Gck

Summary

Gene Symbol: Gck
Description: glucokinase
Alias: GLK, GLUKA, RNGK2, glucokinase, HK IV, HK4, glucokinase variant 3, hexokinase type IV, hexokinase-4, hexokinase-D
Species: rat
Products:     Gck

Top Publications

  1. Sanders N, Dunn Meynell A, Levin B. Third ventricular alloxan reversibly impairs glucose counterregulatory responses. Diabetes. 2004;53:1230-6 pubmed
    b>Glucokinase (GK) is hypothesized to be the critical glucosensor of pancreatic beta-cells and hypothalamic glucosensing neurons...
  2. Kim S, Kim H, Kim T, Im S, Park S, Lee I, et al. SREBP-1c mediates the insulin-dependent hepatic glucokinase expression. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:30823-9 pubmed
    The regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism is important in glucose homeostasis, and liver glucokinase (LGK) plays a central role in this process. Hepatic glucokinase expression is known to be regulated by insulin...
  3. Kang L, Dunn Meynell A, Routh V, Gaspers L, Nagata Y, Nishimura T, et al. Glucokinase is a critical regulator of ventromedial hypothalamic neuronal glucosensing. Diabetes. 2006;55:412-20 pubmed
    To test the hypothesis that glucokinase is a critical regulator of neuronal glucosensing, glucokinase activity was increased, using a glucokinase activator drug, or decreased, using RNA interference combined with calcium imaging in ..
  4. Bali D, Svetlanov A, Lee H, Fusco DeMane D, Leiser M, Li B, et al. Animal model for maturity-onset diabetes of the young generated by disruption of the mouse glucokinase gene. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:21464-7 pubmed
    b>Glucokinase catalyzes a rate-limiting step in glucose metabolism in hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells and is considered the "glucose sensor" for regulation of insulin secretion...
  5. Sanz C, Roncero I, Vazquez P, Navas M, Blazquez E. Effects of glucose and insulin on glucokinase activity in rat hypothalamus. J Endocrinol. 2007;193:259-67 pubmed
    In an attempt to study the role of glucokinase (GK) and the effects of glucose and peptides on GK gene expression and on the activity of this enzyme in the hypothalamus, we used two kinds of biological models: hypothalamic GT1-7 cells ..
  6. Terauchi Y, Sakura H, Yasuda K, Iwamoto K, Takahashi N, Ito K, et al. Pancreatic beta-cell-specific targeted disruption of glucokinase gene. Diabetes mellitus due to defective insulin secretion to glucose. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:30253-6 pubmed
    Mice carrying a null mutation in the glucokinase (GK) gene in pancreatic beta-cells, but not in the liver, were generated by disrupting the beta-cell-specific exon...
  7. Postic C, Shiota M, Niswender K, Jetton T, Chen Y, Moates J, et al. Dual roles for glucokinase in glucose homeostasis as determined by liver and pancreatic beta cell-specific gene knock-outs using Cre recombinase. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:305-15 pubmed
    b>Glucokinase (GK) gene mutations cause diabetes mellitus in both humans and mouse models, but the pathophysiological basis is only partially defined...
  8. Goldsworthy M, Hugill A, Freeman H, Horner E, Shimomura K, Bogani D, et al. Role of the transcription factor sox4 in insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes. 2008;57:2234-44 pubmed publisher
    ..of glucose-stimulated insulin release similar to that observed for silencing of the key metabolic enzyme glucokinase. Intracellular calcium measurements in treated cells indicate that this defect lies downstream of the ATP-..
  9. Kim S, Kim H, Park S, Im S, Li T, Cheon H, et al. Liver glucokinase can be activated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. Diabetes. 2004;53 Suppl 1:S66-70 pubmed
    ..Recently it was reported that glucokinase (GK) expression was increased by TZDs in the liver of diabetic ZDF rats...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Zahner D, Malaisse W. Kinetic behaviour of liver glucokinase in diabetes. I. Alteration in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Diabetes Res. 1990;14:101-8 pubmed
    The kinetic behaviour of liver glucokinase was examined in the liver cytosol from normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats...
