Gene Symbol: Ghrl
Description: ghrelin and obestatin prepropeptide
Alias: appetite-regulating hormone, ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide, growth hormone secretagogue, growth hormone-releasing peptide, motilin-related peptide
Species: rat
Products:     Ghrl

Top Publications

  1. Date Y, Toshinai K, Koda S, Miyazato M, Shimbara T, Tsuruta T, et al. Peripheral interaction of ghrelin with cholecystokinin on feeding regulation. Endocrinology. 2005;146:3518-25 pubmed
    ..The efficiency of ghrelin and CCK signal transduction may depend on the balance of their respective plasma concentration and/or on interactions between GHS-R and CCK-AR. ..
  2. Kojima M, Hosoda H, Matsuo H, Kangawa K. Ghrelin: discovery of the natural endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2001;12:118-22 pubmed
    ..The discovery of ghrelin indicates that the release of GH from the pituitary might be regulated not only by hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone, but also by ghrelin derived from the stomach and hypothalamus. ..
  3. Yanagida H, Morita T, Kim J, Yoshida K, Nakajima K, Oomura Y, et al. Effects of ghrelin on neuronal activity in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus in infantile rats: an in vitro study. Peptides. 2008;29:912-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results indicate that (1) ghrelin excites a majority of VMH neurons dose-dependently and postsynaptically and (2) the excitatory effects of ghrelin are mimicked by GHRP-6 and desensitized by repeated applications of ghrelin. ..
  4. Hosoda H, Kojima M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K. Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin: two major forms of rat ghrelin peptide in gastrointestinal tissue. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;279:909-13 pubmed
    Ghrelin, a novel peptide purified from stomach, is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor and has potent growth hormone-releasing activity...
  5. Seoane L, Al Massadi O, Barreiro F, Dieguez C, Casanueva F. Growth hormone and somatostatin directly inhibit gastric ghrelin secretion. An in vitro organ culture system. J Endocrinol Invest. 2007;30:RC22-5 pubmed
    ..These results would confirm the capacity of GH and SS to act directly upon gastric level, inhibiting ghrelin secretion in vitro. ..
  6. Menyhért J, Wittmann G, Hrabovszky E, Szlavik N, Keller E, Tschop M, et al. Distribution of ghrelin-immunoreactive neuronal networks in the human hypothalamus. Brain Res. 2006;1125:31-6 pubmed
    Ghrelin has been discovered as the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). It stimulates growth hormone secretion and also potently increases food intake...
  7. Zhang W, Lin T, Hu Y, Fan Y, Zhao L, Stuenkel E, et al. Ghrelin stimulates neurogenesis in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. J Physiol. 2004;559:729-37 pubmed
    ..Blocking L-type calcium channels by diltiazem (10 microm) significantly attenuated ghrelin-mediated increments in BrdU incorporation (n = 5, P < 0.05). Ghrelin acts directly on DMNV neurones to stimulate neurogenesis. ..
  8. Baldanzi G, Filigheddu N, Cutrupi S, Catapano F, Bonissoni S, Fubini A, et al. Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin inhibit cell death in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells through ERK1/2 and PI 3-kinase/AKT. J Cell Biol. 2002;159:1029-37 pubmed
  9. Shimizu Y, Nagaya N, Isobe T, Imazu M, Okumura H, Hosoda H, et al. Increased plasma ghrelin level in lung cancer cachexia. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:774-8 pubmed
    ..Considering the positive energy effects induced by ghrelin, increased ghrelin may represent a compensatory mechanism under catabolic-anabolic imbalance in cachectic patients with lung cancer. ..

More Information


  1. Diano S, Farr S, Benoit S, McNay E, da Silva I, Horvath B, et al. Ghrelin controls hippocampal spine synapse density and memory performance. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:381-8 pubmed
    ..Our observations reveal an endogenous function of ghrelin that links metabolic control with higher brain functions and suggest novel therapeutic strategies to enhance learning and memory processes. ..
