Gene Symbol: GERp95
Description: argonaute 2, RISC catalytic component
Alias: Eif2c2, protein argonaute-2, GERp95, argonaute RISC catalytic component 2, argonaute2, eIF-2C 2, eIF2C 2, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2C 2, golgi ER protein 95 kDa
Species: rat
Products:     GERp95

Top Publications

  1. Meister G, Landthaler M, Patkaniowska A, Dorsett Y, Teng G, Tuschl T. Human Argonaute2 mediates RNA cleavage targeted by miRNAs and siRNAs. Mol Cell. 2004;15:185-97 pubmed
    ..The specific role of Ago2 in guiding target RNA cleavage was confirmed independently by siRNA-based depletion of individual Ago members in combination with a sensitive positive-readout reporter assay. ..
  2. Liu X, Jin D, McManus M, Mourelatos Z. Precursor microRNA-programmed silencing complex assembly pathways in mammals. Mol Cell. 2012;46:507-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies provide a comprehensive view of miRNP/RISC assembly pathways in mammals, and our assay provides a versatile platform for further mechanistic dissection of such pathways in mammals. ..
  3. Macrae I, Ma E, Zhou M, Robinson C, Doudna J. In vitro reconstitution of the human RISC-loading complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:512-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, once Ago2 is loaded with an miRNA, it tends to dissociate from the rest of the complex. These results lay the groundwork for future structural and functional dissection of RISC loading in humans. ..
  4. Wakiyama M, Takimoto K, Ohara O, Yokoyama S. Let-7 microRNA-mediated mRNA deadenylation and translational repression in a mammalian cell-free system. Genes Dev. 2007;21:1857-62 pubmed
    ..Our work suggests that let-7 miRNPs containing Argonaute and GW182 impair the synergistic enhancement of translation by the 5'-cap and 3'-poly(A) tail, resulting in translational repression. ..
  5. Lee Y, Hur I, Park S, Kim Y, Suh M, Kim V. The role of PACT in the RNA silencing pathway. EMBO J. 2006;25:522-32 pubmed
    ..Our study indicates that, unlike other RNase III type proteins, human Dicer may employ two different dsRBD-containing proteins that facilitate RISC assembly. ..
  6. Maniataki E, Mourelatos Z. A human, ATP-independent, RISC assembly machine fueled by pre-miRNA. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2979-90 pubmed
    ..In humans, the catalytic engine of RISC is a ribonucleoprotein formed by the Argonaute2 (Ago2) protein and either miRNA (miRNP) or siRNA (siRNP)...
  7. Kiriakidou M, Tan G, Lamprinaki S, De Planell Saguer M, Nelson P, Mourelatos Z. An mRNA m7G cap binding-like motif within human Ago2 represses translation. Cell. 2007;129:1141-51 pubmed
    ..We propose that Ago2 represses the initiation of mRNA translation by binding to the m(7)G cap of mRNA targets, thus likely precluding the recruitment of eIF4E. ..
  8. Matranga C, Tomari Y, Shin C, Bartel D, Zamore P. Passenger-strand cleavage facilitates assembly of siRNA into Ago2-containing RNAi enzyme complexes. Cell. 2005;123:607-20 pubmed
    In the Drosophila and mammalian RNA interference pathways, siRNAs direct the protein Argonaute2 (Ago2) to cleave corresponding mRNA targets, silencing their expression. Ago2 is the catalytic component of the RNAi enzyme complex, RISC...
  9. Höck J, Weinmann L, Ender C, Rüdel S, Kremmer E, Raabe M, et al. Proteomic and functional analysis of Argonaute-containing mRNA-protein complexes in human cells. EMBO Rep. 2007;8:1052-60 pubmed
    ..Using reporter assays and knockdown experiments, we showed that the putative RNA-binding protein RBM4 is required for microRNA-guided gene regulation. ..

More Information


  1. Chendrimada T, Gregory R, Kumaraswamy E, Norman J, Cooch N, Nishikura K, et al. TRBP recruits the Dicer complex to Ago2 for microRNA processing and gene silencing. Nature. 2005;436:740-4 pubmed
    ..These results support a role of the Dicer-TRBP complex not only in miRNA processing but also as a platform for RISC assembly. ..
  2. Chi S, Zang J, Mele A, Darnell R. Argonaute HITS-CLIP decodes microRNA-mRNA interaction maps. Nature. 2009;460:479-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Ago HITS-CLIP provides a general platform for exploring the specificity and range of miRNA action in vivo, and identifies precise sequences for targeting clinically relevant miRNA-mRNA interactions. ..
  3. Fabian M, Mathonnet G, Sundermeier T, Mathys H, Zipprich J, Svitkin Y, et al. Mammalian miRNA RISC recruits CAF1 and PABP to affect PABP-dependent deadenylation. Mol Cell. 2009;35:868-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, we present evidence that GW182, a core component of the miRISC, directly interacts with PABP via its C-terminal region and that this interaction is required for miRNA-mediated deadenylation...
