Gip

Summary

Gene Symbol: Gip
Description: gastric inhibitory polypeptide
Alias: Gludins, RATGLUDINS, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide
Species: rat
Products:     Gip

Top Publications

  1. Tseng C, Boylan M, Jarboe L, Williams E, Sunday M, Wolfe M. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) gene expression in the rat salivary gland. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1995;115:13-9 pubmed
    Previous studies have indicated that following nutrient ingestion, GIP is released principally from the upper small intestine...
  2. Fujita Y, Wideman R, Asadi A, Yang G, Baker R, Webber T, et al. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide is expressed in pancreatic islet alpha-cells and promotes insulin secretion. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:1966-75 pubmed publisher
    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and the proglucagon product glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are gastrointestinal hormones that are released in response to nutrient intake and promote insulin secretion...
  3. Kim S, Nian C, McIntosh C. Activation of lipoprotein lipase by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in adipocytes. A role for a protein kinase B, LKB1, and AMP-activated protein kinase cascade. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:8557-67 pubmed
    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been mainly studied because of its glucose-dependent insulinotropic action and its ability to regulate beta-cell proliferation and survival...
  4. Widenmaier S, Sampaio A, Underhill T, McIntosh C. Noncanonical activation of Akt/protein kinase B in {beta}-cells by the incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:10764-73 pubmed publisher
    ..actions of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), have recently been introduced for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  5. Chen T, Yeh G, Pu H, Doong M, Lu C, Liu S, et al. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide and gastric acid secretion in pregnant rats. Placenta. 1995;16:85-92 pubmed
    ..of pregnancy on the basal and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and the level of plasma gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) in rats were studied on pentobarbital-anaesthetized non-pregnant rats and rats in the 1st, 2nd, ..
  6. Yoder S, Yang Q, Kindel T, Tso P. Differential responses of the incretin hormones GIP and GLP-1 to increasing doses of dietary carbohydrate but not dietary protein in lean rats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G476-85 pubmed publisher
    ..ingestion of nutrients stimulates secretion of the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1); however, it is unclear whether there is a dose-dependent response between the ..
  7. Rucha A, Verspohl E. Heterologous desensitization of insulin secretion by GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide) in INS-1 cells: the significance of Galphai2 and investigations on the mechanism involved. Cell Biochem Funct. 2005;23:205-12 pubmed
    ..secretion as the biological effect after prolonged incubation with glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)...
  8. Privatananupunt J, Watari I, Podyma Inoue K, Kubono M, Ono T. Expression of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and its receptor in the rat major salivary glands. Acta Histochem. 2014;116:545-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of its ligand, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) however, has only been reported in a limited numbers of organs...
  9. Brader L, Holm L, Mortensen L, Thomsen C, Astrup A, Holst J, et al. Acute effects of casein on postprandial lipemia and incretin responses in type 2 diabetic subjects. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010;20:101-9 pubmed publisher
    ..When added to carbohydrate, casein suppressed the triglyceride response in the chylomicron-rich fraction, increased insulin and glucagon but did not affect the incretin responses. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications61

  1. Buhren B, Gasis M, Thorens B, Müller H, Bosse F. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and its receptor (GIPR): cellular localization, lesion-affected expression, and impaired regenerative axonal growth. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:1858-70 pubmed publisher
    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) was initially described to be rapidly regulated by endocrine cells in response to nutrient ingestion, with stimulatory effects on insulin synthesis and release...
  2. Kazakos K, Sarafidis P, Yovos J. The impact of diabetic autonomic neuropathy on the incretin effect. Med Sci Monit. 2008;14:CR213-20 pubmed
    ..Blood samples were drawn for glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) determination during the tests...
  3. Shimada M, Mochizuki K, Goda T. Dietary resistant starch reduces levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide mRNA along the jejunum-ileum in both normal and type 2 diabetic rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008;72:2206-9 pubmed
    It has been reported that the circulating glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) levels were reduced by an intake of some foods/drugs capable of delaying carbohydrate digestion/absorption...
