Gene Symbol: Gja5
Description: gap junction protein, alpha 5
Alias: Cx40, gap junction alpha-5 protein, connexin 40, gap junction membrane channel protein alpha 5
Species: rat
Products:     Gja5

Top Publications

  1. Kanter H, Saffitz J, Beyer E. Cardiac myocytes express multiple gap junction proteins. Circ Res. 1992;70:438-44 pubmed
    ..Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed that all three connexins are localized to myocyte gap junctions. The presence of multiple connexins in myocyte gap junctions suggests novel mechanisms for regulating cardiac electrical coupling. ..
  2. Gollob M, Jones D, Krahn A, Danis L, Gong X, Shao Q, et al. Somatic mutations in the connexin 40 gene (GJA5) in atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:2677-88 pubmed
    ..The cardiac gap-junction protein connexin 40 is expressed selectively in atrial myocytes and mediates the coordinated electrical activation of the atria...
  3. Takenaka T, Inoue T, Kanno Y, Okada H, Hill C, Suzuki H. Connexins 37 and 40 transduce purinergic signals mediating renal autoregulation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;294:R1-11 pubmed
    ..04 +/- 0.10 to 0.81 +/- 0.06, n = 6 P < 0.01) and GFR (0.05 +/- 0.08 to 0.79 +/- 0.05, P < 0.01). (Cx40)GAP27 induced similar changes to (Cx37,43)GAP27. Renal autoregulation was preserved in the presence of (Cx43)GAP26...
  4. de Wit C, Roos F, Bolz S, Kirchhoff S, Kruger O, Willecke K, et al. Impaired conduction of vasodilation along arterioles in connexin40-deficient mice. Circ Res. 2000;86:649-55 pubmed
    ..transmission of vasomotor responses in the intact skeletal muscle microcirculation of connexin40-deficient mice (Cx40(-/-))...
  5. Kirchhoff S, Kim J, Hagendorff A, Th├Ânnissen E, Kruger O, Lamers W, et al. Abnormal cardiac conduction and morphogenesis in connexin40 and connexin43 double-deficient mice. Circ Res. 2000;87:399-405 pubmed
    Connexin40-deficient (Cx40(-/-)/Cx43(+/+)) and connexin43-heterozygous knockout mice (Cx40(+/+)/Cx43(+/-)) are viable but show cardiac conduction abnormalities...
  6. Song B, Liao B, Yu F, Xia Z. [Expression of connexin 40 and hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel 4 in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells cocultured with sinoatrial node tissues in vitro]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2012;26:146-51 pubmed
    To investigate the expression of connexin 40 (Cx40) and hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel 4 (HCN4) in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) cocultured with the sinoatrial node (SAN) tissues in ..
  7. Leaf D, Feig J, Vasquez C, Riva P, Yu C, Lader J, et al. Connexin40 imparts conduction heterogeneity to atrial tissue. Circ Res. 2008;103:1001-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Connexin40 (Cx40) is an abundant gap junction protein that is expressed in atrial myocytes...
  8. Takenaka T, Inoue T, Kanno Y, Okada H, Meaney K, Hill C, et al. Expression and role of connexins in the rat renal vasculature. Kidney Int. 2008;73:415-22 pubmed
    ..connexins 37 and 40 expression in the endothelial and renin-secreting cells of the afferent arteriole, while connexin 40 was also found in extra- and intraglomerular mesangial cells...
  9. Young E, Hill M, Wiehler W, Triggle C, Reid J. Reduced EDHF responses and connexin activity in mesenteric arteries from the insulin-resistant obese Zucker rat. Diabetologia. 2008;51:872-81 pubmed publisher
    ..40Gap27 significantly attenuated the response to acetylcholine in the LZRs, but had no effect in the OZRs. Connexin 40 protein and Cx40 mRNA levels in mesenteric vascular homogenates were significantly smaller in the OZRs than in ..

More Information


  1. Zheng Y, Dai D, Dai Y. NaHS ameliorates diabetic vascular injury by correcting depressed connexin 43 and 40 in the vasculature in streptozotocin-injected rats. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010;62:615-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings were accompanied by downregulated Cx43 and Cx40, and upregulated PKCepsilon and NADPH oxidase subunits p22(phox)/p47(phox)/p67(phox) in the thoracic aorta...
