Gene Symbol: Gja1
Description: gap junction protein, alpha 1
Alias: Cx43, gap junction alpha-1 protein, connexin 43, gap junction 43 kDa heart protein, gap junction membrane channel protein alpha 1
Species: rat
Products:     Gja1

Top Publications

  1. Bobbie M, Roy S, Trudeau K, Munger S, Simon A, Roy S. Reduced connexin 43 expression and its effect on the development of vascular lesions in retinas of diabetic mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:3758-63 pubmed publisher
    PURPOSE. To examine whether diabetes-induced connexin 43 downregulation promotes retinal vascular lesions characteristic of diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS...
  2. Boengler K, Stahlhofen S, van De Sand A, Gres P, Ruiz Meana M, Garcia Dorado D, et al. Presence of connexin 43 in subsarcolemmal, but not in interfibrillar cardiomyocyte mitochondria. Basic Res Cardiol. 2009;104:141-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Connexin 43 (Cx43) is located at the inner membrane of SSM, and Cx43 is involved in the cardioprotection by ischemic ..
  3. Hunter A, Barker R, Zhu C, Gourdie R. Zonula occludens-1 alters connexin43 gap junction size and organization by influencing channel accretion. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:5686-98 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that zonula occludens (ZO)-1 localizes preferentially to the periphery of connexin43 (Cx43) GJ plaques...
  4. Zhang F, Morioka N, Nakashima Hisaoka K, Nakata Y. Spinal astrocytes stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-? and/or interferon-? attenuate connexin 43-gap junction via c-jun terminal kinase activity. J Neurosci Res. 2013;91:745-56 pubmed publisher
    ..TNF-?) and interferon-? (IFN-?), and these cytokines could alter astrocytic function by modulating connexin (Cx43), subunits that form channels that modulate intercellular communication in astrocytes...
  5. Gutstein D, Morley G, Tamaddon H, Vaidya D, Schneider M, Chen J, et al. Conduction slowing and sudden arrhythmic death in mice with cardiac-restricted inactivation of connexin43. Circ Res. 2001;88:333-9 pubmed
    ..By generating mice with cardiac-restricted knockout of connexin43 (Cx43), we have circumvented the perinatal lethal developmental defect associated with germline inactivation of this gap ..
  6. Girao H, Catarino S, Pereira P. Eps15 interacts with ubiquitinated Cx43 and mediates its internalization. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:3587-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Regulation of GJIC by degradation of Cx43 has been a matter of debate over the last two decades and both the proteasome and the lysosome have been implicated...
  7. Leithe E, Kjenseth A, Sirnes S, Stenmark H, Brech A, Rivedal E. Ubiquitylation of the gap junction protein connexin-43 signals its trafficking from early endosomes to lysosomes in a process mediated by Hrs and Tsg101. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:3883-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that ubiquitin is strongly relocalized to connexin-43 (Cx43; also known as Gja1) gap junction plaques in response to activation of protein kinase C...
  8. Howarth F, Nowotny N, Zilahi E, El Haj M, Lei M. Altered expression of gap junction connexin proteins may partly underlie heart rhythm disturbances in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat heart. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007;305:145-51 pubmed
    ..Expression levels of mRNA for Gja5 (Cx40), Gja1 (Cx43) and Gja7 (Cx45) were measured in SAN and compared with right atrium and right ventricle with real-time ..
  9. Boengler K, Dodoni G, Rodriguez Sinovas A, Cabestrero A, Ruiz Meana M, Gres P, et al. Connexin 43 in cardiomyocyte mitochondria and its increase by ischemic preconditioning. Cardiovasc Res. 2005;67:234-44 pubmed
    b>Connexin 43 (Cx43) is involved in infarct size reduction by ischemic preconditioning (IP); the underlying mechanism of protection, however, is unknown...

More Information


  1. Bao X, Altenberg G, Reuss L. Mechanism of regulation of the gap junction protein connexin 43 by protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004;286:C647-54 pubmed
    Phosphorylation of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) by protein kinase C (PKC) decreases dye coupling in many cell types...
  2. Das S, Smith T, Sarma J, Ritzenthaler J, Maza J, Kaplan B, et al. ERp29 restricts Connexin43 oligomerization in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2593-604 pubmed publisher
    Connexin43 (Cx43) is a gap junction protein that forms multimeric channels that enable intercellular communication through the direct transfer of signals and metabolites...