  4. Edholm T, Cejvan K, Abdel Halim S, Efendic S, Schmidt P, Hellstrom P. The incretin hormones GIP and GLP-1 in diabetic rats: effects on insulin secretion and small bowel motility. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2009;21:313-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate if altered responsiveness to glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) as regards insulin release and small bowel motility could bring further ..
  5. Svendsen P, Nilas L, Madsbad S, Holst J. Incretin hormone secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: roles of obesity, insulin sensitivity, and treatment with metformin. Metabolism. 2009;58:586-93 pubmed publisher
    ..subjects, the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are responsible for 70% of the insulin response during a meal; but in diabetic subjects and other insulin-..
  6. Doong M, Wang J, Chung S, Liu J, Hwang C, Hwang C, et al. Regulation of thyroid hormones in the secretion of insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide in male rats. Metabolism. 1997;46:154-8 pubmed
    The effect of thyroid hormones on glucose-induced secretion of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and insulin was studied. Male rats were thyroidectomized (Tx) or sham Tx...
  7. Yoder S, Yang Q, Kindel T, Tso P. Stimulation of incretin secretion by dietary lipid: is it dose dependent?. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G299-305 pubmed publisher
    After the ingestion of nutrients, secretion of the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) by the enteroendocrine cells increases rapidly...
  8. Boylan M, Jepeal L, Wolfe M. Sp1/Sp3 binding is associated with cell-specific expression of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor gene. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E1287-95 pubmed
    The physiological effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are mediated through specific receptors expressed on target cells...
  9. Widenmaier S, Kim S, Yang G, De Los Reyes T, Nian C, Asadi A, et al. A GIP receptor agonist exhibits beta-cell anti-apoptotic actions in rat models of diabetes resulting in improved beta-cell function and glycemic control. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9590 pubmed publisher
    The gastrointestinal hormone GIP promotes pancreatic islet function and exerts pro-survival actions on cultured beta-cells. However, GIP also promotes lipogenesis, thus potentially restricting its therapeutic use...
  10. Lippl F, Kircher F, Erdmann J, Allescher H, Schusdziarra V. Effect of GIP, GLP-1, insulin and gastrin on ghrelin release in the isolated rat stomach. Regul Pept. 2004;119:93-8 pubmed
    ..To elucidate their potential role, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), insulin, gastrin and somatostatin were examined on isolated rat stomach ghrelin secretion, ..
  11. Kindel T, Yang Q, Yoder S, Tso P. Nutrient-driven incretin secretion into intestinal lymph is different between diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats and Wistar rats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;296:G168-74 pubmed publisher
    The incretin hormones gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) augment postprandial glucose-mediated insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells...
  12. Higashimoto Y, Simchock J, Liddle R. Molecular cloning of rat glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992;1132:72-4 pubmed
    A cDNA clone encoding glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) was identified that consisted of 34 bp of 5' untranslated sequence, an open reading frame of 432 bp and 115 bp in the 3' untranslated region...
  13. Tseng C, Kieffer T, Jarboe L, Usdin T, Wolfe M. Postprandial stimulation of insulin release by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). Effect of a specific glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor antagonist in the rat. J Clin Invest. 1996;98:2440-5 pubmed
    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a 42-amino acid peptide produced by K cells of the mammalian proximal small intestine and is a potent stimulant of insulin release in the presence of hyperglycemia...
  14. Shulkes A, Caussignac Y, Lamers C, Solomon T, Yamada T, Walsh J. Starvation in the rat: effect on peptides of the gut and brain. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci. 1983;61 ( Pt 5):581-7 pubmed
    ..for gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) and somatostatin. Each peptide was not assayed in each tissue...
  15. Schulz T, Jorde R, Burhol P. Fasting portal vein plasma levels of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and extractable fasting GIP in the duodenal wall in rats treated with methylprednisolone or alloxan compared with normal controls. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1982;17:487-90 pubmed
    ..the methyl-prednisolone-treated rats had increased fasting levels of serum insulin, blood glucose, and plasma GIP; the alloxan-treated rats had decreased fasting levels of insulin and increased levels of fasting blood glucose and ..