  2. Verheule S, van Batenburg C, Coenjaerts F, Kirchhoff S, Willecke K, Jongsma H. Cardiac conduction abnormalities in mice lacking the gap junction protein connexin40. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1999;10:1380-9 pubmed
    The gap junction protein connexin40 (Cx40) normally is expressed in the murine atrial myocardium and ventricular conduction system. In mice lacking Cx40, several changes in the surface ECG have been described...
  3. Howarth F, Nowotny N, Zilahi E, El Haj M, Lei M. Altered expression of gap junction connexin proteins may partly underlie heart rhythm disturbances in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat heart. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007;305:145-51 pubmed
    ..Expression levels of mRNA for Gja5 (Cx40), Gja1 (Cx43) and Gja7 (Cx45) were measured in SAN and compared with right atrium and right ventricle with real-..
  4. Davis L, Kanter H, Beyer E, Saffitz J. Distinct gap junction protein phenotypes in cardiac tissues with disparate conduction properties. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1994;24:1124-32 pubmed
    ..Although most cardiac gap junctions contain connexin40, connexin43 and connexin45, the relative amounts of each of these connexins vary considerably in cardiac tissues with different conduction properties. ..
  5. Simon A, McWhorter A, Dones J, Jackson C, Chen H. Heart and head defects in mice lacking pairs of connexins. Dev Biol. 2004;265:369-83 pubmed
    ..Of the 20 connexins in vertebrates, four are expressed in developing heart: connexin37 (Cx37), connexin40 (Cx40), connexin43 (Cx43), and connexin45 (Cx45)...
  6. Valiunas V, Gemel J, Brink P, Beyer E. Gap junction channels formed by coexpressed connexin40 and connexin43. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;281:H1675-89 pubmed
    ..We examined the potential interaction of connexin Cx43 and Cx40 in HeLa cells sequentially stably transfected with these two connexins...
  7. Rignault S, Haefliger J, Gasser D, Markert M, Nicod P, Liaudet L, et al. Sepsis up-regulates the expression of connexin 40 in rat aortic endothelium. Crit Care Med. 2005;33:1302-10 pubmed
    ..e., Cx37, Cx40, and Cx43). We also examined a possible association between such changes and endothelial dysfunction in this model...
  8. van Kempen M, Vermeulen J, Moorman A, Gros D, Paul D, Lamers W. Developmental changes of connexin40 and connexin43 mRNA distribution patterns in the rat heart. Cardiovasc Res. 1996;32:886-900 pubmed
    Gap junctions have been demonstrated ultrastructurally in cardiac regions where connexin40 (Cx40) and connexin43 (Cx43) protein could not be detected immunohistochemically...
  9. Yeh H, Chang H, Lu W, Lee Y, Ko Y, Severs N, et al. Age-related alteration of gap junction distribution and connexin expression in rat aortic endothelium. J Histochem Cytochem. 2000;48:1377-89 pubmed
    We investigated endothelial gap junctions and their three component connexins, connexin37 (Cx37), Cx40, and Cx43, during growth and senescence in rat aorta by en face immunoconfocal microscopy and electron microscopy...
  10. Ming J, Xu J, Li T, Zhang Y, Yang G, Liu L. [Relationship between Cx40/43 regulating the intracellular Ca2+ concentration of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and endothelium-dependent vascular contractive response of superior mesenteric artery in rats]. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2009;25:31-5 pubmed
    To investigate the relationship between intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) mediated by connexin 40/43( Cx40/43) of VSMC and endothelium-dependent vascular contractive response of superior mesenteric arteries (SMA) in hemorrhagic ..
  11. Simon A, Goodenough D, Paul D. Mice lacking connexin40 have cardiac conduction abnormalities characteristic of atrioventricular block and bundle branch block. Curr Biol. 1998;8:295-8 pubmed
    ..the expression of connexins - the family of proteins from which gap junctions are formed - reveal that connexin40 (Cx40) is prominent in the conduction system [4]...
  12. Martin P, Wall C, Griffith T. Effects of connexin-mimetic peptides on gap junction functionality and connexin expression in cultured vascular cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2005;144:617-27 pubmed
    ..Immunostaining and Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of gap junction plaques containing Cx43, but not Cx40, in RAECs, whereas plaques containing Cxs 40 and 43 were evident in A7r5 cells...