  2. Kobelt P, Helmling S, Stengel A, Wlotzka B, Andresen V, Klapp B, et al. Anti-ghrelin Spiegelmer NOX-B11 inhibits neurostimulatory and orexigenic effects of peripheral ghrelin in rats. Gut. 2006;55:788-92 pubmed
    Ghrelin, the natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a, is the most powerful peripherally active orexigenic agent known. In rodents, ghrelin administration stimulates growth hormone release, food intake, and adiposity...
  3. Stoyanova I, le Feber J, Rutten W. Ghrelin stimulates synaptic formation in cultured cortical networks in a dose-dependent manner. Regul Pept. 2013;186:43-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect is probably mediated by GHSR1. These findings suggest that ghrelin may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of disorders related to synaptic impairment. ..
  4. Kojima M, Kangawa K. Ghrelin: structure and function. Physiol Rev. 2005;85:495-522 pubmed
    ..Taking into account all these activities, ghrelin plays important roles for maintaining GH release and energy homeostasis in vertebrates. ..
  5. Li Z, Guo Z, Cao J, Hu J, Zhao X, Xu R, et al. Plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels are increased in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Peptides. 2010;31:297-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggests that there is a disturbance of ghrelin and obestatin in the circulation of spontaneously hypertensive rats and the ghrelin/obestatin system might play a role in blood pressure regulation. ..
  6. Kyoraku I, Shiomi K, Kangawa K, Nakazato M. Ghrelin reverses experimental diabetic neuropathy in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;389:405-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Ghrelin administration in a mouse model of diabetes ameliorated polyneuropathy. Thus, ghrelin's effects represent a novel therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of this otherwise intractable disorder. ..
  7. Abizaid A, Liu Z, Andrews Z, Shanabrough M, Borok E, Elsworth J, et al. Ghrelin modulates the activity and synaptic input organization of midbrain dopamine neurons while promoting appetite. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:3229-39 pubmed
    The gut hormone ghrelin targets the brain to promote food intake and adiposity. The ghrelin receptor growth hormone secretagogue 1 receptor (GHSR) is present in hypothalamic centers controlling energy metabolism as well as in the ventral ..
  8. Mondal M, Toshinai K, Ueno H, Koshinaka K, Nakazato M. Characterization of obestatin in rat and human stomach and plasma, and its lack of acute effect on feeding behavior in rodents. J Endocrinol. 2008;198:339-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Administration of obestatin did not antagonize ghrelin-induced feeding. These findings indicate that obestatin is present at very low levels compared with ghrelin in both rat and human, and has no acute effect on feeding behavior. ..
  9. Tóth K, László K, Lenard L. Role of intraamygdaloid acylated-ghrelin in spatial learning. Brain Res Bull. 2010;81:33-7 pubmed publisher
    ..ANT alone had no effect. Our results show that place learning linked memory processes are facilitated by A-Ghr in the rat ABL. It is a specific effect, because it could be eliminated by ANT pretreatment. ..
  10. Warzecha Z, Ceranowicz P, Dembinski A, Cieszkowski J, Kusnierz Cabala B, Tomaszewska R, et al. Therapeutic effect of ghrelin in the course of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;61:419-27 pubmed
  11. Kojima M, Hosoda H, Date Y, Nakazato M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K. Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach. Nature. 1999;402:656-60 pubmed
    ..Human ghrelin is homologous to rat ghrelin apart from two amino acids. The occurrence of ghrelin in both rat and human indicates that GH release from the pituitary may be regulated not only by hypothalamic GHRH, but also by ghrelin. ..
  12. Clegg D, Brown L, Zigman J, Kemp C, Strader A, Benoit S, et al. Estradiol-dependent decrease in the orexigenic potency of ghrelin in female rats. Diabetes. 2007;56:1051-8 pubmed
  13. Alloatti G, Arnoletti E, Bassino E, Penna C, Perrelli M, Ghè C, et al. Obestatin affords cardioprotection to the ischemic-reperfused isolated rat heart and inhibits apoptosis in cultures of similarly stressed cardiomyocytes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;299:H470-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that, by acting on specific receptors, obestatin-(1-23) activates PI3K, PKC-epsilon, PKC-delta, and ERK1/2 signaling and protects cardiac cells against myocardial injury and apoptosis induced by I/R. ..