  3. Howarth F, Chandler N, Kharche S, Tellez J, Greener I, Yamanushi T, et al. Effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on connexin43 mRNA and protein expression in ventricular muscle. Mol Cell Biochem. 2008;319:105-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus on the expression and distribution of connexin 43 (Cx43) in ventricular muscle have been investigated...
  4. Retamal M, Cortes C, Reuss L, Bennett M, Saez J. S-nitrosylation and permeation through connexin 43 hemichannels in astrocytes: induction by oxidant stress and reversal by reducing agents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4475-80 pubmed
    ..Dephosphorylation and/or oxidation of Cx43 hemichannels was proposed as a potential mechanism to increase their open probability...
  5. Elias L, Wang D, Kriegstein A. Gap junction adhesion is necessary for radial migration in the neocortex. Nature. 2007;448:901-7 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the gap junction subunits connexin 26 (Cx26) and connexin 43 (Cx43) are expressed at the contact points between radial fibres and migrating neurons, and acute ..
  6. Bates D, Sin W, Aftab Q, Naus C. Connexin43 enhances glioma invasion by a mechanism involving the carboxy terminus. Glia. 2007;55:1554-64 pubmed
    ..The neoplastic changes of astrocytes which give rise to these tumors frequently include a reduction of connexin43 (Cx43), the most abundant connexin isoform expressed in astrocytes...
  7. Dobrowolski R, Sasse P, Schrickel J, Watkins M, Kim J, Rackauskas M, et al. The conditional connexin43G138R mouse mutant represents a new model of hereditary oculodentodigital dysplasia in humans. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:539-54 pubmed
    ..characteristic anomalies of the fingers and toes, eyes, face and teeth, which are caused by mutations in the connexin 43 (Cx43) gene...
  8. Abdelmohsen K, Gerber P, von Montfort C, Sies H, Klotz L. Epidermal growth factor receptor is a common mediator of quinone-induced signaling leading to phosphorylation of connexin-43: role of glutathione and tyrosine phosphatases. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:38360-7 pubmed
    ..In summary, EGFR-dependent signaling was mediated by protein-tyrosine phosphatase inactivation (menadione), GSH depletion (BQ), and redox-cycling (DMNQ), funneling into the same signaling pathway. ..
  9. Imamura M, Negoro H, Kanematsu A, Yamamoto S, Kimura Y, Nagane K, et al. Basic fibroblast growth factor causes urinary bladder overactivity through gap junction generation in the smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F46-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the involvement of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and connexin 43, a bladder gap junction protein, in bladder overactivity...
  10. Li M, Mruk D, Lee W, Cheng C. Connexin 43 and plakophilin-2 as a protein complex that regulates blood-testis barrier dynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:10213-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we demonstrate that connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junction integral membrane protein, structurally interacts with desmosomal protein plakophilin-2 (..
  11. Langlois S, Cowan K, Shao Q, Cowan B, Laird D. Caveolin-1 and -2 interact with connexin43 and regulate gap junctional intercellular communication in keratinocytes. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:912-28 pubmed
    Connexin43 (Cx43) has been reported to interact with caveolin (Cav)-1, but the role of this association and whether other members of the caveolin family bind Cx43 had yet to be established...
  12. Miro Casas E, Ruiz Meana M, Agullo E, Stahlhofen S, Rodriguez Sinovas A, Cabestrero A, et al. Connexin43 in cardiomyocyte mitochondria contributes to mitochondrial potassium uptake. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;83:747-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Cross-linking studies with dimethylsuberimidate indicated the presence of Cx43 hexamers in mitochondrial membranes...
  13. Yang B, Lin H, Xiao J, Lu Y, Luo X, Li B, et al. The muscle-specific microRNA miR-1 regulates cardiac arrhythmogenic potential by targeting GJA1 and KCNJ2. Nat Med. 2007;13:486-91 pubmed
    ..1) and GJA1 (which encodes connexin 43), and this likely accounts at least in part for its arrhythmogenic potential...
  14. Beyer E, Paul D, Goodenough D. Connexin43: a protein from rat heart homologous to a gap junction protein from liver. J Cell Biol. 1987;105:2621-9 pubmed
    ..The gap junction protein isolated from liver would then be called connexin32; from heart, connexin43. ..
  15. Tien T, Barrette K, Chronopoulos A, Roy S. Effects of high glucose-induced Cx43 downregulation on occludin and ZO-1 expression and tight junction barrier function in retinal endothelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:6518-25 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether high glucose (HG)-induced downregulation of connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein, alters ZO-1 and occludin expression and cell monolayer permeability...