  13. Figueroa X, Isakson B, Duling B. Connexins: gaps in our knowledge of vascular function. Physiology (Bethesda). 2004;19:277-84 pubmed
  14. Ming J, Li T, Zhang Y, Xu J, Yang G, Liu L. Regulatory effects of myoendothelial gap junction on vascular reactivity after hemorrhagic shock in rats. Shock. 2009;31:80-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, the relationship of the mRNA/protein expression of connexins 37, 40, and 43(Cx40 and Cx43) to the changes of vascular reactivity after hemorrhagic shock and the effect of antisense ..
  15. Heyman N, Kurjiaka D, Ek Vitorin J, Burt J. Regulation of gap junctional charge selectivity in cells coexpressing connexin 40 and connexin 43. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;297:H450-9 pubmed publisher
    Expression of connexin 40 (Cx40) and Cx43 in cardiovascular tissues varies as a function of age, injury, and development with unknown consequences on the selectivity of junctional communication and its acute regulation...
  16. Li L, Jiang C, Hao P, Li W, Song C, Song B. Changes of gap junctional cell-cell communication in overactive detrusor in rats. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C1627-35 pubmed
    ..The two groups were compared by means of urodynamics, light and electron microscopy, expression of Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 mRNA genes with RT-PCR, Cx43 protein with Western blot analysis, and functional intercellular ..
  17. Beyer E, Reed K, Westphale E, Kanter H, Larson D. Molecular cloning and expression of rat connexin40, a gap junction protein expressed in vascular smooth muscle. J Membr Biol. 1992;127:69-76 pubmed
    ..amplification and cDNA library screening to clone DNA encoding a novel member of this gene family, rat connexin40 (Cx40). The derived rat Cx40 polypeptide contains 356 amino acids, with a predicted molecular mass of 40,233 Da...
  18. Polontchouk L, Valiunas V, Haefliger J, Eppenberger H, Weingart R. Expression and regulation of connexins in cultured ventricular myocytes isolated from adult rat hearts. Pflugers Arch. 2002;443:676-89 pubmed
    ..Double immunostaining allowed the localization of connexins Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 between myocytes and demonstrated co-expression and co-localization in individual cells and gap ..
  19. Groenewegen W, van Veen T, van der Velden H, Jongsma H. Genomic organization of the rat connexin40 gene: identical transcription start sites in heart and lung. Cardiovasc Res. 1998;38:463-71 pubmed
    The gap junction protein connexin(Cx)40 is developmentally and tissue-specifically expressed. How Cx40 expression is regulated is unknown...
  20. Wang A, Zhang H, Zhang L, Li X, Li L, Si J, et al. [An increase in the ratio of peripheral blood CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes and the levels of connexin 40 and inflammatory factors in spontaneously hypertensive rats]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2016;32:145-8 pubmed
    To analyze the relationships of connexin 40 (Cx40) with peripheral blood CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte subsets and inflammatory factors of spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats...
  21. Thibodeau I, Xu J, Li Q, Liu G, Lam K, Veinot J, et al. Paradigm of genetic mosaicism and lone atrial fibrillation: physiological characterization of a connexin 43-deletion mutant identified from atrial tissue. Circulation. 2010;122:236-44 pubmed publisher
    ..retention of the mutant protein and a dominant-negative effect on gap junction formation of both wild-type Cx43 and Cx40. Electrophysiological studies revealed no electrical coupling of cells expressing the mutant protein alone and ..
  22. Frank D, Carter K, Thomas K, Burr R, Bakker M, Coetzee W, et al. Lethal arrhythmias in Tbx3-deficient mice reveal extreme dosage sensitivity of cardiac conduction system function and homeostasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E154-63 pubmed publisher
    ..TBX3 and its regulatory targets merit investigation as candidates for human arrhythmias. ..
  23. Haddock R, Grayson T, Brackenbury T, Meaney K, Neylon C, Sandow S, et al. Endothelial coordination of cerebral vasomotion via myoendothelial gap junctions containing connexins 37 and 40. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;291:H2047-56 pubmed
    ..Synchronized vasomotion in rat basilar artery is endothelium dependent, with [Ca(2+)](i) waves generated within SMCs being coordinated by electrical coupling via myoendothelial gap junctions. ..
  24. Morioka T, Okada S, Nameta M, Kamal F, Yanakieva Georgieva N, Yao J, et al. Glomerular expression of connexin 40 and connexin 43 in rat experimental glomerulonephritis. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2013;17:191-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in mRNA levels were detected by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Cx40 was detected in mesangial cells in normal rat glomeruli; its expression was reduced on days 3 and 7 and recovered ..
