Gene Symbol: Ghsr
Description: growth hormone secretagogue receptor
Alias: growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1, GH-releasing peptide receptor, GHRP, GHS-R, ghrelin receptor
Species: rat
Products:     Ghsr

Top Publications

  1. Abizaid A, Liu Z, Andrews Z, Shanabrough M, Borok E, Elsworth J, et al. Ghrelin modulates the activity and synaptic input organization of midbrain dopamine neurons while promoting appetite. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:3229-39 pubmed
    The gut hormone ghrelin targets the brain to promote food intake and adiposity. The ghrelin receptor growth hormone secretagogue 1 receptor (GHSR) is present in hypothalamic centers controlling energy metabolism as well as in the ventral ..
  2. Wang L, Chen Q, Li G, Ke D. Ghrelin ameliorates impaired angiogenesis of ischemic myocardium through GHSR1a-mediated AMPK/eNOS signal pathway in diabetic rats. Peptides. 2015;73:77-87 pubmed publisher
    ..the present study, adult SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, DM, DM+ghrelin, DM+ghrelin+[D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 groups. DM was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) 60 mg/kg body weight...
  3. Choi K, Roh S, Hong Y, Shrestha Y, Hishikawa D, Chen C, et al. The role of ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogues receptor on rat adipogenesis. Endocrinology. 2003;144:754-9 pubmed
    ..Ghrelin in vitro stimulates the differentiation of preadipocytes and antagonizes lipolysis. Ghrelin may therefore play an important role in the process of adipogenesis in rats. ..
  4. Callaghan B, Hunne B, Hirayama H, Sartor D, Nguyen T, Abogadie F, et al. Sites of action of ghrelin receptor ligands in cardiovascular control. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012;303:H1011-21 pubmed publisher
    ..enhanced green fluorescent protein under control of the promoter for growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and RT-PCR were used to locate sites of receptor expression...
  5. Inoue Y, Nakahara K, Kangawa K, Murakami N. Transitional change in rat fetal cell proliferation in response to ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin during the last stage of pregnancy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;393:455-60 pubmed publisher
    Expression of mRNA for the ghrelin receptor, GHS-R1a, was detected in various peripheral and central tissues of fetal rats, including skin, bone, heart, liver, gut, brain and spinal cord, on embryonic day (ED)15 and ED17...
  6. Davies J, Kotokorpi P, Eccles S, Barnes S, Tokarczuk P, Allen S, et al. Ghrelin induces abdominal obesity via GHS-R-dependent lipid retention. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:914-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data imply that, during periods of energy insufficiency, exposure to acylated ghrelin may limit energy utilization in specific WAT depots by GHS-R(1a)-dependent lipid retention. ..
  7. Kim M, Yoon C, Park K, Shin C, Park K, Kim S, et al. Changes in ghrelin and ghrelin receptor expression according to feeding status. Neuroreport. 2003;14:1317-20 pubmed
    ..This study was undertaken to investigate changes in expression levels of stomach ghrelin as well as of ghrelin receptor in the hypothalamus and pituitary glands according to feeding state...
  8. Cahill S, Hatchard T, Abizaid A, Holahan M. An examination of early neural and cognitive alterations in hippocampal-spatial function of ghrelin receptor-deficient rats. Behav Brain Res. 2014;264:105-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we sought to determine whether rats lacking the ghrelin receptor would show early neural or cognitive decline measured via hippocampal integrity (spine density and ..
  9. Wu R, Zhou M, Das P, Dong W, Ji Y, Yang D, et al. Ghrelin inhibits sympathetic nervous activity in sepsis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293:E1697-702 pubmed
    ..e., growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR-la)] in sepsis. To study this, sepsis was induced in male rats by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)...

More Information


  1. Mano Otagiri A, Nemoto T, Sekino A, Yamauchi N, Shuto Y, Sugihara H, et al. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) of the hypothalamus are decreased in transgenic rats whose expression of ghrelin receptor is attenuated: Evidence that ghrelin receptor is involved in the up-regulation of G. Endocrinology. 2006;147:4093-103 pubmed
    ..It is also suggested that the reduction of GHRH neurons of Tg rats is induced by a decrease in GHS-R expression. ..