  2. Matsumoto M, Ogawa W, Teshigawara K, Inoue H, Miyake K, Sakaue H, et al. Role of the insulin receptor substrate 1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway in insulin-induced expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and glucokinase genes in rat hepatocytes. Diabetes. 2002;51:1672-80 pubmed
    ..by which insulin induces the expression of the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and glucokinase genes was investigated in cultured rat hepatocytes...
  3. Wolff M, Kauschke S, Schmidt S, Heilker R. Activation and translocation of glucokinase in rat primary hepatocytes monitored by high content image analysis. J Biomol Screen. 2008;13:837-46 pubmed publisher
    In the liver, glucokinase (GK) regulatory protein (GKRP) negatively modulates the metabolic enzyme GK by locking it in an inactive state in the nucleus...
  4. Grupe A, Hultgren B, Ryan A, Ma Y, Bauer M, Stewart T. Transgenic knockouts reveal a critical requirement for pancreatic beta cell glucokinase in maintaining glucose homeostasis. Cell. 1995;83:69-78 pubmed
    ..As phosphorylation by glucokinase (GLK) appears to be the rate-limiting step for glucose catabolism in beta cells, this enzyme may be the glucose ..
  5. Hughes S, Quaade C, Milburn J, Cassidy L, Newgard C. Expression of normal and novel glucokinase mRNAs in anterior pituitary and islet cells. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:4521-30 pubmed
    The glucose-phosphorylating enzyme glucokinase likely plays an important role in regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from the islets of Langerhans and has previously been thought to be expressed only in that tissue and in ..
  6. Jörns A, Tiedge M, Lenzen S. Nutrient-dependent distribution of insulin and glucokinase immunoreactivities in rat pancreatic beta cells. Virchows Arch. 1999;434:75-82 pubmed
    ..beta cells in the pancreas of fed rats exhibited heterogeneous immunohistochemical staining for insulin and glucokinase. Intracellular beta cell glucokinase staining was either faint or dense...
  7. Li G, Chang H, Xia W, Mao Z, Li Y, Xu S. F0 maternal BPA exposure induced glucose intolerance of F2 generation through DNA methylation change in Gck. Toxicol Lett. 2014;228:192-9 pubmed publisher
    ..to exhibited glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in ipGTT and ipITT, as well as the downregulation of glucokinase (Gck) gene in liver...
  8. Jackerott M, Baudry A, Bucchini D, Jami J, Joshi R. Improved metabolic disorders of insulin receptor-deficient mice by transgenic overexpression of glucokinase in the liver. Diabetologia. 2002;45:1292-7 pubmed
    ..could be improved upon restoration of hepatic glucose metabolism by transgenic constitutive overexpression of glucokinase selectively in the liver...
  9. Galán M, Vincent O, Roncero I, Azriel S, Boix Pallares P, Delgado Alvarez E, et al. Effects of novel maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY)-associated mutations on glucokinase activity and protein stability. Biochem J. 2006;393:389-96 pubmed
    b>Glucokinase acts as the pancreatic glucose sensor and plays a critical role in the regulation of insulin secretion by the beta-cell...
  10. Vavaiya K, Briski K. Caudal hindbrain lactate infusion alters glucokinase, SUR1, and neuronal substrate fuel transporter gene expression in the dorsal vagal complex, lateral hypothalamic area, and ventromedial nucleus hypothalamus of hypoglycemic male rats. Brain Res. 2007;1176:62-70 pubmed
    ..in hindbrain dorsal vagal complex (DVC) monitor both glucose and lactate, and express both the glucose sensor, glucokinase (GK), and the SUR1 subunit of the plasma membrane energy transducer, K(ATP)...
  11. Guo T, Mao Y, Li H, Wang X, Xu W, Song R, et al. Characterization of the gene expression profile of heterozygous liver-specific glucokinase knockout mice at a young age. Biomed Pharmacother. 2012;66:587-96 pubmed publisher
    In the liver, glucokinase (GCK) facilitates hepatic glucose uptake during hyperglycemia and is essential for the regulation of a network of glucose-responsive genes involved in glycolysis, glycogen synthesis, and lipogenesis...