  14. Zhang J, Ren P, Avsian Kretchmer O, Luo C, Rauch R, Klein C, et al. Obestatin, a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, opposes ghrelin's effects on food intake. Science. 2005;310:996-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, two peptide hormones with opposing action in weight regulation are derived from the same ghrelin gene. After differential modification, these hormones activate distinct receptors. ..
  15. Lage R, Vazquez M, Varela L, Saha A, Vidal Puig A, Nogueiras R, et al. Ghrelin effects on neuropeptides in the rat hypothalamus depend on fatty acid metabolism actions on BSX but not on gender. FASEB J. 2010;24:2670-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, this effect is associated with decreased BSX expression and reduced food intake. Overall, our data suggest that BSX integrates changes in neuronal metabolic status with ARC-derived neuropeptides in a gender-independent manner. ..
  16. Hou Z, Miao Y, Gao L, Pan H, Zhu S. Ghrelin-containing neuron in cerebral cortex and hypothalamus linked with the DVC of brainstem in rat. Regul Pept. 2006;134:126-31 pubmed
    ..It suggests that ghrelin plays its role from hypothalamus to brainstem as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator to regulate function of vagal nuclei in brainstem. ..
  17. Stoyanova I, Wiertz R, Rutten W. Time-dependent changes in ghrelin-immunoreactivity in dissociated neuronal cultures of the newborn rat neocortex. Regul Pept. 2009;158:86-90 pubmed publisher
  18. Soeki T, Kishimoto I, Schwenke D, Tokudome T, Horio T, Yoshida M, et al. Ghrelin suppresses cardiac sympathetic activity and prevents early left ventricular remodeling in rats with myocardial infarction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294:H426-32 pubmed
    ..01). In conclusion, these data suggest the potential usefulness of ghrelin as a new cardioprotective hormone early after MI. ..
  19. Tamura H, Kamegai J, Shimizu T, Ishii S, Sugihara H, Oikawa S. Ghrelin stimulates GH but not food intake in arcuate nucleus ablated rats. Endocrinology. 2002;143:3268-75 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the primary action of ghrelin on appetite control and GH releasing activity is via the ARC even though it might act on another type of GHS-R besides GHS-R(1a). ..
  20. Zigman J, Nakano Y, Coppari R, Balthasar N, Marcus J, Lee C, et al. Mice lacking ghrelin receptors resist the development of diet-induced obesity. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:3564-72 pubmed
    Ghrelin is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR; ghrelin receptor)...
  21. Wellman P, Davis K, Nation J. Augmentation of cocaine hyperactivity in rats by systemic ghrelin. Regul Pept. 2005;125:151-4 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that acute injection of ghrelin, at a feeding-relevant dose, augments the acute effects of cocaine on locomotion in rats. ..
  22. El Eter E, Al Tuwaijiri A, Hagar H, Arafa M. In vivo and in vitro antioxidant activity of ghrelin: Attenuation of gastric ischemic injury in the rat. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;22:1791-9 pubmed
    Gherlin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is produced by stomach cells. It regulates food intake, gastric secretion and motility...
  23. Carlini V, Monzon M, Varas M, Cragnolini A, Schioth H, Scimonelli T, et al. Ghrelin increases anxiety-like behavior and memory retention in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;299:739-43 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that ghrelin induces anxiogenesis in rats. Moreover, we show for the first time that ghrelin increases memory retention, suggesting that the peptide may influence processes in the hippocampus. ..
  24. Bagnasco M, Kalra P, Kalra S. Ghrelin and leptin pulse discharge in fed and fasted rats. Endocrinology. 2002;143:726-9 pubmed
    ..These studies imply that a synchronous leptin restraint and ghrelin stimulus on NPYergic signaling may underlie robust appetitive drive. ..