  2. Schellekens H, De Francesco P, Kandil D, Theeuwes W, McCarthy T, van Oeffelen W, et al. Ghrelin's Orexigenic Effect Is Modulated via a Serotonin 2C Receptor Interaction. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2015;6:1186-97 pubmed publisher
    ..This data highlights the potential development of a combined GHS-R1a and 5-HT2C receptor treatment strategy in weight management. ..
  3. Costantini V, Vicentini E, Sabbatini F, Valerio E, Lepore S, Tessari M, et al. GSK1614343, a novel ghrelin receptor antagonist, produces an unexpected increase of food intake and body weight in rodents and dogs. Neuroendocrinology. 2011;94:158-68 pubmed publisher
    ..GSK1614343 is a novel selective and potent GHSR antagonist with no partial agonist properties, recently characterized as GH secretion inhibitor by Sabbatini et al...
  4. McKee K, Palyha O, Feighner S, Hreniuk D, Tan C, Phillips M, et al. Molecular analysis of rat pituitary and hypothalamic growth hormone secretagogue receptors. Mol Endocrinol. 1997;11:415-23 pubmed
    ..In addition, GH-releasing peptides, such as GHRP-6 and the nonpeptide mimetics, L-692,429 and MK-0677, stimulate GH release through their activation of a distinct ..
  5. Wiedemann T, Bielohuby M, Müller T, Bidlingmaier M, Pellegata N. Obesity in MENX Rats Is Accompanied by High Circulating Levels of Ghrelin and Improved Insulin Sensitivity. Diabetes. 2016;65:406-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This model might aid in identifying new therapeutic approaches for obesity and obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes. ..
  6. Crotta K, Casnici C, Tonna N, Lattuada D, Bianco F, Marelli O. Characterization of a Monoclonal Antibody Specific for the Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor. Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother. 2017;36:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The wide distribution of ghrelin receptor and the number of tissues and cell types known to respond to ghrelin suggest that a number of systems may be ..
  7. Kemp B, Howell N, Gildea J, Padia S. Intrarenal ghrelin receptor antagonism prevents high-fat diet-induced hypertension in male rats. Endocrinology. 2014;155:2658-66 pubmed publisher
    ..ghrelin infusion increases distal nephron-dependent Na(+) reabsorption via activation of the intrarenal ghrelin receptor (GHSR)...
  8. Cunha S, Mayo K. Ghrelin and growth hormone (GH) secretagogues potentiate GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-induced cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate production in cells expressing transfected GHRH and GH secretagogue receptors. Endocrinology. 2002;143:4570-82 pubmed
    ..Based on these findings, we speculate that direct interactions between the GHRH and GHS receptors may explain the observed effects on signal transduction. ..
  9. Dixit V, Schaffer E, Pyle R, Collins G, Sakthivel S, Palaniappan R, et al. Ghrelin inhibits leptin- and activation-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression by human monocytes and T cells. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:57-66 pubmed
  10. Petersen P, Woldbye D, Madsen A, Egerod K, Jin C, Lang M, et al. In vivo characterization of high Basal signaling from the ghrelin receptor. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4920-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In the following study, we found that the expression of the ghrelin receptor in the hypothalamus was up-regulated approximately 2-fold in rats both during 48-h fasting and by ..
  11. Barreiro M, Suominen J, Gaytan F, Pinilla L, Chopin L, Casanueva F, et al. Developmental, stage-specific, and hormonally regulated expression of growth hormone secretagogue receptor messenger RNA in rat testis. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:1631-40 pubmed
  12. Lai K, Cheng C, Leung P. The ghrelin system in acinar cells: localization, expression, and regulation in the exocrine pancreas. Pancreas. 2007;35:e1-8 pubmed
    ..b>Ghrelin receptor expression was up-regulated by gastric acid inhibition and down-regulated by acute pancreatitis, whereas ..
  13. Holst B, Schwartz T. Ghrelin receptor mutations--too little height and too much hunger. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:637-41 pubmed
    The ghrelin receptor is known from in vitro studies to signal in the absence of the hormone ghrelin at almost 50% of its maximal capacity...