  16. Moffett R, Irwin N, Francis J, Flatt P. Alterations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and expression of genes involved in mammary gland and adipose tissue lipid metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78560 pubmed publisher
    b>Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is a gut derived peptide with multiple emerging physiological actions. Effects of pregnancy and lactation on GIP secretion and related gene expression were studied in Wistar rats...
  17. Ding K, Zhong Q, Xie D, Chen H, Della Fera M, Bollag R, et al. Effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide on behavior. Peptides. 2006;27:2750-5 pubmed
    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone that rises rapidly in response to nutrient ingestion...
  18. Tsiolakis D, Marks V. The differential effect of intragastric and intravenous tryptophan on plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, GLI and GIP in the fasted rat. Horm Metab Res. 1984;16:226-9 pubmed
    ..Plasma GIP levels rose only after intragastric tryptophan administration, and plasma GLI levels did not change in response to ..
  19. Higuchi N, Hira T, Yamada N, Hara H. Oral administration of corn zein hydrolysate stimulates GLP-1 and GIP secretion and improves glucose tolerance in male normal rats and Goto-Kakizaki rats. Endocrinology. 2013;154:3089-98 pubmed publisher
    ..of ZeinH improves glucose tolerance by stimulating GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secretion, glucose tolerance tests were performed in normal Sprague-Dawley male rats and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (..
  20. Sharma S, Austin C, Howard A, Lo G, Nicholl C, Legon S. Characterization of rat gastric inhibitory peptide cDNA. J Mol Endocrinol. 1992;9:265-72 pubmed
    Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) is a 42 amino acid gastrointestinal peptide which inhibits gastric acid secretion and stimulates pancreatic insulin secretion in the presence of glucose...
  21. Ebert R, Illmer K, Creutzfeldt W. Release of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) by intraduodenal acidification in rats and humans and abolishment of the incretin effect of acid by GIP-antiserum in rats. Gastroenterology. 1979;76:515-23 pubmed
    ..05-0.5 N hydrochloric acid dose-dependently increases serum levels of immunoreactive gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) in rats...
  22. Tseng C, Jarboe L, Landau S, Williams E, Wolfe M. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide: structure of the precursor and tissue-specific expression in rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:1992-6 pubmed
    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) is a 42-amino acid gastrointestinal regulatory peptide that stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells in the presence of glucose. Approximately 7...
  23. Ben Shlomo S, Zvibel I, Varol C, Spektor L, Shlomai A, Santo E, et al. Role of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in adipose tissue inflammation of dipeptidylpeptidase 4-deficient rats. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21:2331-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) were assessed in adipose tissue explants and stromal vascular fraction (SVF)...
  24. Sondhi S, Castellano J, Chong V, Rogoza R, Skoblenick K, Dyck B, et al. cDNA array reveals increased expression of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide following chronic clozapine treatment: role in atypical antipsychotic drug-induced adverse metabolic effects. Pharmacogenomics J. 2006;6:131-40 pubmed
    ..with clozapine revealed upregulation of several genes including the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) gene by over 200% in the rat striatum...
  25. Pederson R, Kieffer T, Pauly R, Kofod H, Kwong J, McIntosh C. The enteroinsular axis in dipeptidyl peptidase IV-negative rats. Metabolism. 1996;45:1335-41 pubmed
    Evidence has accumulated that the incretins glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1(7-36) amide) are degraded and rendered biologically inactive in plasma by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase ..
  26. Prasadan K, Koizumi M, Tulachan S, Shiota C, Lath N, Paredes J, et al. The expression and function of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in the embryonic mouse pancreas. Diabetes. 2011;60:548-54 pubmed publisher
    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a member of a structurally related group of hormones that also includes glucagon, glucagon-like peptides, and secretin...
  27. Kuhre R, Gribble F, Hartmann B, Reimann F, Windeløv J, Rehfeld J, et al. Fructose stimulates GLP-1 but not GIP secretion in mice, rats, and humans. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014;306:G622-30 pubmed publisher
    ..hormones with particular focus on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)...
