Gene Symbol: Gja4
Description: gap junction protein, alpha 4
Alias: CXN37, gap junction alpha-4 protein, Gap junction membrane channel, protein alpha 4 (connexin 37), connexin-37, cx37, gap junction membrane channel protein alpha 4
Species: rat
Products:     Gja4

Top Publications

  1. Vrionis F, Wu J, Qi P, Waltzman M, Cherington V, Spray D. The bystander effect exerted by tumor cells expressing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene is dependent on connexin expression and cell communication via gap junctions. Gene Ther. 1997;4:577-85 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these results indicate that in several cellular environments the bystander effect is dependent on connexin expression and gap junctional communication between HSVtk-positive and HSVtk-negative cells. ..
  2. Yeh H, Lai Y, Chang H, Ko Y, Severs N, Tsai C. Multiple connexin expression in regenerating arterial endothelial gap junctions. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000;20:1753-62 pubmed
  3. Trovato Salinaro A, Belluardo N, Frinchi M, von Maltzahn J, Willecke K, Condorelli D, et al. Regulation of connexin gene expression during skeletal muscle regeneration in the adult rat. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C593-606 pubmed publisher
    ..Within 24 h from injury, Cx37 expression was upregulated in the endothelial cells of blood vessels, and, 5 days after injury, Cx37-expressing ..
  4. Takenaka T, Inoue T, Kanno Y, Okada H, Hill C, Suzuki H. Connexins 37 and 40 transduce purinergic signals mediating renal autoregulation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;294:R1-11 pubmed
    ..Intrarenal infusion of (Cx37,43)GAP27 increased autoregulatory index of renal plasma flow (0.06 +/- 0.05 to 0.47 +/- 0.06, n = 6, P < 0...
  5. Yamada Y, Ichihara S, Izawa H, Tanaka M, Yokota M. Genetic risk for coronary artery disease in individuals with or without type 2 diabetes. Mol Genet Metab. 2004;81:282-90 pubmed
    ..005) associated with CAD: the 1019C -->T of the connexin 37 gene for men with type 2 diabetes; the 2445G -->A in the fatty acid-binding protein 2 gene for women with ..
  6. Yeh H, Rothery S, Dupont E, Coppen S, Severs N. Individual gap junction plaques contain multiple connexins in arterial endothelium. Circ Res. 1998;83:1248-63 pubmed
    ..Up to 3 connexin types, connexin40 (Cx40), Cx37, and Cx43 may be expressed in vascular endothelium according to vascular site, species, and physiological ..
  7. Earley S, Resta T, Walker B. Disruption of smooth muscle gap junctions attenuates myogenic vasoconstriction of mesenteric resistance arteries. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;287:H2677-86 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemical experiments revealed positive staining for connexin 37 (Cx37) in both endothelium and smooth muscle of rat mesenteric arterioles, whereas connexin 43 (Cx43) ..
  8. Silverstein D, Thornhill B, Leung J, Vehaskari V, Craver R, Trachtman H, et al. Expression of connexins in the normal and obstructed developing kidney. Pediatr Nephrol. 2003;18:216-24 pubmed
    ..Our reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies demonstrate that Cx30, Cx36, Cx37, Cx40, Cx45, Cx46, and Cx50 are expressed in the kidney...
  9. Nelson T, Sorgen P, Burt J. Carboxy terminus and pore-forming domain properties specific to Cx37 are necessary for Cx37-mediated suppression of insulinoma cell proliferation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013;305:C1246-56 pubmed publisher
    b>Connexin 37 (Cx37) suppresses cell proliferation when expressed in rat insulinoma (Rin) cells, an effect also manifest in vivo during vascular development and in response to tissue injury...

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Yeh H, Chang H, Lu W, Lee Y, Ko Y, Severs N, et al. Age-related alteration of gap junction distribution and connexin expression in rat aortic endothelium. J Histochem Cytochem. 2000;48:1377-89 pubmed
    We investigated endothelial gap junctions and their three component connexins, connexin37 (Cx37), Cx40, and Cx43, during growth and senescence in rat aorta by en face immunoconfocal microscopy and electron microscopy...
  2. Kansui Y, Fujii K, Nakamura K, Goto K, Oniki H, Abe I, et al. Angiotensin II receptor blockade corrects altered expression of gap junctions in vascular endothelial cells from hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;287:H216-24 pubmed
    ..Confocal laser scanning microscopy after immunofluorescent labeling with antibodies against Cx37, Cx40, and Cx43 revealed that the expression of Cx37 and Cx40 in endothelial cells of the mesenteric artery was ..
  3. Simon A, McWhorter A. Vascular abnormalities in mice lacking the endothelial gap junction proteins connexin37 and connexin40. Dev Biol. 2002;251:206-20 pubmed
    ..Mice lacking either connexin37 (Cx37) or connexin40 (Cx40), the predominant gap junction proteins present in vascular endothelium, are viable and ..
  4. Lin S, Lu C, Muhammad R, Chou W, Lin F, Wu P, et al. Induction of connexin 37 expression in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;99:134-40 pubmed
    ..Changes in connexin 37 mRNA expression following nerve injury have not been previously documented...
  5. Good M, Ek Vitorín J, Burt J. Structural determinants and proliferative consequences of connexin 37 hemichannel function in insulinoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:30379-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The C terminus and a channel able to function are necessary, and neither by itself is sufficient, for Cx37 to mediate growth suppression...
  6. Figueroa X, Isakson B, Duling B. Connexins: gaps in our knowledge of vascular function. Physiology (Bethesda). 2004;19:277-84 pubmed
  7. Stoessel A, Himmerkus N, Bleich M, Bachmann S, Theilig F. Connexin 37 is localized in renal epithelia and responds to changes in dietary salt intake. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;298:F216-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Renal vascular expression and hemodynamic impacts have so far been shown for Cx37, Cx40, and Cx43. Additionally, Cx30, Cx30...
  8. Ganesan S, Keating A. Impact of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene exposure on connexin gap junction proteins in cultured rat ovaries. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014;274:209-14 pubmed publisher
    ..5nM or 75nM) and cultured for 4 or 8days. RT-PCR was performed to quantify Cx37, Cx43, p53 and Bax mRNA level...
  9. Chang C, Wu L, Hsu L, Chang G, Chen C, Yeh H, et al. Differential endothelial gap junction expression in venous vessels exposed to different hemodynamics. J Histochem Cytochem. 2010;58:1083-92 pubmed publisher
    ..and the total gap-junctional areas (TGJAs) of Cx40 and Cx43 were lower than those of the thoracic aorta and that Cx37 was hardly detectable...
  10. Rummery N, Hickey H, McGurk G, Hill C. Connexin37 is the major connexin expressed in the media of caudal artery. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22:1427-32 pubmed
    ..in intercellular coupling within vascular muscle, the present study has quantified mRNA and protein expression for Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 in the caudal artery (CA) and thoracic aorta (ThA) of the rat...
  11. Listi F, Candore G, Lio D, Russo M, Colonna Romano G, Caruso M, et al. Association between C1019T polymorphism of connexin37 and acute myocardial infarction: a study in patients from Sicily. Int J Cardiol. 2005;102:269-71 pubmed
    ..The component protein subunits of these channels, called connexin (Cx), belong to a multigene family. Cx37 is involved in growth, regeneration after injury and ageing of the endothelial cells, suggesting its role in ..