  14. Bron R, Yin L, Russo D, Furness J. Expression of the ghrelin receptor gene in neurons of the medulla oblongata of the rat. J Comp Neurol. 2013;521:2680-702 pubmed publisher
    There is ambiguity concerning the distribution of neurons that express the ghrelin receptor (GHSR) in the medulla oblongata...
  15. Wu R, Zhou M, Cui X, Simms H, Wang P. Upregulation of cardiovascular ghrelin receptor occurs in the hyperdynamic phase of sepsis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;287:H1296-302 pubmed
    Ghrelin, a newly identified endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR-1a, i.e., ghrelin receptor), was recently demonstrated to be a potent vasoactive peptide...
  16. Depoortere I, De Winter B, Thijs T, De Man J, Pelckmans P, Peeters T. Comparison of the gastroprokinetic effects of ghrelin, GHRP-6 and motilin in rats in vivo and in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;515:160-8 pubmed
    ..We compared the gastroprokinetic effects of ghrelin, the ghrelin receptor agonist, growth hormone releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6), and motilin in rats in vivo and in vitro...
  17. Kojima M, Hosoda H, Date Y, Nakazato M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K. Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach. Nature. 1999;402:656-60 pubmed
    ..Human ghrelin is homologous to rat ghrelin apart from two amino acids. The occurrence of ghrelin in both rat and human indicates that GH release from the pituitary may be regulated not only by hypothalamic GHRH, but also by ghrelin. ..
  18. Dezaki K, Sone H, Koizumi M, Nakata M, Kakei M, Nagai H, et al. Blockade of pancreatic islet-derived ghrelin enhances insulin secretion to prevent high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance. Diabetes. 2006;55:3486-93 pubmed
    The gastric hormone ghrelin and its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), are expressed in pancreas. Here, we report that ghrelin is released from pancreatic islets to regulate glucose-induced insulin release...
  19. Kojima M, Kangawa K. Ghrelin: structure and function. Physiol Rev. 2005;85:495-522 pubmed
    ..Taking into account all these activities, ghrelin plays important roles for maintaining GH release and energy homeostasis in vertebrates. ..
  20. Hwang S, Moon M, Kim S, Hwang L, Ahn K, Park S. Neuroprotective effect of ghrelin is associated with decreased expression of prostate apoptosis response-4. Endocr J. 2009;56:609-17 pubmed
    ..Both ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin protected cortical neurons from ischemic injury. Ghrelin receptor specific antagonist abolished the protective effects of ghrelin, whereas those of des-acyl ghrelin were ..
  21. Chung H, Li E, Kim Y, Kim S, Park S. Multiple signaling pathways mediate ghrelin-induced proliferation of hippocampal neural stem cells. J Endocrinol. 2013;218:49-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The exposure of cells to the receptor-specific antagonist d-Lys-3-GHRP-6 abolished the proliferative effect of ghrelin...
  22. Zaniolo K, Sapieha P, Shao Z, Stahl A, Zhu T, Tremblay S, et al. Ghrelin modulates physiologic and pathologic retinal angiogenesis through GHSR-1a. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:5376-86 pubmed publisher
    ..with these diseases, the authors explored the role of ghrelin and its growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR-1a) in proliferative retinopathy...
  23. Luque R, Kineman R. Impact of obesity on the growth hormone axis: evidence for a direct inhibitory effect of hyperinsulinemia on pituitary function. Endocrinology. 2006;147:2754-63 pubmed
    ..expression of pituitary receptors important for GH synthesis and release [GHRH receptor (DIO only) and the ghrelin receptor (ob/ob and DIO)]...
  24. Kovacs M, Kineman R, Schally A, Flerko B, Frohman L. Increase in mRNA concentrations of pituitary receptors for growth hormone-releasing hormone and growth hormone secretagogues after neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment. J Neuroendocrinol. 2000;12:335-41 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our observations demonstrate a complex interplay between transcriptional, translational and post-translational mechanisms within each level of the GH-axis following destruction of GHRH neurones by neonatal MSG treatment. ..