  12. Hussain S, Richardson E, Ma Y, Holton C, De Backer I, Buckley N, et al. Glucokinase activity in the arcuate nucleus regulates glucose intake. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:337-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we determined that glucokinase activity within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is involved in regulation of dietary glucose intake...
  13. Magnuson M, Shelton K. An alternate promoter in the glucokinase gene is active in the pancreatic beta cell. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:15936-42 pubmed
    An alternate promoter in the glucokinase gene is active in the beta cell and produces a glucokinase mRNA which is longer and that has a different leader sequence and translation start site than the hepatic glucokinase mRNA...
  14. Magnuson M, Andreone T, Printz R, Koch S, Granner D. Rat glucokinase gene: structure and regulation by insulin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:4838-42 pubmed
    The glucokinase gene is 15.5-kilobases long, appears to be present as a single copy, and contains 10 exons that range in size from 96 to 977 base pairs...
  15. Dunn Meynell A, Routh V, Kang L, Gaspers L, Levin B. Glucokinase is the likely mediator of glucosensing in both glucose-excited and glucose-inhibited central neurons. Diabetes. 2002;51:2056-65 pubmed
    ..The GI glucosensing mechanism is unknown. We postulated that glucokinase (GK), a high-Michaelis constant (K(m)) hexokinase expressed in brain areas containing populations of GE and GI ..
  16. Andreone T, Printz R, Pilkis S, Magnuson M, Granner D. The amino acid sequence of rat liver glucokinase deduced from cloned cDNA. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:363-9 pubmed
    Rat liver glucokinase (ATP:D-hexose 6-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.1) was purified to homogeneity, cleaved, and subjected to amino acid sequence analysis...
  17. Coleman D. Genetic control of glucokinase activity in mice. Biochem Genet. 1977;15:297-305 pubmed
    Inbred strains of mice were surveyed for liver glucokinase activity. Mice of all strains studied could be distributed into three groups with high, intermediate, and low levels of enzyme activity...
  18. van Buerck L, Schuster M, Rathkolb B, Sabrautzki S, Hrabe de Angelis M, Wolf E, et al. Enhanced oxidative stress and endocrine pancreas alterations are linked to a novel glucokinase missense mutation in ENU-derived Munich Gck(D217V) mutants. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;362:139-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In one strain, a novel missense mutation (D217V) in the glucokinase (Gck) gene was identified, resulting in decreased glucokinase activity...
  19. Jiang M, Zhang Y, Liu M, Lan M, Fei J, Fan W, et al. Hypermethylation of hepatic glucokinase and L-type pyruvate kinase promoters in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Endocrinology. 2011;152:1284-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that DNA hypermethylation is correlated with a decline in hepatic glucokinase (Gck) and L-type pyruvate kinase (LPK) expression in high-fat diet-induced obese rats as compared with the ..
  20. Hu C, Zhang R, Wang C, Yu W, Lu J, Ma X, et al. Effects of GCK, GCKR, G6PC2 and MTNR1B variants on glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11761 pubmed publisher
    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from GCK, GCKR, G6PC2 and MTNR1B were found to modulate the fasting glucose levels...
  21. Mukhtar M, Payne V, Arden C, Harbottle A, Khan S, Lange A, et al. Inhibition of glucokinase translocation by AMP-activated protein kinase is associated with phosphorylation of both GKRP and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;294:R766-74 pubmed publisher
    The rate of glucose phosphorylation in hepatocytes is determined by the subcellular location of glucokinase and by its association with its regulatory protein (GKRP) in the nucleus...
  22. Payne V, Arden C, Lange A, Agius L. Contributions of glucokinase and phosphofructokinase-2/fructose bisphosphatase-2 to the elevated glycolysis in hepatocytes from Zucker fa/fa rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293:R618-25 pubmed
    The insulin-resistant Zucker fa/fa rat has elevated hepatic glycolysis and activities of glucokinase and phosphofructokinase-2/fructose bisphosphatase-2 (PFK2)...