  16. Turner M, Haywood G, Andreka P, You L, Martin P, Evans W, et al. Reversible connexin 43 dephosphorylation during hypoxia and reoxygenation is linked to cellular ATP levels. Circ Res. 2004;95:726-33 pubmed
    ..The phosphoprotein connexin 43 (Cx43) is the major constituent of gap junctions...
  17. Segretain D, Falk M. Regulation of connexin biosynthesis, assembly, gap junction formation, and removal. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1662:3-21 pubmed
  18. Leithe E, Rivedal E. Epidermal growth factor regulates ubiquitination, internalization and proteasome-dependent degradation of connexin43. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:1211-20 pubmed
    Connexins are membrane-spanning proteins that form gap junction channels between adjacent cells. Connexin43 (Cx43), the most widely expressed member of the connexin family in tissues and cell lines, has a rapid turnover rate and its ..
  19. Balasubramaniyan V, Dhar D, Warner A, Vivien Li W, Amiri A, Bright B, et al. Importance of Connexin-43 based gap junction in cirrhosis and acute-on-chronic liver failure. J Hepatol. 2013;58:1194-200 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cx43 is a ubiquitous gap junction protein that allows transmission of signals between cells at a much higher rate than ..
  20. Tsuchida S, Arai Y, Kishida T, Takahashi K, Honjo K, Terauchi R, et al. Silencing the expression of connexin 43 decreases inflammation and joint destruction in experimental arthritis. J Orthop Res. 2013;31:525-30 pubmed publisher
    The objective of the present study was to determine whether the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) effected on inflammatory conditions in rat fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and on rat model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
  21. Paznekas W, Boyadjiev S, Shapiro R, Daniels O, Wollnik B, Keegan C, et al. Connexin 43 (GJA1) mutations cause the pleiotropic phenotype of oculodentodigital dysplasia. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;72:408-18 pubmed
    ..The human connexin 43 gene, or GJA1, is located at human chromosome 6q22-q23 within the candidate region for the oculodentodigital ..
  22. Stanbouly S, Kirshenbaum L, Jones D, Karmazyn M. Sodium hydrogen exchange 1 (NHE-1) regulates connexin 43 expression in cardiomyocytes via reverse mode sodium calcium exchange and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-dependent pathways. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;327:105-13 pubmed publisher
    b>Connexin 43, the major connexin isoform in gap junctions of cardiac ventricular myocytes, undergoes changes in distribution and expression in cardiac diseases...
  23. Hesketh G, Shah M, Halperin V, Cooke C, Akar F, Yen T, et al. Ultrastructure and regulation of lateralized connexin43 in the failing heart. Circ Res. 2010;106:1153-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The primary gap junction protein in the working myocardium, connexin43 (Cx43), exhibits increased localization at the lateral membranes of cardiomyocytes in a variety of heart diseases, ..
  24. Chaible L, Sanches D, Cogliati B, Mennecier G, Dagli M. Delayed osteoblastic differentiation and bone development in Cx43 knockout mice. Toxicol Pathol. 2011;39:1046-55 pubmed publisher
    b>GJA1 gene (Connexin43, also known as Cx43) is the most abundant gap junction protein isoform in animal cells and is associated with bone development in embryos...
  25. Chung T, Wang S, Liang J, Yang S, Wu J. The interaction of estrogen receptor alpha and caveolin-3 regulates connexin43 phosphorylation in metabolic inhibition-treated rat cardiomyocytes. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:2323-33 pubmed publisher
  26. Li K, Yao J, Shi L, Sawada N, Chi Y, Yan Q, et al. Reciprocal regulation between proinflammatory cytokine-induced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and connexin43 in bladder smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:41552-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Stimulation of BSMCs with IL1? and TNF? increased connexin43 (Cx43) expression and function, which was associated with increased phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated ..
  27. Christ G, Day N, Day M, Zhao W, Persson K, Pandita R, et al. Increased connexin43-mediated intercellular communication in a rat model of bladder overactivity in vivo. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;284:R1241-8 pubmed
    ..The goal of these studies was to evaluate the role of intercellular communication through connexin43 (Cx43)-derived gap junction channels to bladder overactivity following partial urethral outflow obstruction of 3-day to 6-..
  28. VanSlyke J, Naus C, Musil L. Conformational maturation and post-ER multisubunit assembly of gap junction proteins. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2451-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This cannot, however, be the case for the gap junction-forming protein connexin43 (Cx43), which when endogenously expressed undergoes multisubunit assembly into connexons only after its transport to the ..