  28. de Toro Martín J, Fernandez Millan E, Lizárraga Mollinedo E, López Oliva E, Serradas P, Escriva F, et al. Predominant role of GIP in the development of a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype in female Wistar rats submitted to forced catch-up growth. Endocrinology. 2014;155:3769-80 pubmed publisher
    ..homeostasis control, we explored the relevance of the incretins glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the development of these pathologies...
  29. Tunnicliffe J, Eller L, Reimer R, Hittel D, Shearer J. Chlorogenic acid differentially affects postprandial glucose and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response in rats. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011;36:650-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured...
  30. Lee T, Chen W, Chang N. Sitagliptin decreases ventricular arrhythmias by attenuated glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-dependent resistin signalling in infarcted rats. Biosci Rep. 2016;36: pubmed publisher
    ..Ex vivo studies showed that glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) infusion, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), produced similar reduction in resistin levels to sitagliptin in ..
  31. Irwin N, McClean P, Patterson S, Hunter K, Flatt P. Active immunisation against gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) improves blood glucose control in an animal model of obesity-diabetes. Biol Chem. 2009;390:75-80 pubmed publisher
    Recent research suggests that long-term ablation of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) receptor signalling can reverse or prevent many of the metabolic abnormalities associated with dietary and genetically induced obesity-diabetes...
  32. Tappy L, Chiolero R, Randin J, Burckhardt P, Felber J. Effects of cholinergic stimulation and antagonism on plasma insulin concentration in lean and obese human subjects. Horm Metab Res. 1986;18:821-6 pubmed
    ..by infusion of edrophonium chloride or muscarinic blockade by infusion of atropine sulfate on insulin and GIP secretion was studied in normal lean subjects during eu- and hyperglycemia...
  33. Creutzfeldt W, Folsch U, Elsenhans B, Ballmann M, Conlon J. Adaptation of the small intestine to induced maldigestion in rats. Experimental pancreatic atrophy and acarbose feeding. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1985;112:45-53 pubmed
    ..Plasma levels of CCK and GIP were significantly higher in rats with pancreatic atrophy, whereas plasma levels of gastrin and insulin were lower...
  34. Younan S, Rashed L. Impairment of the insulinotropic effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) in obese and diabetic rats is related to the down-regulation of its pancreatic receptors. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2007;26:181-93 pubmed
    ..there is a possibility that an important part of the impaired insulin secretion is due to the gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) hormone...
  35. Higashimoto Y, Liddle R. Isolation and characterization of the gene encoding rat glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;193:182-90 pubmed
    The rat glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) gene has been isolated and characterized. The gene spans approximately 8.2 kilobase pairs (kb) and the GIP mRNA (0.8 kb) is encoded by six exons...
  36. Nyberg J, Anderson M, Meister B, Alborn A, Ström A, Brederlau A, et al. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide is expressed in adult hippocampus and induces progenitor cell proliferation. J Neurosci. 2005;25:1816-25 pubmed
    ..Hippocampal expression of the gene-encoding glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) varied strongly in parallel with cell-proliferation rates in the adult rat DG...
  37. Cho G, Ryu S, Kim Y, Kim Y, Cheon E, Park J, et al. Upregulation of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and its receptor in the retina of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Curr Eye Res. 2002;25:381-8 pubmed
    ..Among 1176 genes analyzed, the retinal expression of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) was found to increase in STZ-induced diabetic rats compared to controls...
  38. Ebert R, Nauck M, Creutzfeldt W. Effect of exogenous or endogenous gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) on plasma triglyceride responses in rats. Horm Metab Res. 1991;23:517-21 pubmed
    We examined the effects of exogenous and endogenous GIP on plasma triglyceride levels in rats, pretreated with a fat-enriched diet, during intraduodenal infusion of a lipid test meal (Lipomul, 8 ml/h)...
  39. Fujita Y, Wideman R, Speck M, Asadi A, King D, Webber T, et al. Incretin release from gut is acutely enhanced by sugar but not by sweeteners in vivo. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296:E473-9 pubmed publisher
    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are released during meals from endocrine cells located in the gut mucosa and stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells in a glucose-..