  4. Maida Y, Yasukawa M, Furuuchi M, Lassmann T, Possemato R, Okamoto N, et al. An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase formed by TERT and the RMRP RNA. Nature. 2009;461:230-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations identify a mammalian RdRP composed of TERT in complex with RMRP. ..
  5. Lee H, Zhou K, Smith A, Noland C, Doudna J. Differential roles of human Dicer-binding proteins TRBP and PACT in small RNA processing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:6568-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the conclusion that in humans, Dicer-associated dsRNA-binding proteins are important regulatory factors that contribute both substrate and cleavage specificity during miRNA and siRNA production. ..
  6. Lin S, Huang Y, Zhang L, Heng M, Ptacek L, Fu Y. MicroRNA-23a promotes myelination in the central nervous system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:17468-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented here imply a unique role for miR-23a in the coordination of proteins and noncoding RNAs in generating and maintaining healthy myelin. ..
  7. Cheloufi S, Dos Santos C, Chong M, Hannon G. A dicer-independent miRNA biogenesis pathway that requires Ago catalysis. Nature. 2010;465:584-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice, Ago2 (also known as Eif2c2) is uniquely required for viability, and only this family member retains catalytic competence...
  8. Milochau A, Lagr e V, Benassy M, Chaignepain S, Papin J, Garcia Arcos I, et al. Synaptotagmin 11 interacts with components of the RNA-induced silencing complex RISC in clonal pancreatic ?-cells. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:2217-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Binding to SND was direct via its N-terminal tandem repeats. Our data indicate that syt11 may provide a link between gene regulation by microRNAs and membrane traffic...
  9. Gu S, Jin L, Huang Y, Zhang F, Kay M. Slicing-independent RISC activation requires the argonaute PAZ domain. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1536-42 pubmed publisher
  10. Wu L, Fan J, Belasco J. Importance of translation and nonnucleolytic ago proteins for on-target RNA interference. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1327-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have important implications for the efficacy and specificity of RNA interference. ..
  11. Loedige I, Gaidatzis D, Sack R, Meister G, Filipowicz W. The mammalian TRIM-NHL protein TRIM71/LIN-41 is a repressor of mRNA function. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:518-32 pubmed publisher
  12. Ryu I, Park J, An S, Kwon O, Jang S. eIF4GI facilitates the MicroRNA-mediated gene silencing. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55725 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that eIF4GI participates in the miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing by promoting the association of Ago2 with the cap-binding complex. ..
  13. Cikaluk D, Tahbaz N, Hendricks L, DiMattia G, Hansen D, Pilgrim D, et al. GERp95, a membrane-associated protein that belongs to a family of proteins involved in stem cell differentiation. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:3357-72 pubmed
    ..6 kDa that we call GERp95 (Golgi ER protein 95 kDa)...
  14. Beltrami C, Besnier M, Shantikumar S, Shearn A, Rajakaruna C, Laftah A, et al. Human Pericardial Fluid Contains Exosomes Enriched with Cardiovascular-Expressed MicroRNAs and Promotes Therapeutic Angiogenesis. Mol Ther. 2017;25:679-693 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data support the concept that PF exosomes orchestrate vascular repair via miRNA transfer. ..
  15. Dorval V, Mandemakers W, Jolivette F, Coudert L, Mazroui R, De Strooper B, et al. Gene and MicroRNA transcriptome analysis of Parkinson's related LRRK2 mouse models. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e85510 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus set the stage for future investigations regarding LRRK2 function in PD development. ..
  16. De la Mata M, Gaidatzis D, Vitanescu M, Stadler M, Wentzel C, Scheiffele P, et al. Potent degradation of neuronal miRNAs induced by highly complementary targets. EMBO Rep. 2015;16:500-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, TDMD may be particularly relevant for miRNA regulation in the nervous system. ..
  17. Ghosh U, Adhya S. Non-equivalent Roles of AGO1 and AGO2 in mRNA Turnover and Translation of Cyclin D1 mRNA. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:7119-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that the two miR-mediated silencing effects, viz. mRNA decay and translation repression, are independent processes induced by individual AGO isoforms in association with specific miRs. ..
  18. Patranabis S, Bhattacharyya S. Phosphorylation of Ago2 and Subsequent Inactivation of let-7a RNP-Specific MicroRNAs Control Differentiation of Mammalian Sympathetic Neurons. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:1260-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We noted that the inactivation of let-7a is both necessary and sufficient for the differentiation of sympathetic neurons. ..
  19. Hu J, Wang F, Zhu X, Yuan Y, Ding M, Gao S. Mouse ZAR1-like (XM_359149) colocalizes with mRNA processing components and its dominant-negative mutant caused two-cell-stage embryonic arrest. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:407-24 pubmed publisher
    ..When ectopically expressed in somatic cells, ZAR1L colocalized with P-body components including EIF2C1(AGO1), EIF2C2(AGO2), DDX6 and LSM14A, and germline-specific chromatoid body components including PIWIL1, PIWIL2, and LIN28...