  29. Boengler K, Ruiz Meana M, Gent S, Ungefug E, Soetkamp D, Miro Casas E, et al. Mitochondrial connexin 43 impacts on respiratory complex I activity and mitochondrial oxygen consumption. J Cell Mol Med. 2012;16:1649-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Connexin 43 (Cx43) is present at the sarcolemma and the inner membrane of cardiomyocyte subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM)...
  30. Ly A, Yee P, Vessey K, Phipps J, Jobling A, Fletcher E. Early inner retinal astrocyte dysfunction during diabetes and development of hypoxia, retinal stress, and neuronal functional loss. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:9316-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Astrocytes may play an early and key role in changes in retinal vasculature and inner retinal dysfunction in diabetes. ..
  31. Leykauf K, Salek M, Bomke J, Frech M, Lehmann W, Dürst M, et al. Ubiquitin protein ligase Nedd4 binds to connexin43 by a phosphorylation-modulated process. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:3634-42 pubmed
    ..Suppression of Nedd4 expression with siRNA resulted in an accumulation of gap junction plaques at the plasma membrane, suggesting an involvement of the ubiquitin protein ligase Nedd4 in gap junction internalization. ..
  32. Mendoza Naranjo A, Cormie P, Serrano A, Wang C, Thrasivoulou C, Sutcliffe J, et al. Overexpression of the gap junction protein Cx43 as found in diabetic foot ulcers can retard fibroblast migration. Cell Biol Int. 2012;36:661-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In the normal acute wound, the Cx43 (connexin 43) gap junction protein is down-regulated at the wound edge as a precursor to cell migration and healing...
  33. Fykerud T, Kjenseth A, Schink K, Sirnes S, Bruun J, Omori Y, et al. Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor-2 controls gap junction intercellular communication by modulating endocytosis and degradation of connexin43. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3966-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Smurf2 depletion also counteracted the TPA-induced endocytosis and degradation of connexin43. Collectively, these data identify Smurf2 as a novel regulator of connexin43 gap junctions. ..
  34. Ya J, Erdtsieck Ernste E, de Boer P, van Kempen M, Jongsma H, Gros D, et al. Heart defects in connexin43-deficient mice. Circ Res. 1998;82:360-6 pubmed
    Cardiac malformation in connexin43 (CX43)-disrupted mice is restricted to the junction between right ventricle and outflow tract, even though CX43 is also expressed abundantly elsewhere...
  35. Unuma K, Shintani Ishida K, Tsushima K, Shimosawa T, Ueyama T, Kuwahara M, et al. Connexin-43 redistribution and gap junction activation during forced restraint protects against sudden arrhythmic death in rats. Circ J. 2010;74:1087-95 pubmed
    Connexin-43 (Cx43) expression is reduced or redistributed in heart disease...
  36. Musil L, Goodenough D. Multisubunit assembly of an integral plasma membrane channel protein, gap junction connexin43, occurs after exit from the ER. Cell. 1993;74:1065-77 pubmed
    Connexin43 (Cx43) is an integral plasma membrane protein that forms gap junctions between vertebrate cells...
  37. Mitchell J, Lye S. Regulation of connexin43 expression by c-fos and c-jun in myometrial cells. Cell Commun Adhes. 2001;8:299-302 pubmed
    Labor is associated with a dramatic increase in the myometrial expression of connexin43 (Cx43) which is thought to mediate myocyte contractile coupling...
  38. Ek Vitorin J, King T, Heyman N, Lampe P, Burt J. Selectivity of connexin 43 channels is regulated through protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation. Circ Res. 2006;98:1498-505 pubmed
    ..of the heart and resistance to ischemic injury depend, in part, on the intercellular communication mediated by Cx43-composed gap junctions...
  39. Rozyczka J, Figiel M, Engele J. Chronic endothelin exposure inhibits connexin43 expression in cultured cortical astroglia. J Neurosci Res. 2005;79:303-9 pubmed
    ..We further observed that in the continuous presence of ETs, Cx43 expression remained inhibited for at least 7 days...
  40. Leithe E, Rivedal E. Ubiquitination and down-regulation of gap junction protein connexin-43 in response to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate treatment. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:50089-96 pubmed
    ..the tumor-promoting phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induces ubiquitination of connexin-43 (Cx43) in IAR20 rat liver epithelial cells...
  41. Vis J, Nicholson L, Faull R, Evans W, Severs N, Green C. Connexin expression in Huntington's diseased human brain. Cell Biol Int. 1998;22:837-47 pubmed
    ..b>Cx43, expressed by astrocytes, was the most abundant connexin type of those studied...