  25. Mazzocchi G, Neri G, Rucinski M, Rebuffat P, Spinazzi R, Malendowicz L, et al. Ghrelin enhances the growth of cultured human adrenal zona glomerulosa cells by exerting MAPK-mediated proliferogenic and antiapoptotic effects. Peptides. 2004;25:1269-77 pubmed
    Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), two subtypes of which have been identified and named GHS-R1a and GHS-R1b...
  26. Levin B, Dunn Meynell A, Ricci M, Cummings D. Abnormalities of leptin and ghrelin regulation in obesity-prone juvenile rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003;285:E949-57 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that increased ghrelin signaling is not a proximate cause of DIO, whereas reduced leptin sensitivity might play a causal role. ..
  27. Spinedi E, Voirol M, Verdumo C, Giacominni M, Pralong F, Gaillard R. Hypothalamic ghrelin treatment modulates NPY-but not CRH-ergic activity in adrenalectomized rats subjected to food restriction: Evidence of a novel hypothalamic ghrelin effect. Endocrine. 2006;29:477-84 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate an inhibitory effect of hypothalamic ghrelin on NPY-ergic activity in FR rats lacking endogenous glucocorticoid. ..
  28. Lin Y, Matsumura K, Fukuhara M, Kagiyama S, Fujii K, Iida M. Ghrelin acts at the nucleus of the solitary tract to decrease arterial pressure in rats. Hypertension. 2004;43:977-82 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, immunohistochemical study revealed that the receptor for ghrelin, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, was expressed in the neuronal cells of the nucleus of the solitary tract and the dorsal motor ..
  29. SANCHEZ J, Oliver P, Palou A, Pico C. The inhibition of gastric ghrelin production by food intake in rats is dependent on the type of macronutrient. Endocrinology. 2004;145:5049-55 pubmed
  30. Chen C, Tsai C, Lee W, Liaw W, Chiang C, Ho S, et al. Intracerebroventricular O-n-octanoylated ghrelin and its splice variant-induced feeding is blocked by insulin, independent of obestatin or CRF receptor, in satiated rats. Nutrition. 2012;28:812-20 pubmed publisher
  31. Kobelt P, Tebbe J, Tjandra I, Stengel A, Bae H, Andresen V, et al. CCK inhibits the orexigenic effect of peripheral ghrelin. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;288:R751-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that CCK abolishes ghrelin-induced food intake through dampening increased ARC neuronal activity. ..
  32. Agnew A, Robinson E, McVicar C, Harvey A, Ali I, Lindsay J, et al. The gastrointestinal peptide obestatin induces vascular relaxation via specific activation of endothelium-dependent NO signalling. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;166:327-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These actions may be important in normal regulation of vascular function and are clearly relevant to diabetes, a condition characterized by endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular complications. ..
  33. Fu R, Xue R, Wang J, Ma L, Lv J, Wang L, et al. Uremic anorexia and ghrelin expression in the amygdala. Neurosci Lett. 2012;527:50-4 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The reduction of amygdala's ghrelin in CRF rats may be associated with uremic anorexia. ..
  34. Lai K, Cheng C, Leung P. The ghrelin system in acinar cells: localization, expression, and regulation in the exocrine pancreas. Pancreas. 2007;35:e1-8 pubmed
    ..This system is subject to regulation by physiological and pathophysiological stimuli and may thus regulate exocrine functions by paracrine and/or autocrine mechanisms. ..
  35. Miyatake Y, Shiuchi T, Mawatari K, Toda S, Taniguchi Y, Futami A, et al. Intracerebroventricular injection of ghrelin decreases wheel running activity in rats. Peptides. 2017;87:12-19 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of SPORTS rats was not difference that in control ..
  36. López Soto E, Agosti F, Cabral A, Mustafa E, Damonte V, Gandini M, et al. Constitutive and ghrelin-dependent GHSR1a activation impairs CaV2.1 and CaV2.2 currents in hypothalamic neurons. J Gen Physiol. 2015;146:205-19 pubmed publisher
    The growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR1a) has the highest known constitutive activity of any G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)...