  25. Szczepankiewicz D, Skrzypski M, Pruszynska Oszmalek E, Zimmermann D, Andralojc K, Kaczmarek P, et al. Importance of ghrelin in hypothalamus-pituitary axis on growth hormone release during normal pregnancy in the rat. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;61:443-9 pubmed
    ..releasing hormone (GHRH) and growth hormone receptor (GH-R) in the hypothalamus and the active form of ghrelin receptor (GHSR-1a) in hypothalamus and pituitary...
  26. Miao Y, Xia Q, Hou Z, Zheng Y, Pan H, Zhu S. Ghrelin protects cortical neuron against focal ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;359:795-800 pubmed
    Ghrelin is a novel brain-gut peptide and the endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR-1a). Evidences have been shown that ghrelin inhibited cell apoptosis in cardiocytes, endotheliocytes, osteoblasts, and so on...
  27. Toshinai K, Yamaguchi H, Sun Y, Smith R, Yamanaka A, Sakurai T, et al. Des-acyl ghrelin induces food intake by a mechanism independent of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Endocrinology. 2006;147:2306-14 pubmed
    ..Central des-acyl ghrelin may activate orexin-expressing neurons, perhaps functioning in feeding regulation through interactions with a target protein distinct from the GHS-R. ..
  28. Zigman J, Nakano Y, Coppari R, Balthasar N, Marcus J, Lee C, et al. Mice lacking ghrelin receptors resist the development of diet-induced obesity. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:3564-72 pubmed
    Ghrelin is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR; ghrelin receptor)...
  29. Sato T, Nakashima Y, Nakamura Y, Ida T, Kojima M. Continuous antagonism of the ghrelin receptor results in early induction of salt-sensitive hypertension. J Mol Neurosci. 2011;43:193-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Continuous administration of a ghrelin receptor agonist, growth hormone releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6), for 2 weeks by mini-osmotic pump did not change blood ..
  30. El Kasti M, Christian H, Huerta Ocampo I, Stolbrink M, Gill S, Houston P, et al. The pregnancy-induced increase in baseline circulating growth hormone in rats is not induced by ghrelin. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:309-22 pubmed publisher
    ..g. the ovary), our data indicate that this phenomenon is most likely to result from a direct alteration of somatotroph function. ..
  31. MACKAY H, Charbonneau V, St Onge V, Murray E, Watts A, Wellman M, et al. Rats with a truncated ghrelin receptor (GHSR) do not respond to ghrelin, and show reduced intake of palatable, high-calorie food. Physiol Behav. 2016;163:88-96 pubmed publisher
    ..a peptide hormone produced by the stomach, is the endogenous ligand for the Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor (GHSR). Ghrelin acts on the GHSR to increase food intake, appetitive behaviors, and adiposity...
  32. Wang J, Wang L, Wei L, Wu J, Wei N, Kong X, et al. [Association of gastric emptying with ghrelin, obestatin and receptor (GHSR, GPR-39) in hypothalamus of diabetic rats]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010;90:1137-40 pubmed
    To investigate the association of gastric emptying with ghrelin, obestatin and GHSR, GPR-39 in hypothalamus of diabetic rats...
  33. Inoue H, Sakamoto Y, Kangawa N, Kimura C, Ogata T, Fujieda K, et al. Analysis of expression and structure of the rat GH-secretagogue/ghrelin receptor (Ghsr) gene: roles of epigenetic modifications in transcriptional regulation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;345:1-15 pubmed publisher
    In the current study, to elucidate the molecular basis of cell type-specific expression of the GH-secretagogue/ghrelin receptor type 1A (GHSR1A), we characterized the structure and putative promoter region of the rat Ghsr gene...
  34. Park S, Jiang H, Zhang H, Smith R. Modification of ghrelin receptor signaling by somatostatin receptor-5 regulates insulin release. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:19003-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism must accommodate noncanonical ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a)-G-protein coupling to G?(i/o) instead of G?(q11) and dependence on energy balance...