  42. Watkins M, Grimston S, Norris J, Guillotin B, Shaw A, Beniash E, et al. Osteoblast connexin43 modulates skeletal architecture by regulating both arms of bone remodeling. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1240-51 pubmed publisher
    Connexin43 (Cx43) has an important role in skeletal homeostasis, and Cx43 gene (Gja1) mutations have been linked to oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD), a human disorder characterized by prominent skeletal abnormalities...
  43. Shintani Ishida K, Unuma K, Yoshida K. Ischemia enhances translocation of connexin43 and gap junction intercellular communication, thereby propagating contraction band necrosis after reperfusion. Circ J. 2009;73:1661-8 pubmed
    ..Coronary occlusion for 30 min in rat increased the level of connexin43 (Cx43) protein in the 100,000 x g pellet fraction to 1...
  44. Kostin S, Rieger M, Dammer S, Hein S, Richter M, Klövekorn W, et al. Gap junction remodeling and altered connexin43 expression in the failing human heart. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003;242:135-44 pubmed
    ..However, it is largely unknown whether changes in the expression and distribution of the major cardiac GJ protein, Cx43, is a general feature of diverse chronic myocardial diseases or is confined to some particular pathophysiological ..
  45. Sovari A, Iravanian S, Dolmatova E, Jiao Z, Liu H, Zandieh S, et al. Inhibition of c-Src tyrosine kinase prevents angiotensin II-mediated connexin-43 remodeling and sudden cardiac death. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58:2332-9 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to test whether c-Src tyrosine kinase mediates connexin-43 (Cx43) reduction and sudden cardiac death in a transgenic mouse model of cardiac-restricted overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE8/8 mice)...
  46. Bao X, Reuss L, Altenberg G. Regulation of purified and reconstituted connexin 43 hemichannels by protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of Serine 368. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:20058-66 pubmed
    Indirect evidence suggests that the permeability of connexin 43 (Cx43) gap-junctional channels (connexons) to small organic molecules (M(r) < 1,000) is decreased by protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of Ser-368...
  47. Herrero González S, Gangoso E, Giaume C, Naus C, Medina J, Tabernero A. Connexin43 inhibits the oncogenic activity of c-Src in C6 glioma cells. Oncogene. 2010;29:5712-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Although c-Src is known to phosphorylate connexin43, this study provides the first evidence that connexin43 can also inhibit c-Src activity. ..
  48. Petrich B, Gong X, Lerner D, Wang X, Brown J, Saffitz J, et al. c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation mediates downregulation of connexin43 in cardiomyocytes. Circ Res. 2002;91:640-7 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that in cultured myocytes, rapid loss of the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) occurs in conjunction with the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a stress-activated protein kinase, on ..
  49. Langlois S, Maher A, Manias J, Shao Q, Kidder G, Laird D. Connexin levels regulate keratinocyte differentiation in the epidermis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:30171-80 pubmed
    To understand the role of connexin43 (Cx43) in epidermal differentiation, we reduced Cx43 levels by RNA-mediated interference knockdown and impaired its functional status by overexpressing loss-of-function Cx43 mutants associated with the ..
  50. Wang X, Ma A, Zhu W, Zhu L, Zhao Y, Xi J, et al. The role of connexin 43 and hemichannels correlated with the astrocytic death following ischemia/reperfusion insult. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2013;33:401-10 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of connexin 43 (Cx43) and its hemichannel (HC1) in the death of astrocytes following ischemia/reperfusion (IR) or oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGDR) insult...
  51. Ando M, Katare R, Kakinuma Y, Zhang D, Yamasaki F, Muramoto K, et al. Efferent vagal nerve stimulation protects heart against ischemia-induced arrhythmias by preserving connexin43 protein. Circulation. 2005;112:164-70 pubmed
    ..Immunoblotting revealed that the MI-SS group showed a marked reduction in the amount of phosphorylated connexin43 (Cx43), whereas the MI-VS group showed only a slight reduction compared with the sham operation and sham stimulation ..
  52. Flenniken A, Osborne L, Anderson N, Ciliberti N, Fleming C, Gittens J, et al. A Gja1 missense mutation in a mouse model of oculodentodigital dysplasia. Development. 2005;132:4375-86 pubmed
    ..that was shown recently to be caused by mutations in the gap junction protein alpha 1 gene (GJA1), encoding connexin 43 (Cx43)...
  53. Karagiannis J, Rand M, Li C. Role of gap junctions in endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated vasodilatation in rat renal artery. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2004;25:1031-7 pubmed
    ..The inhibition by the connexin 43 inhibitor was greater than that of the connexin 40 inhibitor...