pubmed
    ..in such activity, we constructed mice expressing histochemical reporters in place of the gap junction protein Cx36. Localization of the reporter with somatostatin and parvalbumin suggested that Cx36 was expressed largely by ..
  2. Le Gurun S, Martin D, Formenton A, Maechler P, Caille D, Waeber G, et al. Connexin-36 contributes to control function of insulin-producing cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:37690-7 pubmed
    Connexin-36 (Cx36) is a gap junction protein expressed by the insulin-producing beta-cells...
  3. Allagnat F, Klee P, Cardozo A, Meda P, Haefliger J. Connexin36 contributes to INS-1E cells survival through modulation of cytokine-induced oxidative stress, ER stress and AMPK activity. Cell Death Differ. 2013;20:1742-52 pubmed publisher
    Cell-to-cell communication mediated by gap junctions made of Connexin36 (Cx36) contributes to pancreatic ?-cell function. We have recently demonstrated that Cx36 also supports ?-cell survival by a still unclear mechanism...
  4. Rash J, Yasumura T, Davidson K, Furman C, Dudek F, Nagy J. Identification of cells expressing Cx43, Cx30, Cx26, Cx32 and Cx36 in gap junctions of rat brain and spinal cord. Cell Commun Adhes. 2001;8:315-20 pubmed
    We have identified cells expressing Cx26, Cx30, Cx32, Cx36 and Cx43 in gap junctions of rat central nervous system (CNS) using confocal light microscopic immunocytochemistry and freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling (FRIL)...
  5. Voytenko L, Lushnikova I, Savotchenko A, Isaeva E, Skok M, Lykhmus O, et al. Hippocampal GABAergic interneurons coexpressing alpha7-nicotinic receptors and connexin-36 are able to improve neuronal viability under oxygen-glucose deprivation. Brain Res. 2015;1616:134-45 pubmed publisher
    ..GABAergic signaling, nicotinic receptors expressing α7-subunit (α7nAChRs(+)) and connexin-36 (Cx36(+), electrotonic gapjunctions protein) contradictory modulate post-ischemic environment...
  6. Franco Pérez J, Ballesteros Zebadua P, Fernández Figueroa E, Ruiz Olmedo I, Reyes Grajeda P, Paz C. Sleep deprivation and sleep recovery modifies connexin36 and connexin43 protein levels in rat brain. Neuroreport. 2012;23:103-7 pubmed publisher
  7. Zeinieh M, Talhouk R, El Sabban M, Mikati M. Differential expression of hippocampal connexins after acute hypoxia in the developing brain. Brain Dev. 2010;32:810-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cx36 protein levels transiently decreased at P11 after acute hypoxia then returned to control levels...
  8. Kothmann W, Massey S, O BRIEN J. Dopamine-stimulated dephosphorylation of connexin 36 mediates AII amacrine cell uncoupling. J Neurosci. 2009;29:14903-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These electrical synapses are widespread in the CNS and serve a variety of important functions. In the retina, connexin 36 (Cx36) gap junctions couple AII amacrine cells and are a requisite component of the high-sensitivity rod ..
  9. Rubio M, Nagy J. Connexin36 expression in major centers of the auditory system in the CNS of mouse and rat: Evidence for neurons forming purely electrical synapses and morphologically mixed synapses. Neuroscience. 2015;303:604-29 pubmed publisher
    Electrical synapses formed by gap junctions composed of connexin36 (Cx36) are widely distributed in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS)...

More Information


  1. Margineanu D, Klitgaard H. The connexin 36 blockers quinine, quinidine and mefloquine inhibit cortical spreading depression in a rat neocortical slice model in vitro. Brain Res Bull. 2006;71:23-8 pubmed
    ..to settle whether SD inhibition in vitro by quinine, quinidine and mefloquine reflects an involvement of neuronal Cx36 channels in SD generation/propagation, these results bear potential drug-discovery relevance for the migraine with ..