  35. Patel A, Stanley S, Murphy K, Frost G, Gardiner J, Kent A, et al. Ghrelin stimulates insulin-induced glucose uptake in adipocytes. Regul Pept. 2006;134:17-22 pubmed
    ..Ghrelin therefore appears to directly potentiate adipocyte insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in selective adipocyte populations. Ghrelin may play a role in adipocyte regulation of glucose homeostasis. ..
  36. Tarasiuk A, Levi A, Assadi M, Troib A, Segev Y. Orexin Plays a Role in Growth Impediment Induced by Obstructive Sleep Breathing in Rats. Sleep. 2016;39:887-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Administration of almorexant restored sleep and improved GP width in AO animals. In AO animals, enhanced expression of orexin and OX1R plays a role in respiratory induced sleep and growth abnormalities. ..
  37. van der Velde M, van der Eerden B, Sun Y, Almering J, van der Lely A, Delhanty P, et al. An age-dependent interaction with leptin unmasks ghrelin's bone-protective effects. Endocrinology. 2012;153:3593-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Using ghrelin receptor and leptin-deficient mice, we show that ghrelin has dual effects on osteoclastogenesis, inhibiting osteoclast ..
  38. Shuto Y, Shibasaki T, Otagiri A, Kuriyama H, Ohata H, Tamura H, et al. Hypothalamic growth hormone secretagogue receptor regulates growth hormone secretion, feeding, and adiposity. J Clin Invest. 2002;109:1429-36 pubmed
    ..GH secretion and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I levels were reduced in female Tg rats. These results suggest that GHS-R in the Arc is involved in the regulation of GH secretion, food intake, and adiposity. ..
  39. Pardo M, Roca Rivada A, Al Massadi O, Seoane L, Camiña J, Casanueva F. Peripheral leptin and ghrelin receptors are regulated in a tissue-specific manner in activity-based anorexia. Peptides. 2010;31:1912-9 pubmed publisher
    ..All together, these findings indicate tissue-specific mechanisms for the control of energy homeostasis in response to nutrient and energy availability...
  40. Dass N, Munonyara M, Bassil A, Hervieu G, Osbourne S, Corcoran S, et al. Growth hormone secretagogue receptors in rat and human gastrointestinal tract and the effects of ghrelin. Neuroscience. 2003;120:443-53 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we suggest that this activity of ghrelin is mediated via the enteric nervous system, in addition to known vagus nerve-dependent mechanisms. ..
  41. Sun Y, Wang P, Zheng H, Smith R. Ghrelin stimulation of growth hormone release and appetite is mediated through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:4679-84 pubmed
    ..However, it had not been directly shown that the GHSR is a physiologically relevant ghrelin receptor. Furthermore, ghrelin's structure is significantly different from the synthetic agonist (MK-0677) used to ..
  42. Gong Y, Xu L, Guo F, Pang M, Shi Z, Gao S, et al. Effects of ghrelin on gastric distension sensitive neurons and gastric motility in the lateral septum and arcuate nucleus regulation. J Gastroenterol. 2014;49:219-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Pretreatment with [D-Lys-3]-GHRP-6, however, could completely abolish the ghrelin-induced effects...
  43. Lee J, Choi H, Na W, Ju B, Yune T. Ghrelin inhibits BSCB disruption/hemorrhage by attenuating MMP-9 and SUR1/TrpM4 expression and activation after spinal cord injury. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1842:2403-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1a (GHS-R1a), was expressed in the blood vessel of normal spinal tissue...
  44. Xu L, Qu Z, Guo F, Pang M, Gao S, Zhu H, et al. Effects of ghrelin on gastric distention sensitive neurons in the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus and gastric motility in diabetic rats. Peptides. 2013;48:137-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects induced by ghrelin could be blocked by growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) antagonist [d-Lys-3]-GHRP-6 or BIM28163...
  45. Rocha Sousa A, Pereira Silva P, Tavares Silva M, Azevedo Pinto S, Rodrigues Araújo J, Pinho S, et al. Identification of the ghrelin-GHSR 1 system and its influence in the modulation of induced ocular hypertension in rabbit and rat eyes. Peptides. 2014;57:59-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of our investigation was to study the effect of the ghrelin-GHSR-1a system in the modulation of intraocular pressure in acute ocular hypertension models and its expression and ..