  23. Rossetti L, Chen W, Hu M, Hawkins M, Barzilai N, Efrat S. Abnormal regulation of HGP by hyperglycemia in mice with a disrupted glucokinase allele. Am J Physiol. 1997;273:E743-50 pubmed
    b>Glucokinase (GK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose in beta-cells and hepatocytes, and mutations in the GK gene have been implicated in a form of human diabetes...
  24. Muñoz Alonso M, Guillemain G, Kassis N, Girard J, Burnol A, Leturque A. A novel cytosolic dual specificity phosphatase, interacting with glucokinase, increases glucose phosphorylation rate. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:32406-12 pubmed
    A novel protein was cloned from a rat liver cDNA library by interaction with the liver glucokinase. This protein contained 339 residues and possessed a canonical consensus sequence for a dual specificity phosphatase...
  25. Nolan C, Prentki M. The islet beta-cell: fuel responsive and vulnerable. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2008;19:285-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We emphasize the emerging role of glycerolipid/fatty acid cycling in these processes. ..
  26. Eiki J, Nagata Y, Futamura M, Sasaki Yamamoto K, Iino T, Nishimura T, et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the glucokinase activator MK-0941 in rodent models of type 2 diabetes and healthy dogs. Mol Pharmacol. 2011;80:1156-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase activators (GKAs) are small-molecule agents that enhance glucose sensing by pancreatic ? cells and glucose metabolism by hepatocytes. There is strong interest in these agents as potential therapies for type 2 diabetes...
  27. Yoshida K, Murao K, Imachi H, Cao W, Yu X, Li J, et al. Pancreatic glucokinase is activated by insulin-like growth factor-I. Endocrinology. 2007;148:2904-13 pubmed
    b>Glucokinase (GK) plays a key role in the regulation of glucose use and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic islet cells. Gene targeting of the IGF-I receptor down-regulated pancreatic islet GK activity...
  28. Gosmain Y, Cheyssac C, Masson M, Guerardel A, Poisson C, Philippe J. Pax6 is a key component of regulated glucagon secretion. Endocrinology. 2012;153:4204-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified in Pax6 knockdown model that genes involved in glucagon secretion such as the glucokinase (GCK), G protein-coupled receptor (GPR40), and GIP receptor (GIPR) as well as the corresponding proteins were ..
  29. Li X, Li H, Lu N, Feng Y, Huang Y, Gao Z. Iron increases liver injury through oxidative/nitrative stress in diabetic rats: Involvement of nitrotyrosination of glucokinase. Biochimie. 2012;94:2620-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, the extent of oxidized/nitrated glucokinase was markedly increased in the iron-treated diabetic rats that contribute to a decrease in its expression and ..
  30. Pal P, Miller B. Activating mutations in the human glucokinase gene revealed by genetic selection. Biochemistry. 2009;48:814-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Three of the newly identified substitutions colocalize to a region of the glucokinase polypeptide where a synthetic allosteric activator binds...
  31. Hofmeister Brix A, Kollmann K, Langer S, Schultz J, Lenzen S, Baltrusch S. Identification of the ubiquitin-like domain of midnolin as a new glucokinase interaction partner. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:35824-39 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase acts as a glucose sensor in pancreatic beta cells. Its posttranslational regulation is important but not yet fully understood...
  32. Jiang M, Fei J, Lan M, Lu Z, Liu M, Fan W, et al. Hypermethylation of hepatic Gck promoter in ageing rats contributes to diabetogenic potential. Diabetologia. 2008;51:1525-33 pubmed publisher
    Hepatic glucokinase (GCK) is a key enzyme in glucose utilisation. Downregulation of its activity is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  33. Baker D, Wilkinson G, Atkinson A, Jones H, Coghlan M, Charles A, et al. Chronic glucokinase activator treatment at clinically translatable exposures gives durable glucose lowering in two animal models of type 2 diabetes. Br J Pharmacol. 2014;171:1642-54 pubmed
    Pharmacological activation of glucokinase (GK) lowers blood glucose in animal models and humans, confirming proof of concept for this mechanism...