  2. Nagy J, Rash J. Cx36, Cx43 and Cx45 in mouse and rat cerebellar cortex: species-specific expression, compensation in Cx36 null mice and co-localization in neurons vs. glia. Eur J Neurosci. 2017;46:1790-1804 pubmed publisher
    Electrical synapses formed by connexin36 (Cx36)-containing gap junctions between interneurons in the cerebellar cortex have been well characterized, including those formed between basket cells and between Golgi cells, and there is gene ..
  3. Carvalho C, Barbosa H, Britan A, Santos Silva J, Boschero A, Meda P, et al. Beta cell coupling and connexin expression change during the functional maturation of rat pancreatic islets. Diabetologia. 2010;53:1428-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the cellular production and localisation of CX36 and CX43, and gap junction-mediated beta cell coupling in pancreatic islets from rats of different ages, displaying ..
  4. Beheshti S, Sayyah M, Golkar M, Sepehri H, Babaie J, Vaziri B. Changes in hippocampal connexin 36 mRNA and protein levels during epileptogenesis in the kindling model of epilepsy. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2010;34:510-5 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cx36 and Cx43 expressions at both mRNA and protein level were measured in rat hippocampus during epileptogenesis in the ..
  5. Marina N, Becker D, Gilbey M. Immunohistochemical detection of connexin36 in sympathetic preganglionic and somatic motoneurons in the adult rat. Auton Neurosci. 2008;139:15-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Gap junctions in the adult spinal cord are constituted principally by connexin36 (Cx36). However, the distribution of Cx36 in specific neuronal populations of the spinal cord is unknown...
  6. Maxeiner S, Dedek K, Janssen Bienhold U, Ammermüller J, Brune H, Kirsch T, et al. Deletion of connexin45 in mouse retinal neurons disrupts the rod/cone signaling pathway between AII amacrine and ON cone bipolar cells and leads to impaired visual transmission. J Neurosci. 2005;25:566-76 pubmed
    ..of mutant mice revealed a normal a-wave but a 40% reduction in the b-wave amplitude, similar to that found in Cx36-deficient animals, suggesting a possible defect in the rod pathway of visual transmission...
  7. Sohl G, Degen J, Teubner B, Willecke K. The murine gap junction gene connexin36 is highly expressed in mouse retina and regulated during brain development. FEBS Lett. 1998;428:27-31 pubmed
    ..Connexin36 mRNA (2.9 kb) is highly expressed in adult retina and less abundant in brain where it gradually increased during fetal development until day 7 post partum, and decreased thereafter. ..
  8. Bautista W, Nagy J. Connexin36 in gap junctions forming electrical synapses between motoneurons in sexually dimorphic motor nuclei in spinal cord of rat and mouse. Eur J Neurosci. 2014;39:771-87 pubmed publisher
    ..linked by gap junctions, we examined immunofluorescence labeling for the gap junction-forming protein connexin36 (Cx36) in male and female mice and rats...
  9. Laura M, Xóchitl F, Anne S, Alberto M. Analysis of connexin expression during seizures induced by 4-aminopyridine in the rat hippocampus. J Biomed Sci. 2015;22:69 pubmed publisher
    ..with oligodendrocytes and astrocytes had an important role in the first stages of seizures induced by 4-AP, whereas Cx36 localized to neurons could be associated with later stages...
  10. McCracken C, Hamby S, Patel K, Morgan D, Vrana K, Roberts D. Extended cocaine self-administration and deprivation produces region-specific and time-dependent changes in connexin36 expression in rat brain. Synapse. 2005;58:141-50 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that changes in neuronal gap junction expression may be one mechanism by which cocaine self-administration produces enduring changes in behavior. ..
  11. Rash J, Pereda A, Kamasawa N, Furman C, Yasumura T, Davidson K, et al. High-resolution proteomic mapping in the vertebrate central nervous system: close proximity of connexin35 to NMDA glutamate receptor clusters and co-localization of connexin36 with immunoreactivity for zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1). J Neurocytol. 2004;33:131-51 pubmed
    ..1-0.3 microm) to neuronal gap junctions labeled for Cx35, which is the fish ortholog of connexin36 (Cx36) found at neuronal gap junctions in mammals...