  46. López Soto E, Agosti F, Cabral A, Mustafa E, Damonte V, Gandini M, et al. Constitutive and ghrelin-dependent GHSR1a activation impairs CaV2.1 and CaV2.2 currents in hypothalamic neurons. J Gen Physiol. 2015;146:205-19 pubmed publisher
  47. Fu R, Yuan H, Wang L, Ge H, Zhang J, Ning Q, et al. [Expression of ghrelin and its receptor GHS-R in the hypothalamus and gastrointestinal tract in rats with chronic renal failure]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2011;31:96-9 pubmed
    ..01). The different distribution patterns of ghrelin and GHS-R in the tissues may be an important pathological basis of gastrointestinal motility disorder in CRF. ..
  48. Rodriguez Pacheco F, Vazquez Martinez R, Martinez Fuentes A, Pulido M, Gahete M, Vaudry H, et al. Resistin regulates pituitary somatotrope cell function through the activation of multiple signaling pathways. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4643-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time a regulatory role for resistin on somatotrope function and provide novel insights on the intracellular mechanisms activated by this protein. ..
  49. Li B, Zeng M, He W, Huang X, Luo L, Zhang H, et al. Ghrelin protects alveolar macrophages against lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis through growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a-dependent c-Jun N-terminal kinase and Wnt/β-catenin signaling and suppresses lung inflammation. Endocrinology. 2015;156:203-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In AMs, GH secretagogue receptor-1a (GHSR-1a), the ghrelin receptor, was expressed, and treatment of AMs with ghrelin markedly reduced LPS-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial ..
  50. Salome N, Hansson C, Taube M, Gustafsson Ericson L, Egecioglu E, Karlsson Lindahl L, et al. On the central mechanism underlying ghrelin's chronic pro-obesity effects in rats: new insights from studies exploiting a potent ghrelin receptor antagonist. J Neuroendocrinol. 2009;21:777-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, using a recently developed ghrelin receptor antagonist, GHS-R1A (JMV2959), we investigate the role of GHS-R1A in mediating the effects of ghrelin on ..
  51. Andreis P, Malendowicz L, Trejter M, Neri G, Spinazzi R, Rossi G, et al. Ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor are expressed in the rat adrenal cortex: Evidence that ghrelin stimulates the growth, but not the secretory activity of adrenal cells. FEBS Lett. 2003;536:173-9 pubmed
  52. Zhou C, Li X, Zhu Y, Huang H, Li J, Liu L, et al. Ghrelin alleviates neuropathic pain through GHSR-1a-mediated suppression of the p38 MAPK/NF-?B pathway in a rat chronic constriction injury model. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2014;39:137-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the effect of ghrelin could be blocked by [D-Lys]-GHRP-6, a GHSR-1a antagonist...
  53. Zhang R, Yang G, Wang Q, Guo F, Wang H. Acylated ghrelin protects hippocampal neurons in pilocarpine-induced seizures of immature rats by inhibiting cell apoptosis. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:51-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Only AG to bind growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR-1a) has central endocrine activities...
  54. Tawadros N, Salamonsen L, Dimitriadis E, Chen C. Facilitation of decidualization by locally produced ghrelin in the human endometrium. Mol Hum Reprod. 2007;13:483-9 pubmed
    ..001) whereas ghrelin in combination with cAMP inhibits the action of cAMP. These findings have potential clinical applications for the regulation of fertility. ..
  55. Sun Q, Zang W, Chen C. Growth hormone secretagogues reduce transient outward K+ current via phospholipase C/protein kinase C signaling pathway in rat ventricular myocytes. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1228-35 pubmed publisher
  56. Wang J, Chen C, Wang R. Influence of short- and long-term treadmill exercises on levels of ghrelin, obestatin and NPY in plasma and brain extraction of obese rats. Endocrine. 2008;33:77-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of ghrelin receptor (GHSR-1a), putative obestatin receptor (GPR-39), and NPY in the hypothalamus was measured by quantitative RT-..