  34. Vavaiya K, Briski K. Effects of caudal fourth ventricular lactate infusion on hypoglycemia-associated MCT2, GLUT3, GLUT4, GCK, and sulfonylurea receptor-1 gene expression in the ovariectomized female rat LHA and VMH: impact of estradiol. J Mol Neurosci. 2008;34:121-9 pubmed
    ..MCT2 and neuronal glucose transporter mRNA profiles, and expression of genes that encode the substrate sensor, glucokinase (GCK), and the sulfonylurea receptor-1 (SUR) subunit of the energy-dependent potassium channel, K(ATP), in the ..
  35. Gomis R, Favre C, Garcia Rocha M, Fernández Novell J, Ferrer J, Guinovart J. Glucose 6-phosphate produced by gluconeogenesis and by glucokinase is equally effective in activating hepatic glycogen synthase. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:9740-6 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the gluconeogenic pathway and the glucokinase-mediated phosphorylation of glucose deliver their common product to the same Glc-6-P pool, which is accessible ..
  36. Jetton T, Shiota M, Knobel S, Piston D, Cherrington A, Magnuson M. Substrate-induced nuclear export and peripheral compartmentalization of hepatic glucokinase correlates with glycogen deposition. Int J Exp Diabetes Res. 2001;2:173-86 pubmed
    Hepatic glucokinase (GK) is acutely regulated by binding to its nuclear-anchored regulatory protein (GKRP). Although GK release by GKRP is tightly coupled to the rate of glycogen synthesis, the nature of this association is obscure...
  37. Millán C, Martinez F, Cortés Campos C, Lizama I, Yañez M, Llanos P, et al. Glial glucokinase expression in adult and post-natal development of the hypothalamic region. ASN Neuro. 2010;2:e00035 pubmed publisher
    ..GK (glucokinase), the hexokinase involved in glucose sensing in pancreatic beta-cells, is also expressed in the hypothalamus...
  38. Gloyn A, Noordam K, Willemsen M, Ellard S, Lam W, Campbell I, et al. Insights into the biochemical and genetic basis of glucokinase activation from naturally occurring hypoglycemia mutations. Diabetes. 2003;52:2433-40 pubmed
    b>Glucokinase (GCK) is a key regulatory enzyme in the pancreatic beta-cell and catalyzes the rate-limiting step for beta-cell glucose metabolism...
  39. Kim J, Hwang J, Lee D, Song E, Park K, Kim G, et al. Chronic ethanol consumption inhibits glucokinase transcriptional activity by Atf3 and triggers metabolic syndrome in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:27065-79 pubmed publisher
    Chronic ethanol consumption induces pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction through glucokinase (Gck) nitration and down-regulation, leading to impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown...
  40. Ribaux P, Iynedjian P. Analysis of the role of protein kinase B (cAKT) in insulin-dependent induction of glucokinase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) mRNAs in hepatocytes. Biochem J. 2003;376:697-705 pubmed
    ..a conditionally active protein kinase B (PKB or cAKT) was sufficient to elicit insulin-like induction of GCK (glucokinase) and SREBP1 (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1) in hepatocytes [Iynedjian, Roth, Fleischmann and ..
  41. Beer N, Osbak K, van de Bunt M, Tribble N, Steele A, Wensley K, et al. Insights into the pathogenicity of rare missense GCK variants from the identification and functional characterization of compound heterozygous and double mutations inherited in cis. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:1482-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified three probands with a phenotype consistent with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) subtype GCK-MODY, in whom two potential pathogenic mutations were identified: [R43H/G68D], [E248 K/I225M], or [G261R/D217N]...
  42. Roncero I, Sanz C, Alvarez E, Vazquez P, Barrio P, Blazquez E. Glucokinase and glucokinase regulatory proteins are functionally coexpressed before birth in the rat brain. J Neuroendocrinol. 2009;21:973-81 pubmed publisher
    Our previous description of functional glucokinase (GK) isoforms and their interactions with glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) in adult rat and human brains suggested that both participate in glucose sensing in the central nervous ..
  43. Kim T, Kim H, Park J, Im S, Bae J, Kim M, et al. Interrelationship between liver X receptor alpha, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and small heterodimer partner in the transcriptional regulation of glucokinase gene expression in liver. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:15071-83 pubmed publisher
    Liver glucokinase (LGK) plays an essential role in controlling blood glucose levels and maintaining cellular metabolic functions...