  20. Lin J, Tarn W. RNA-binding motif protein 4 translocates to cytoplasmic granules and suppresses translation via argonaute2 during muscle cell differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:34658-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, RBM4 colocalizes with the components of micro-ribonucleoproteins, including the Argonaute2 (Ago2) protein, during muscle cell differentiation...
  21. Robb G, Rana T. RNA helicase A interacts with RISC in human cells and functions in RISC loading. Mol Cell. 2007;26:523-37 pubmed
    ..Minimally, the action of RISC requires the endonucleolytic slicer activity of Argonaute2 (Ago2) directed to RNA targets whose sequences are complementary to RISC-incorporated small RNA...
  22. Weitzer S, Martinez J. The human RNA kinase hClp1 is active on 3' transfer RNA exons and short interfering RNAs. Nature. 2007;447:222-6 pubmed
    ..The investigation of this novel enzymatic activity of hClp1 in the context of mRNA 3'-end formation, where no RNA phosphorylation event has hitherto been predicted, remains a challenge for the future. ..
  23. Huang V, Place R, Portnoy V, Wang J, Qi Z, Jia Z, et al. Upregulation of Cyclin B1 by miRNA and its implications in cancer. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:1695-707 pubmed publisher
    ..Such phenotypes were recapitulated by overexpression of Ccnb1. Our findings reveal an endogenous system by which miRNA functions to activate Ccnb1 expression in mouse cells and manipulate in vivo tumor development/growth. ..
  24. Phalora P, Sherer N, Wolinsky S, Swanson C, Malim M. HIV-1 replication and APOBEC3 antiviral activity are not regulated by P bodies. J Virol. 2012;86:11712-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Localization to P bodies may therefore provide a means of sequestering APOBEC3 enzymatic activity away from cellular DNA or may be linked to as yet unidentified cellular functions. ..
  25. Cook D, Sánchez Carbente M, Lachance C, Radzioch D, Tremblay S, Khandjian E, et al. Fragile X related protein 1 clusters with ribosomes and messenger RNAs at a subset of dendritic spines in the mouse hippocampus. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26120 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that FXR1P is properly positioned to control local protein synthesis in the dendrite and at synapses in the central nervous system. ..
  26. James V, Zhang Y, Foxler D, de Moor C, Kong Y, Webb T, et al. LIM-domain proteins, LIMD1, Ajuba, and WTIP are required for microRNA-mediated gene silencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:12499-504 pubmed publisher
  27. Ender C, Meister G. Argonaute proteins at a glance. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:1819-23 pubmed publisher
  28. Fujii Y, Onohara Y, Fujita H, Yokota S. Argonaute2 Protein in Rat Spermatogenic Cells Is Localized to Nuage Structures and LAMP2-Positive Vesicles Surrounding Chromatoid Bodies. J Histochem Cytochem. 2016;64:268-79 pubmed publisher
    Localization of Argonaute2 (AGO2) protein--an essential component for the processing of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-directed RNA interference (RNAi) in RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) in nuage of rat spermatogenic cells--was ..
  29. Yang M, Chen Y, Chen L, Wang K, Pan T, Liu X, et al. miR-15b-AGO2 play a critical role in HTR8/SVneo invasion and in a model of angiogenesis defects related to inflammation. Placenta. 2016;41:62-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides insight into the potential role of the miR-15b and AGO2 functional loop in the placentation process. ..
  30. Das S, Ferlito M, Kent O, Fox Talbot K, Wang R, Liu D, et al. Nuclear miRNA regulates the mitochondrial genome in the heart. Circ Res. 2012;110:1596-603 pubmed publisher
    ..This unique observation may open a new dimension to our understanding of mitochondrial dynamics and the role of miRNA in mitochondrial dysfunction. ..
  31. Hanina S, Mifsud W, Down T, Hayashi K, O Carroll D, Lao K, et al. Genome-wide identification of targets and function of individual MicroRNAs in mouse embryonic stem cells. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001163 pubmed publisher
    ..transcriptome profiling using microarrays and a biochemical approach to isolate mRNA targets associated with the Argonaute2 (Ago2) protein of the RISC (RNA Induced Silencing Complex) effector, followed by RNA-sequencing...
  32. Yoda M, Kawamata T, Paroo Z, Ye X, Iwasaki S, Liu Q, et al. ATP-dependent human RISC assembly pathways. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:17-23 pubmed publisher
    ..All these features of human AGO proteins are highly reminiscent of fly Ago1 but not fly Ago2. ..
  33. Wang H, Noland C, Siridechadilok B, Taylor D, Ma E, Felderer K, et al. Structural insights into RNA processing by the human RISC-loading complex. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:1148-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In humans, Argonaute2 (AGO2) assembles with the guide RNA-generating enzyme Dicer and the RNA-binding protein TRBP to form a RISC-..