  37. Kobelt P, Wisser A, Stengel A, Goebel M, Bannert N, Gourcerol G, et al. Peripheral obestatin has no effect on feeding behavior and brain Fos expression in rodents. Peptides. 2008;29:1018-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, peripheral obestatin has no effect on FI under various experimental conditions and did not induce Fos in relevant central neuronal circuitries modulating feeding in rodents. ..
  38. Martini A, Fernandez Fernandez R, Tovar S, Navarro V, Vigo E, Vazquez M, et al. Comparative analysis of the effects of ghrelin and unacylated ghrelin on luteinizing hormone secretion in male rats. Endocrinology. 2006;147:2374-82 pubmed
  39. Xu L, Gong Y, Wang H, Sun X, Guo F, Gao S, et al. The stimulating effect of ghrelin on gastric motility and firing activity of gastric-distension-sensitive hippocampal neurons and its underlying regulation by the hypothalamus. Exp Physiol. 2014;99:123-35 pubmed publisher
    Ghrelin is an acylated peptide originally identified in the rat stomach as the endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) that promotes gastric motility...
  40. Hosoda H, Kojima M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K. Purification and characterization of rat des-Gln14-Ghrelin, a second endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:21995-2000 pubmed
    Ghrelin, a peptide purified from the stomach, is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) and potently stimulates growth hormone release from the pituitary...
  41. Walia P, Asadi A, Kieffer T, Johnson J, Chanoine J. Ontogeny of ghrelin, obestatin, preproghrelin, and prohormone convertases in rat pancreas and stomach. Pediatr Res. 2009;65:39-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In pancreas, the colocalization of PC1/3 or PC2 in ghrelin positive cells points to a role for both PCs in preproghrelin processing. ..
  42. Guo Z, Ren A, Zheng X, Qin Y, Cheng F, Zhang J, et al. Different responses of circulating ghrelin, obestatin levels to fasting, re-feeding and different food compositions, and their local expressions in rats. Peptides. 2008;29:1247-54 pubmed publisher
  43. Şen L, Karakoyun B, Yeğen C, Akkiprik M, Yüksel M, Ercan F, et al. Treatment with either obestatin or ghrelin attenuates mesenteric ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative injury of the ileum and the remote organ lung. Peptides. 2015;71:8-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Administration of either obestatin or ghrelin exerts similar protective effects against I/R-induced ileal and pulmonary injury, thus warranting further investigation for their possible use against ischemic intestinal injury. ..
  44. Kim S, Her S, Park S, Kim D, Park K, Lee H, et al. Ghrelin stimulates proliferation and differentiation and inhibits apoptosis in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Bone. 2005;37:359-69 pubmed
    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide identified in the stomach as an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) that strongly stimulates the release of growth hormone at the hypothalamus and pituitary level...
  45. Mozid A, Tringali G, Forsling M, Hendricks M, Ajodha S, Edwards R, et al. Ghrelin is released from rat hypothalamic explants and stimulates corticotrophin-releasing hormone and arginine-vasopressin. Horm Metab Res. 2003;35:455-9 pubmed
    ..The local autocrine/paracrine and endocrine effects of ghrelin in the hypothalamus could influence all the hormonal systems involved in ghrelin effects, including growth hormone release, the HPA axis and appetite. ..
  46. Huang J, Zhang Y, Yu S, Gan X, Su Y, Yuan J, et al. Circulating obestatin concentration is lowered by insulin in rats. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2012;120:56-8 pubmed publisher
    ..01) in both hyperinsulinemic groups and (B=0.95±0.06?ng/ml; C=0.87±0.04?ng/ml) versus controls (1.56±0.13?ng/ml). These data suggest that insulin can decrease the plasma obestatin levels. ..