  44. Gidh Jain M, Takeda J, Xu L, Lange A, Vionnet N, Stoffel M, et al. Glucokinase mutations associated with non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus have decreased enzymatic activity: implications for structure/function relationships. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:1932-6 pubmed
    The glycolytic enzyme glucokinase plays an important role in the regulation of insulin secretion and recent studies have shown that mutations in the human glucokinase gene are a common cause of an autosomal dominant form of non-insulin-..
  45. Fyfe M, White J, Taylor A, Chatfield R, Wargent E, Printz R, et al. Glucokinase activator PSN-GK1 displays enhanced antihyperglycaemic and insulinotropic actions. Diabetologia. 2007;50:1277-87 pubmed
    We evaluated the insulinotropic and antihyperglycaemic actions of glucokinase activators (GKAs), especially through acute and subchronic studies in rodent diabetes models with (2R)-2-(4-cyclopropanesulphonylphenyl)-N-(5-fluorothiazol-2-..
  46. Cherian A, Briski K. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses reveal acclimated A2 noradrenergic neuron substrate fuel transporter, glucokinase, phospho-AMPK, and dopamine-?-hydroxylase responses to hypoglycemia. J Neurosci Res. 2011;89:1114-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Preceding hypoglycemia suppressed basal A2 MCT2, GLUT3, and GLUT4 profiles and diminished MCT2, GLUT4, and glucokinase responses to recurring hypoglycemia...
  47. Veiga da Cunha M, van Schaftingen E. Identification of fructose 6-phosphate- and fructose 1-phosphate-binding residues in the regulatory protein of glucokinase. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:8466-73 pubmed
    b>Glucokinase is inhibited in the liver by a regulatory protein (GKRP) whose effects are increased by Fru-6-P and suppressed by Fru-1-P...
  48. Cerf M, Chapman C, Muller C, Louw J. Gestational high-fat programming impairs insulin release and reduces Pdx-1 and glucokinase immunoreactivity in neonatal Wistar rats. Metabolism. 2009;58:1787-92 pubmed publisher
    ..whether these changes were attributed to impaired insulin release and altered immunoreactivity of Pdx-1, glucokinase (GK), and glucose transporter (GLUT)-2 in high-fat-programmed neonates...
  49. Tanizawa Y, Chiu K, Province M, Morgan R, Owens D, Rees A, et al. Two microsatellite repeat polymorphisms flanking opposite ends of the human glucokinase gene: use in haplotype analysis of Welsh Caucasians with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 1993;36:409-13 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of potential glucokinase defects contributing to susceptibility to Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Welsh Caucasians...
  50. Bourbonais F, Chen J, Huang C, Zhang Y, Pfefferkorn J, Landro J. Modulation of glucokinase by glucose, small-molecule activator and glucokinase regulatory protein: steady-state kinetic and cell-based analysis. Biochem J. 2012;441:881-7 pubmed publisher
    GK (glucokinase) is an enzyme central to glucose metabolism that displays positive co-operativity to substrate glucose...
  51. Njølstad P, Søvik O, Cuesta Munoz A, Bjørkhaug L, Massa O, Barbetti F, et al. Neonatal diabetes mellitus due to complete glucokinase deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1588-92 pubmed
  52. März W, Nauck M, Hoffmann M, Nagel D, Boehm B, Koenig W, et al. G(-30)A polymorphism in the pancreatic promoter of the glucokinase gene associated with angiographic coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation. 2004;109:2844-9 pubmed
    ..A G(-30)A polymorphism in the beta-cell-specific promoter of glucokinase (GK-30PM) has been implicated in reduced pancreatic beta-cell function. Its impact on CAD has not been examined...
  53. Ishihara H, Tashiro F, Ikuta K, Asano T, Katagiri H, Inukai K, et al. Inhibition of pancreatic beta-cell glucokinase by antisense RNA expression in transgenic mice: mouse strain-dependent alteration of glucose tolerance. FEBS Lett. 1995;371:329-32 pubmed
    We have generated transgenic mice, in either C57BL/6 or C3H background, expressing antisense glucokinase mRNA in beta-cells...