  57. Kemp B, Howell N, Gildea J, Keller S, Padia S. Intrarenal ghrelin receptors regulate ENaC-dependent sodium reabsorption by a cAMP-dependent pathway. Kidney Int. 2013;84:501-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, GRs expressed in the CCD regulate sodium reabsorption by cAMP-induced trafficking of ENaC to the apical membrane. ..
  58. Kaiya H, Kojima M, Hosoda H, Riley L, Hirano T, Grau E, et al. Amidated fish ghrelin: purification, cDNA cloning in the Japanese eel and its biological activity. J Endocrinol. 2003;176:415-23 pubmed
    ..A novel regulatory pathway of GH secretion by gastric ghrelin seems to be conserved from fish to human. ..
  59. Costantino L. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor antagonists. Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2012;22:697-700 pubmed publisher
    The patent claims peptidic/nonpeptidic inhibitors of the ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) 1A...
  60. Mano Otagiri A, Iwasaki Sekino A, Nemoto T, Ohata H, Shuto Y, Nakabayashi H, et al. Genetic suppression of ghrelin receptors activates brown adipocyte function and decreases fat storage in rats. Regul Pept. 2010;160:81-90 pubmed publisher
  61. Petersenn S. Structure and regulation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Minerva Endocrinol. 2002;27:243-56 pubmed
  62. Yang H, Mao M, Yang F, Yang S, Xiong F. [Relationship between Ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor expression and catch-up growth in rats with intrauterine growth restriction]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2010;12:563-8 pubmed
    To study the relationship between Ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) expression and the catch-up growth in rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)...
  63. Soares J, Rocha Sousa A, Castro Chaves P, Henriques Coelho T, Leite Moreira A. Inotropic and lusitropic effects of ghrelin and their modulation by the endocardial endothelium, NO, prostaglandins, GHS-R1a and KCa channels. Peptides. 2006;27:1616-23 pubmed
    ..cycloxygenase inhibitor, 10(-5) M; n = 10), L-nitro-L-arginin (NO synthase inhibitor, 10(-4) M; n = 9), D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6 (GHS-R1a antagonist; 10(-4) M; n = 8) or apamin+charybdotoxin (KCa channels blockers; 10(-6) M, n =7 ), as well ..
  64. Sustkova Fiserova M, Jerabek P, Havlickova T, Kacer P, Krsiak M. Ghrelin receptor antagonism of morphine-induced accumbens dopamine release and behavioral stimulation in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2014;231:2899-908 pubmed publisher
    ..Ghrelin secretagogue receptors (GHS-R1A) appear to be involved in the opioid-induced changes in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system associated with the reward processing. ..
  65. Tamura H, Kamegai J, Sugihara H, Kineman R, Frohman L, Wakabayashi I. Glucocorticoids regulate pituitary growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene expression. J Neuroendocrinol. 2000;12:481-5 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest glucocorticoids directly increase pituitary GHS-R mRNA levels by stimulating GHS-R gene transcription. ..
  66. Shrestha Y, Wickwire K, Giraudo S. Effect of reducing hypothalamic ghrelin receptor gene expression on energy balance. Peptides. 2009;30:1336-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the central ghrelin system could selectively regulate body weight without affecting energy intake. ..
  67. Ferens D, Yin L, Ohashi Doi K, Habgood M, Bron R, Brock J, et al. Evidence for functional ghrelin receptors on parasympathetic preganglionic neurons of micturition control pathways in the rat. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2010;37:926-32 pubmed publisher
    ..of the close relationship between colorectal and urinary bladder control, we have investigated whether ghrelin receptor agonists also stimulate spinal centres that influence the bladder. 2...
  68. Chebani Y, Marion C, Zizzari P, Chettab K, Pastor M, Korostelev M, et al. Enhanced responsiveness of Ghsr Q343X rats to ghrelin results in enhanced adiposity without increased appetite. Sci Signal. 2016;9:ra39 pubmed publisher
    ..the gut hormone ghrelin to promote positive energy balance is mediated by the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)...
  69. Gao H, Ho E, Yallampalli C. Ghrelin doesn't limit insulin release in pregnant rats fed low protein diet. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2017;22:1523-1533 pubmed
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