  40. Higashimoto Y, Opara E, Liddle R. Dietary regulation of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) gene expression in rat small intestine. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol. 1995;110:207-14 pubmed
    The hormone, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), is an important incretin regulator of the gastrointestinal tract...
  41. Varga G, Adrian T, Coy D, Reidelberger R. Bombesin receptor subtype mediation of gastroenteropancreatic hormone secretion in rats. Peptides. 1994;15:713-8 pubmed
    ..releaser of many gut and pancreatic hormones including gastrin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), cholecystokinin (CCK), enteroglucagon, and insulin...
  42. Cheeseman C, Tsang R. The effect of GIP and glucagon-like peptides on intestinal basolateral membrane hexose transport. Am J Physiol. 1996;271:G477-82 pubmed
    The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and the related glucagon-like peptides-1 and -2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2) on jejunal basolateral membrane glucose transport was investigated to determine if the upregulation produced by luminal ..
  43. Nakajima T, Nakajima E, Fukiage C, Azuma M, Shearer T. Differential gene expression in the lens epithelial cells from selenite injected rats. Exp Eye Res. 2002;74:231-6 pubmed
    ..The three genes showing the greatest changes were: cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX-I, decrease), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP, decrease), and early growth response protein-1 (EGR-1, increase)...
  44. Ugleholdt R, Poulsen M, Holst P, Irminger J, Orskov C, Pedersen J, et al. Prohormone convertase 1/3 is essential for processing of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide precursor. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:11050-7 pubmed
    ..of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and their role in type 2 diabetes currently attract great interest...
  45. Kim S, Nian C, McIntosh C. Resistin is a key mediator of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) stimulation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:34139-47 pubmed
    Studies on the physiological roles of the incretin hormone, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) have largely focused on its insulinotropic action and ability to regulate beta-cell mass...
  46. Cassidy R, Irwin N, Flatt P. Effects of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and related analogues on glucagon release at normo- and hyperglycaemia in Wistar rats and isolated islets. Biol Chem. 2008;389:189-93 pubmed publisher
    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone secreted by endocrine K-cells in response to nutrient absorption...
  47. Gault V, Holscher C. Protease-resistant glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide agonists facilitate hippocampal LTP and reverse the impairment of LTP induced by beta-amyloid. J Neurophysiol. 2008;99:1590-5 pubmed publisher
    ..we have examined the effects of an enzyme-resistant analogue of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), N-AcGIP, on synaptic plasticity...
  48. Vollmer K, Gardiwal H, Menge B, Goetze O, Deacon C, Schmidt W, et al. Hyperglycemia acutely lowers the postprandial excursions of glucagon-like Peptide-1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:1379-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined whether acute hyperglycemia reduces the postprandial excursions of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and GLP-1, and if so, whether this can be attributed to changes in gastric emptying...
  49. Jepeal L, Boylan M, Michael Wolfe M. GATA-4 upregulates glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide expression in cells of pancreatic and intestinal lineage. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;287:20-9 pubmed publisher
    A thorough examination of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) expression has been hampered by difficulty in isolating widely dispersed, GIP-producing enteroendocrine K-cells...
  50. Irwin N, Francis J, Flatt P. Insulin modulates glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secretion from enteroendocrine K cells in rats. Biol Chem. 2011;392:909-18 pubmed publisher
    Effects of insulin excess and deficiency on glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) was examined in rats following insulinoma transplantation or streptozotocin (STZ) administration...
  51. Bryer Ash M, Cheung A, Pederson R. Feedback regulation of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secretion by insulin in conscious rats. Regul Pept. 1994;51:101-9 pubmed
    Feedback regulation of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) was studied in a conscious rat model. Male Wistar rats were preconditioned to partial restraint, the tail artery and vein were cannulated under local anesthesia...
  52. Snook L, Nelson E, Dyck D, Wright D, Holloway G. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide directly induces glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2015;309:R295-303 pubmed publisher
    ..have been identified to have insulinotropic effects, including glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); however, the direct effects of incretins on skeletal muscle glucose transport remain largely unknown...