  25. Buschmann I, Pries A, Styp Rekowska B, Hillmeister P, Loufrani L, Henrion D, et al. Pulsatile shear and Gja5 modulate arterial identity and remodeling events during flow-driven arteriogenesis. Development. 2010;137:2187-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice, Gja5 (connexin 40) was also expressed in arteries...
  26. Chang C, Wu L, Hsu L, Chang G, Chen C, Yeh H, et al. Differential endothelial gap junction expression in venous vessels exposed to different hemodynamics. J Histochem Cytochem. 2010;58:1083-92 pubmed publisher
    ..of the native vein, the gap-junctional spot numbers (GJSNs) and the total gap-junctional areas (TGJAs) of Cx40 and Cx43 were lower than those of the thoracic aorta and that Cx37 was hardly detectable...
  27. Yamaguchi N, Kawaguchi K, Yamamoto N. Study of the mechanism of antihypertensive peptides VPP and IPP in spontaneously hypertensive rats by DNA microarray analysis. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;620:71-7 pubmed publisher
    ..89-fold, P<0.05) and the connexin 40 (gap junction 40) gene (2.81-fold, P<0.05)...
  28. Avila M, Sell S, Hawkins B, Hellmich H, Boone D, Crookshanks J, et al. Cerebrovascular connexin expression: effects of traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2011;28:1803-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Gap junctions are comprised of connexin proteins (Cxs), of which Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 are expressed in vascular tissue...
  29. Salameh A, Frenzel C, Boldt A, Rassler B, Glawe I, Schulte J, et al. Subchronic alpha- and beta-adrenergic regulation of cardiac gap junction protein expression. FASEB J. 2006;20:365-7 pubmed
    ..The most important cardiac gap junction proteins are connexin43 (predominantly) (Cx43), connexin40 (Cx40), and in early developmental stages connexin45...
  30. Kotsias B, Salim M, Peracchia L, Peracchia C. Interplay between cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator and gap junction channels made of connexins 45, 40, 32 and 50 expressed in oocytes. J Membr Biol. 2006;214:1-8 pubmed
    ..interaction between CFTR and gap junction channels, we coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes CFTR and either Cx45, Cx40, Cx32 or Cx50 and monitored junctional conductance (G (j)) and its sensitivity to transjunctional voltage (V (j)) ..
  31. Yeh H, Rothery S, Dupont E, Coppen S, Severs N. Individual gap junction plaques contain multiple connexins in arterial endothelium. Circ Res. 1998;83:1248-63 pubmed
    ..Up to 3 connexin types, connexin40 (Cx40), Cx37, and Cx43 may be expressed in vascular endothelium according to vascular site, species, and physiological ..
  32. Allen M, Gemel J, Beyer E, Lal R. Atomic force microscopy of Connexin40 gap junction hemichannels reveals calcium-dependent three-dimensional molecular topography and open-closed conformations of both the extracellular and cytoplasmic faces. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:22139-46 pubmed publisher
  33. Kirchhoff S, Nelles E, Hagendorff A, Kruger O, Traub O, Willecke K. Reduced cardiac conduction velocity and predisposition to arrhythmias in connexin40-deficient mice. Curr Biol. 1998;8:299-302 pubmed
    ..In the mouse, connexin40 (Cx40) protein has been detected in endothelial cells of lung and heart and in certain heart muscle cells: atrial ..
  34. Bouvier D, Spagnol G, Chenavas S, Kieken F, Vitrac H, Brownell S, et al. Characterization of the structure and intermolecular interactions between the connexin40 and connexin43 carboxyl-terminal and cytoplasmic loop domains. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:34257-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the 21 different human Cx isoforms, studies have suggested that in the heart, Cx40 and Cx43 can oligomerize to form heteromeric hemichannels...
  35. Seul K, Tadros P, Beyer E. Mouse connexin40: gene structure and promoter analysis. Genomics. 1997;46:120-6 pubmed
    ..Connexin40 (Cx40) is one of these proteins, and it exhibits limited expression only in a few cells of the cardiovascular system...
  36. Pizard A, Burgon P, Paul D, Bruneau B, Seidman C, Seidman J. Connexin 40, a target of transcription factor Tbx5, patterns wrist, digits, and sternum. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:5073-83 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that mice deficient in connexin 40 (Cx40), a Tbx5-regulated gap junction component, shared axial and appendicular skeletal malformations with Tbx5(..