  12. Guo C, Tran H, Green C, Danesh Meyer H, Acosta M. Gap junction proteins in the light-damaged albino rat. Mol Vis. 2014;20:670-82 pubmed
    ..Immunocytochemistry revealed that connexin 36 (Cx36) was significantly increased in the inner plexiform layer and Cx45 was significantly decreased in the ..
  13. Martin D, Tawadros T, Meylan L, Abderrahmani A, Condorelli D, Waeber G, et al. Critical role of the transcriptional repressor neuron-restrictive silencer factor in the specific control of connexin36 in insulin-producing cell lines. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:53082-9 pubmed
    Connexin36 (Cx36) is specifically expressed in neurons and in pancreatic beta-cells. Cx36 functions as a critical regulator of insulin secretion and content in beta-cells...
  14. Haefliger J, Rohner Jeanrenaud F, Caille D, Charollais A, Meda P, Allagnat F. Hyperglycemia downregulates Connexin36 in pancreatic islets via the upregulation of ICER-1/ICER-1?. J Mol Endocrinol. 2013;51:49-58 pubmed publisher
    Channels formed by the gap junction protein Connexin36 (CX36) contribute to the proper control of insulin secretion. We previously demonstrated that chronic exposure to glucose decreases Cx36 levels in insulin-secreting cells in vitro...
  15. Hidaka S, Kato T, Miyachi E. Expression of gap junction connexin36 in adult rat retinal ganglion cells. J Integr Neurosci. 2002;1:3-22 pubmed
    ..A member of gap junction channel subunit connexin36 (Cx36), is probed for the location of cell-to-cell communication in the mammalian retina, where gap junction networks of ..
  16. Torborg C, Hansen K, Feller M. High frequency, synchronized bursting drives eye-specific segregation of retinogeniculate projections. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:72-8 pubmed
    ..These findings provide a possible resolution to previously described discrepancies regarding the role of retinal waves in retinogeniculate segregation. ..
  17. Hartfield E, Rinaldi F, Glover C, Wong L, Caldwell M, Uney J. Connexin 36 expression regulates neuronal differentiation from neural progenitor cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14746 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Connexin 36 (Cx36) is expressed extensively in the developing brain, with levels peaking at P14 after which its levels fall ..
  18. Calabrese A, Guldenagel M, Charollais A, Mas C, Caton D, Bauquis J, et al. Cx36 and the function of endocrine pancreas. Cell Commun Adhes. 2001;8:387-91 pubmed
    ..The insulin-producing beta-cells, which form the bulk of endocrine pancreatic islets, express predominantly Cx36. To assess the function of this connexin, we have first studied its expression in rats, during sequential changes ..
  19. Allagnat F, Alonso F, Martin D, Abderrahmani A, Waeber G, Haefliger J. ICER-1gamma overexpression drives palmitate-mediated connexin36 down-regulation in insulin-secreting cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:5226-34 pubmed
    Channels formed by the gap junction protein connexin36 (Cx36) contribute to the proper control of insulin secretion. We investigated the impact of chronic hyperlipidemia on Cx36 expression in pancreatic beta-cells...
  20. Kovács Öller T, Raics K, Orbán J, Nyitrai M, Völgyi B. Developmental changes in the expression level of connexin36 in the rat retina. Cell Tissue Res. 2014;358:289-302 pubmed publisher
    Connexin36 (Cx36) is the major gap junction forming protein in the brain and the retina; thus, alterations in its expression indicate changes in the corresponding circuitry...
  21. Schock S, Leblanc D, Hakim A, Thompson C. ATP release by way of connexin 36 hemichannels mediates ischemic tolerance in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;368:138-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of connexin 36 expression by siRNA greatly reduces the amount of ATP released during depolarization and the subsequent degree ..
  22. Rash J, Olson C, Davidson K, Yasumura T, Kamasawa N, Nagy J. Identification of connexin36 in gap junctions between neurons in rodent locus coeruleus. Neuroscience. 2007;147:938-56 pubmed
    ..In early postnatal development, connexin36 (Cx36) and connexin43 (Cx43) immunofluorescent puncta were densely distributed in the locus coeruleus, whereas Cx32 and ..