  47. Gao H, Ho E, Yallampalli C. Ghrelin doesn't limit insulin release in pregnant rats fed low protein diet. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2017;22:1523-1533 pubmed
  48. Bake T, Hellgren K, Dickson S. Acute ghrelin changes food preference from a high-fat diet to chow during binge-like eating in rodents. J Neuroendocrinol. 2017;29: pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, ghrelin appears to act as a modulating factor for binge-like eating behaviour by shifting food preference towards a more nutritious choice (from HFD to chow), with these effects being somewhat divergent from fasting. ..
  49. Qi X, Reed J, Englander E, Chandrashekar V, Bartke A, Greeley G. Evidence that growth hormone exerts a feedback effect on stomach ghrelin production and secretion. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2003;228:1028-32 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings suggest that endogenous pituitary GH exerts a feedback action on stomach ghrelin homeostasis and support the hypothesis that a stomach-ghrelin-pituitary GH axis exists. ..
  50. Sarac M, Bakal U, Tartar T, Kuloglu T, Yardim M, Artaş G, et al. Ghrelin and NUCB2/Nesfatin-1 expression in unilateral testicular torsion-induced rats with and without N-acetylcysteine. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2017;63:40-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, NAS treatment could prevent this damage. Thus, there may be a clinical application for the combined use of NAS and octanoylated ghrelin in preventing TT-related infertility. ..
  51. Wang D, Wang H, Luo P, Hwang A, Sun D, Wang Y, et al. Effects of ghrelin on homocysteine-induced dysfunction and inflammatory response in rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. Cell Biol Int. 2012;36:511-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that ghrelin inhibits HCY-induced CMEC dysfunction and inflammatory response, probably mediated by inhibition of NF-?B activation. ..
  52. Stevanovic D, Trajkovic V, Müller Lühlhoff S, Brandt E, Abplanalp W, Bumke Vogt C, et al. Ghrelin-induced food intake and adiposity depend on central mTORC1/S6K1 signaling. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;381:280-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore propose that ghrelin-induced hyperphagia, adiposity and insulin secretion are controlled by a central nervous system involving the mTORC1/S6K1 pathway. ..
  53. Lu C, Zhu W, Shen C, Gao W. Green tea polyphenols reduce body weight in rats by modulating obesity-related genes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38332 pubmed publisher the HF group had the expression levels of 12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1); 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1?, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort); and 2 genes that relate to energy ..
  54. Kohno D, Gao H, Muroya S, Kikuyama S, Yada T. Ghrelin directly interacts with neuropeptide-Y-containing neurons in the rat arcuate nucleus: Ca2+ signaling via protein kinase A and N-type channel-dependent mechanisms and cross-talk with leptin and orexin. Diabetes. 2003;52:948-56 pubmed
    ..The integration of stimulatory effects of ghrelin and orexin and inhibitory effect of leptin may play an important role in the regulation of the activity of NPY neurons and thereby feeding. ..
  55. Iglesias M, Piñeiro R, Blanco M, Gallego R, Dieguez C, Gualillo O, et al. Growth hormone releasing peptide (ghrelin) is synthesized and secreted by cardiomyocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 2004;62:481-8 pubmed
    Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), acts on the pituitary and the hypothalamus to stimulate the release of growth hormone (GH) and promotes appetite and adiposity...
  56. Ariyasu H, Takaya K, Hosoda H, Iwakura H, Ebihara K, Mori K, et al. Delayed short-term secretory regulation of ghrelin in obese animals: evidenced by a specific RIA for the active form of ghrelin. Endocrinology. 2002;143:3341-50 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the short-term secretory regulation of total ghrelin and the active form of ghrelin is delayed in obese animals and that blood glucose levels may be involved in the delayed regulation. ..
  57. Aydin S, Sahin I, Ozkan Y, Dag E, Gunay A, Guzel S, et al. Examination of the tissue ghrelin expression of rats with diet-induced obesity using radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemical methods. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;365:165-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Nutritional obesity is among the most common causes of obesity and the findings we have obtained through diet-induced obesity will contribute to the illumination of the etiopathology of obesity. ..