  37. Zhang W, Wang Z, Chen Y, Ma L, Li T, Bao H, et al. [Effects of valsartan and U0126 on atrial fibrosis and connexin40 remodeling in rats]. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2011;39:1129-34 pubmed
    To explore the effects of valsartan and MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 on atrial fibrosis and connexin40 (Cx40) remodeling in rats treated with isoproterenol (ISO)...
  38. Beblo D, Wang H, Beyer E, Westphale E, Veenstra R. Unique conductance, gating, and selective permeability properties of gap junction channels formed by connexin40. Circ Res. 1995;77:813-22 pubmed
    ..The conductance, gating, and selective permeability of rat connexin40 (Cx40) gap junction channels between pairs of Cx40-transfected mouse neuroblastoma (N2A) cells in culture were studied by ..
  39. Trovato Salinaro A, Belluardo N, Frinchi M, von Maltzahn J, Willecke K, Condorelli D, et al. Regulation of connexin gene expression during skeletal muscle regeneration in the adult rat. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C593-606 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of present work was to perform a comparative spatial and temporal analysis of connexin (Cx) 37, Cx39, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 expression in the adult regenerating skeletal muscle in response to crush injury...
  40. Silverstein D, Thornhill B, Leung J, Vehaskari V, Craver R, Trachtman H, et al. Expression of connexins in the normal and obstructed developing kidney. Pediatr Nephrol. 2003;18:216-24 pubmed
    ..Our reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies demonstrate that Cx30, Cx36, Cx37, Cx40, Cx45, Cx46, and Cx50 are expressed in the kidney...
  41. Mather S, Dora K, Sandow S, Winter P, Garland C. Rapid endothelial cell-selective loading of connexin 40 antibody blocks endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor dilation in rat small mesenteric arteries. Circ Res. 2005;97:399-407 pubmed
    ..this technique, endothelial cell loading either with antibodies to the intracellular carboxyl-terminal region of Cx40 (residues 340 to 358) or mimetic peptide for the cytoplasmic loop (Cx40; residues 130 to 140) each markedly ..
  42. Aitkenhead M, Wang S, Nakatsu M, Mestas J, Heard C, Hughes C. Identification of endothelial cell genes expressed in an in vitro model of angiogenesis: induction of ESM-1, (beta)ig-h3, and NrCAM. Microvasc Res. 2002;63:159-71 pubmed
    ..These data expand the suite of genes implicated in vascular remodeling and angiogenesis. ..
  43. Billaud M, Dahan D, Marthan R, Savineau J, Guibert C. Role of the gap junctions in the contractile response to agonists in pulmonary artery from two rat models of pulmonary hypertension. Respir Res. 2011;12:30 pubmed publisher
    ..Since gap junctions are formed with proteins named connexins (Cx) and contribute to vasoreactivity, we investigated both expression and role of Cx in the pulmonary arterial vasoreactivity in two rat models of PH...
  44. Kansui Y, Fujii K, Nakamura K, Goto K, Oniki H, Abe I, et al. Angiotensin II receptor blockade corrects altered expression of gap junctions in vascular endothelial cells from hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;287:H216-24 pubmed
    ..Confocal laser scanning microscopy after immunofluorescent labeling with antibodies against Cx37, Cx40, and Cx43 revealed that the expression of Cx37 and Cx40 in endothelial cells of the mesenteric artery was ..
  45. Chen W, Guo Y, Yang W, Zheng P, Zeng J, Tong W. Connexin40 correlates with oxidative stress in brains of traumatic brain injury rats. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2017;35:217-224 pubmed publisher
    ..Connexin43 (Cx43) was reported to contribute to cerebral damage. However, the impacts of Cx40 have not been investigated in detail...
  46. Makita N, Seki A, Sumitomo N, Chkourko H, Fukuhara S, Watanabe H, et al. A connexin40 mutation associated with a malignant variant of progressive familial heart block type I. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2012;5:163-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to 12 sodium channel mutations, we found a germ line GJA5 (connexin40 [Cx40]) mutation (Q58L) in 1 family...
  47. Laes J, Ravoet M, Quan X, Van Vooren P, Szpirer J, Szpirer C. Improved radiation hybrid map of rat chromosome 2: colocalization of the genes encoding corticotropin-releasing hormone and IL6-receptor with quantitative trait loci regulating the inflammatory response. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2001;92:130-3 pubmed
    ..Our data show that they reside within regions that were genetically defined as QTLs controlling the inflammatory response. These genes are thus both functional and positional candidates. ..