  23. Beheshti S, Zeinali R, Esmaeili A. Rapid upregulation of the hippocampal connexins 36 and 45 mRNA levels during memory consolidation. Behav Brain Res. 2017;320:85-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the time profile of the expression levels of hippocampal connexins 36 and 45 (Cx36 and Cx45) mRNAs was measured during memory consolidation, in a passive avoidance paradigm...
  24. Nagy J. Evidence for connexin36 localization at hippocampal mossy fiber terminals suggesting mixed chemical/electrical transmission by granule cells. Brain Res. 2012;1487:107-22 pubmed publisher
    ..between dendrites of parvalbumin-positive interneurons, a high density of fine, punctate immunolabeling for Cx36, non-overlapping with parvalbumin, was found in subregions of the stratum lucidum in the ventral hippocampus of rat ..
  25. Köster Patzlaff C, Hosseini S, Reuss B. Loss of connexin36 in rat hippocampus and cerebellar cortex in persistent Borna disease virus infection. J Chem Neuroanat. 2009;37:118-27 pubmed publisher
    ..of electrical synapses, and we, therefore, analysed expression of the neuronal gap junction protein connexin36 (Cx36) in the Lewis rat hippocampal formation, and cerebellar cortex, 4 and 8 weeks after neonatal infection...
  26. Kay C, Ursu D, Sher E, King A. The role of Cx36 and Cx43 in 4-aminopyridine-induced rhythmic activity in the spinal nociceptive dorsal horn: an electrophysiological study in vitro. Physiol Rep. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..RT-qPCR) was used to profile developmental expression of two specific Cx proteins, namely glial Cx43 and neuronal Cx36, in postnatal lumbar spinal cord aged 4, 7, and 14 days...
  27. Baude A, Bleasdale C, Dalezios Y, Somogyi P, Klausberger T. Immunoreactivity for the GABAA receptor alpha1 subunit, somatostatin and Connexin36 distinguishes axoaxonic, basket, and bistratified interneurons of the rat hippocampus. Cereb Cortex. 2007;17:2094-107 pubmed
    ..The differential expression of signaling molecules and the relative frequency of cells reflect the specialized temporal contribution of the 3 types of PV-positive interneurons to GABA release in the network. ..
  28. Pizarro Delgado J, Fasciani I, Temperán A, Romero M, González Nieto D, Alonso Magdalena P, et al. Inhibition of connexin 36 hemichannels by glucose contributes to the stimulation of insulin secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;306:E1354-66 pubmed publisher
    The existence of functional connexin36 (Cx36) hemichannels in ?-cells was investigated in pancreatic islets of rat and wild-type (Cx36(+/+)), monoallelic (Cx36(+/-)), and biallelic (Cx36(-/-)) knockout mice...
  29. Condorelli D, Trovato Salinaro A, Mudo G, Mirone M, Belluardo N. Cellular expression of connexins in the rat brain: neuronal localization, effects of kainate-induced seizures and expression in apoptotic neuronal cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:1807-27 pubmed
    ..immunohistochemical detection for neuronal markers, we provide evidence that, among cerebral connexins (Cx26, Cx32, Cx36, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, Cx45 and Cx47), only Cx45 and Cx36 mRNAs are localized in neuronal cells in both developing and ..
  30. Ciolofan C, Li X, Olson C, Kamasawa N, Gebhardt B, Yasumura T, et al. Association of connexin36 and zonula occludens-1 with zonula occludens-2 and the transcription factor zonula occludens-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein at neuronal gap junctions in rodent retina. Neuroscience. 2006;140:433-51 pubmed
  31. Allagnat F, Martin D, Condorelli D, Waeber G, Haefliger J. Glucose represses connexin36 in insulin-secreting cells. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:5335-44 pubmed
    The gap-junction protein connexin36 (Cx36) contributes to control the functions of insulin-producing cells. In this study, we investigated whether the expression of Cx36 is regulated by glucose in insulin-producing cells...