  58. Egido E, Hernandez R, Marco J, Silvestre R. Effect of obestatin on insulin, glucagon and somatostatin secretion in the perfused rat pancreas. Regul Pept. 2009;152:61-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results allow us to speculate about a role of obestatin in the control of beta-cell secretion. Furthermore, as an insulinotropic agent, its potential antidiabetic effect may be worthy of investigation. ..
  59. Yang H, Mao M, Yang F, Yang S, Xiong F. [Relationship between Ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor expression and catch-up growth in rats with intrauterine growth restriction]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2010;12:563-8 pubmed
    To study the relationship between Ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) expression and the catch-up growth in rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)...
  60. Guo X, Mattar S, Navia J, Kassab G. Response of gut hormones after implantation of a reversible gastric restrictive device in different animal models. J Surg Res. 2012;178:165-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The marked suppression of leptin in both animal models might contribute to the weight-reducing effect of the RGR implant. ..
  61. Slomiany B, Slomiany A. Involvement of p38 MAPK-dependent activator protein (AP-1) activation in modulation of gastric mucosal inflammatory responses to Helicobacter pylori by ghrelin. Inflammopharmacology. 2013;21:67-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate ghrelin counters the proinflammatory consequences of H. pylori by interfering with the p38/ATF-2-induced AP-1 activation in association with concurrent up-regulation in Src/Akt-dependent cNOS phosphorylation. ..
  62. Wang J, Wang L, Wei L, Wu J, Wei N, Kong X, et al. [Association of gastric emptying with ghrelin, obestatin and receptor (GHSR, GPR-39) in hypothalamus of diabetic rats]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010;90:1137-40 pubmed
    ..The rapid gastric emptying may be due to the rising levels of ghrelin and GHSR in hypothalamus during early hyperglycemia. And the duration of hyperglycemia is affected by the rising ratio of ghrelin/obestatin. ..
  63. Ueno M, Carvalheira J, Oliveira R, Velloso L, Saad M. Circulating ghrelin concentrations are lowered by intracerebroventricular insulin. Diabetologia. 2006;49:2449-52 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that changes in insulin action in the central nervous system regulate circulating ghrelin levels and that PI(3)K is a specific mediator of this action. ..
  64. Wang Y, Chen F, Shi H, Jiang J, Li H, Qin B, et al. Extrinsic ghrelin in the paraventricular nucleus increases small intestinal motility in rats by activating central growth hormone secretagogue and enteric cholinergic receptors. Peptides. 2015;74:43-9 pubmed publisher
    ..effect of ghrelin on the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) increases GI motility by activating the central growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and central neuropeptide Y (NPY) signaling pathways, leading to increased enteric ..
  65. Sangiao Alvarellos S, Vazquez M, Varela L, Nogueiras R, Saha A, Cordido F, et al. Central ghrelin regulates peripheral lipid metabolism in a growth hormone-independent fashion. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4562-74 pubmed publisher
  66. Iniguez G, Roman R, Youlton R, Cassorla F, Mericq V. Ghrelin plasma levels in patients with idiopathic short stature. Horm Res Paediatr. 2011;75:94-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) mutations that segregate with short stature have been reported...
  67. Gloy V, Lutz T, Langhans W, Geary N, Hillebrand J. Basal plasma levels of insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and amylin do not signal adiposity in rats recovering from forced overweight. Endocrinology. 2010;151:4280-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that basal insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and amylin do not encode AT mass in rats dynamically regulating BW and adiposity during recovery from OW. ..
  68. Drazen D, Vahl T, D Alessio D, Seeley R, Woods S. Effects of a fixed meal pattern on ghrelin secretion: evidence for a learned response independent of nutrient status. Endocrinology. 2006;147:23-30 pubmed
    ..Together, these data are consistent with a role for ghrelin in the regulation of anticipatory processes involved in food intake and nutrient disposition. ..
  69. Wortley K, Del Rincon J, Murray J, Garcia K, Iida K, Thorner M, et al. Absence of ghrelin protects against early-onset obesity. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:3573-8 pubmed
    The gut peptide ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been implicated not only in the regulation of pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion but in a number of endocrine and nonendocrine ..