  48. Wagner C, de Wit C, Kurtz L, Gr├╝nberger C, Kurtz A, Schweda F. Connexin40 is essential for the pressure control of renin synthesis and secretion. Circ Res. 2007;100:556-63 pubmed
    ..We here show that in the absence of connexin40 (Cx40), which form gap junctions between juxtaglomerular and endothelial cells, the negative control of renin secretion ..
  49. Ou Y, Niu X, Han Z, Ren F, Huang C. [Quantitative connexin mRNA detection in posterior nodal extension of adult rat heart]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2007;27:812-6 pubmed
    ..the PNE and other regions of adult rat heart, where heterogeneous expression of the 3 Cx isoforms (Cx43, Cx45, and Cx40) were observed...
  50. Simon A, McWhorter A. Vascular abnormalities in mice lacking the endothelial gap junction proteins connexin37 and connexin40. Dev Biol. 2002;251:206-20 pubmed
    ..Mice lacking either connexin37 (Cx37) or connexin40 (Cx40), the predominant gap junction proteins present in vascular endothelium, are viable and exhibit phenotypes that are ..
  51. Lin X, Veenstra R. Action potential modulation of connexin40 gap junctional conductance. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;286:H1726-35 pubmed
    Connexin40 (Cx40) is abundantly expressed in the atrial myocardium, ventricular conduction system, and vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells of the mammalian cardiovascular system...
  52. Rummery N, McKenzie K, Whitworth J, Hill C. Decreased endothelial size and connexin expression in rat caudal arteries during hypertension. J Hypertens. 2002;20:247-53 pubmed
    ..there was no significant difference in cell size nor in the expression of Cxs 37 or 43; however, expression of Cx40 was significantly lower in SHR than in WKY rats...
  53. Sun Y, Yang Y, Gong X, Wang X, Li R, Tan H, et al. Novel germline GJA5/connexin40 mutations associated with lone atrial fibrillation impair gap junctional intercellular communication. Hum Mutat. 2013;34:603-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the molecular and cellular mechanisms of lone AF-linked germline mutations in the connexin40 (Cx40) gene, GJA5. The entire coding region of GJA5 was sequenced in 68 unrelated patients with lone AF...
  54. Soemedi R, Topf A, Wilson I, Darlay R, Rahman T, Glen E, et al. Phenotype-specific effect of chromosome 1q21.1 rearrangements and GJA5 duplications in 2436 congenital heart disease patients and 6760 controls. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:1513-20 pubmed publisher
    ..1 in cases of TOF. These small duplications encompassed a single gene in common, GJA5, and were enriched in cases of TOF in comparison to controls [OR = 10.7 (95% CI 1.8-64.3), P = 0.01]...
  55. Bevilacqua L, Simon A, Maguire C, Gehrmann J, Wakimoto H, Paul D, et al. A targeted disruption in connexin40 leads to distinct atrioventricular conduction defects. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2000;4:459-67 pubmed
    ..b>Cx40 is solely expressed in the atrium and His-Purkinje system...
  56. Haefliger J, Demotz S, Braissant O, Suter E, Waeber B, Nicod P, et al. Connexins 40 and 43 are differentially regulated within the kidneys of rats with renovascular hypertension. Kidney Int. 2001;60:190-201 pubmed
    b>Connexin 40 (Cx40) is a gap junction protein expressed in endothelial cells of vessels, endocardium, and conducting cells of the His-Purkinje system of heart. Its distribution in the kidney remains to be fully investigated...
  57. Polontchouk L, Haefliger J, Ebelt B, Schaefer T, Stuhlmann D, Mehlhorn U, et al. Effects of chronic atrial fibrillation on gap junction distribution in human and rat atria. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;38:883-91 pubmed
    ..remodeling induced by chronic atrial fibrillation (AF), we investigated connexin40 and connexin43 (Cx40 and Cx43) expression and distribution in atria of patients with and without chronic AF and in an animal model of AF ..
  58. Lin X, Fenn E, Veenstra R. An amino-terminal lysine residue of rat connexin40 that is required for spermine block. J Physiol. 2006;570:251-69 pubmed
    Spermine blocks connexin40 (Cx40) gap junctions, and two cytoplasmic amino-terminal domain glutamate residues are essential for this inhibitory activity...