  70. Akimoto Takano S, Sakurai C, Kanai S, Hosoya H, Ohta M, Miyasaka K. Differences in the appetite-stimulating effect of orexin, neuropeptide Y and ghrelin among young, adult and old rats. Neuroendocrinology. 2005;82:256-63 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the orexigenic effect of the peptides orexin A, NPY and ghrelin decreased in old rats, and this reduction may have been responsible for the age-related decrease in food intake. ..
  71. Lee J, Patel K, Tae H, Lustig A, Kim J, Mattson M, et al. Ghrelin augments murine T-cell proliferation by activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase C signaling pathways. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:4708-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, ghrelin activated the above-mentioned signaling pathways and stimulated thymocyte proliferation in young and older mice in vivo. ..
  72. Yang C, Liao Z, Qiu W, Yan J, Wang Z. Function of ghrelin and ghrelin receptors in the network regulation of gastric motility. Mol Med Rep. 2014;10:2453-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Ghrelin may exert its effects by influencing the functional status of different cell types in the gastric muscle layer to subsequently enhance the contractive effect of cholinergic neurotransmitters and enhance gastric motility. ..
  73. Proulx K, Vahl T, Drazen D, Woods S, Seeley R. The effect of adrenalectomy on ghrelin secretion and orexigenic action. J Neuroendocrinol. 2005;17:445-51 pubmed
    ..The results also suggest that, unlike the orexigenic effects of NPY and AgRP, the ability of ghrelin to stimulate food intake is maintained in ADX rats. ..
  74. Müller T, Muller A, Yi C, Habegger K, Meyer C, Gaylinn B, et al. The orphan receptor Gpr83 regulates systemic energy metabolism via ghrelin-dependent and ghrelin-independent mechanisms. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1968 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data suggest that Gpr83 modulates ghrelin action but also indicate that Gpr83 regulates systemic metabolism through other ghrelin-independent pathways. ..
  75. Pan W, Tu H, Kastin A. Differential BBB interactions of three ingestive peptides: obestatin, ghrelin, and adiponectin. Peptides. 2006;27:911-6 pubmed
    ..The differential interactions of obestatin, adiponectin, and ghrelin with the BBB illustrate their distinctive physiological interactions with the CNS. ..
  76. Leal Cerro A, Torres E, Soto A, Dios E, Deghenghi R, Arvat E, et al. Ghrelin is no longer able to stimulate growth hormone secretion in patients with Cushing's syndrome but instead induces exaggerated corticotropin and cortisol responses. Neuroendocrinology. 2002;76:390-6 pubmed
    ..These findings could have implications for the understanding of the physiology and physiopathology of interactions between GH and ACTH regulation. ..
  77. Wiedemann T, Bielohuby M, Müller T, Bidlingmaier M, Pellegata N. Obesity in MENX Rats Is Accompanied by High Circulating Levels of Ghrelin and Improved Insulin Sensitivity. Diabetes. 2016;65:406-20 pubmed publisher
    Ghrelin, the natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a), is mainly secreted from the stomach and regulates food intake and energy homeostasis. p27 regulates cell cycle progression in many cell types...
  78. Slomiany B, Slomiany A. Ghrelin suppression of Helicobacter pylori-induced S-nitrosylation-dependent Akt inactivation exerts modulatory influence on gastric mucin synthesis. Inflammopharmacology. 2011;19:89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..pylori-induced impairment in mucin synthesis is intimately linked to the events of Akt activation and reflected in a decrease in the kinase S-nitrosylation and the increase in its phosphorylation. ..
  79. Deng F, Ling J, Ma J, Liu C, Zhang W. Stimulation of intramembranous bone repair in rats by ghrelin. Exp Physiol. 2008;93:872-9 pubmed publisher
    ..4 +/- 0.8, 2.4 +/- 1.2 and 2.1 +/- 0.7, respectively (P < 0.05). This study demonstrated that ghrelin stimulates intramembranous osteogenesis. ..