Gcg

Summary

Gene Symbol: Gcg
Description: glucagon
Alias: GLP-1, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1
Species: rat
Products:     Gcg

Top Publications

  1. Mojsov S, Heinrich G, Wilson I, Ravazzola M, Orci L, Habener J. Preproglucagon gene expression in pancreas and intestine diversifies at the level of post-translational processing. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:11880-9 pubmed
    b>Glucagon is a pancreatic hormone of 29 amino acids that regulates carbohydrate metabolism and glicentin is an intestinal peptide of 69 amino acids that contains the sequence of glucagon flanked by peptide extensions at the amino and ..
  2. Oeseburg H, de Boer R, Buikema H, van der Harst P, van Gilst W, Sillje H. Glucagon-like peptide 1 prevents reactive oxygen species-induced endothelial cell senescence through the activation of protein kinase A. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:1407-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated whether the antidiabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) could prevent oxidative stress-induced cellular senescence in endothelial cells...
  3. Bao W, Holt L, Prince R, Jones G, Aravindhan K, Szapacs M, et al. Novel fusion of GLP-1 with a domain antibody to serum albumin prolongs protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013;12:148 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its mimetics reduce infarct size in the setting of acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury...
  4. Fan H, Wang L, Guo F, Wei S, Zhao R. Neonatal intramuscular injection of plasmid encoding glucagon-like peptide-1 affects anxiety behaviour and expression of the hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor in adolescent rats. J Biosci. 2010;35:63-71 pubmed
    ..b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been implicated in the regulation of neuroendocrine and behavioural responses, but it ..
  5. Egido E, Hernandez R, Marco J, Silvestre R. Effect of obestatin on insulin, glucagon and somatostatin secretion in the perfused rat pancreas. Regul Pept. 2009;152:61-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Obestatin failed to significantly modify the glucagon and somatostatin responses to arginine, indicating that its stimulation of insulin output is not mediated by an ..
  6. Li L, El Kholy W, Rhodes C, Brubaker P. Glucagon-like peptide-1 protects beta cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis and necrosis: role of protein kinase B. Diabetologia. 2005;48:1339-49 pubmed
    The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) decreases beta cell apoptosis in a protein kinase B (PKB)-dependent fashion, and increases islet cell mass and function in vivo...
  7. Schinner S, Barthel A, Dellas C, Grzeskowiak R, Sharma S, Oetjen E, et al. Protein kinase B activity is sufficient to mimic the effect of insulin on glucagon gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:7369-76 pubmed
    Insulin inhibits glucagon gene transcription, and insulin deficiency is associated with hyperglucagonemia that contributes to hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus. However, the insulin signaling pathway to the glucagon gene is unknown...
  8. Zhang H, Xiong Z, Wang J, Zhang S, Lei L, Yang L, et al. Glucagon-like peptide-1 protects cardiomyocytes from advanced oxidation protein product-induced apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt/Bad signaling pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2016;13:1593-601 pubmed publisher
    ..advanced oxidative protein products (AOPPs) have a detrimental role in the survival of cardiomyocytes and if glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts a cardioprotective effect under these circumstances...
  9. Zhang L, Wang Y, Wang J, Liu Y, Yin Y. Protein kinase C pathway mediates the protective effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on the apoptosis of islet β-cells. Mol Med Rep. 2015;12:7589-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, glucagon‑like peptide‑1 (GLP‑1), whose secretion was markedly increased following gastric bypass ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kappe C, Fransson L, Wolbert P, Ortsäter H. Glucocorticoids suppress GLP-1 secretion: possible contribution to their diabetogenic effects. Clin Sci (Lond). 2015;129:405-14 pubmed publisher
    ..was recently reported that short-term exposure to GCs reduced the insulinotropic effects of the incretin GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1)...
  2. Chen J, Wang D, Wang F, Shi S, Chen Y, Yang B, et al. Exendin-4 inhibits structural remodeling and improves Ca2+ homeostasis in rats with heart failure via the GLP-1 receptor through the eNOS/cGMP/PKG pathway. Peptides. 2017;90:69-77 pubmed publisher
    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist exendin-4 is a long-acting analog of GLP-1, which stimulates insulin secretion and is clinically used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes...
  3. Dalle S, Longuet C, Costes S, Broca C, Faruque O, Fontes G, et al. Glucagon promotes cAMP-response element-binding protein phosphorylation via activation of ERK1/2 in MIN6 cell line and isolated islets of Langerhans. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:20345-55 pubmed
    ..pancreatic islets, we show that in the presence of a low glucose concentration, corresponding to physiological glucagon release from alpha cells, glucagon treatment of the beta cell caused a rapid, time-dependent phosphorylation and ..
  4. Chowdhury M, Wu L, Coleman J, Smith N, Morris M, Shepherd P, et al. Niclosamide blocks glucagon phosphorylation of Ser552 on β-catenin in primary rat hepatocytes via PKA signalling. Biochem J. 2016;473:1247-55 pubmed publisher
    Recently, it has been found that glucagon is able to activate the β-catenin signalling pathway leading to increased cyclin D1 and c-Myc expression in liver...
  5. Abtahi S, VanderJagt H, Currie P. The glucagon-like peptide-1 analog exendin-4 antagonizes the effect of acyl ghrelin on the respiratory exchange ratio. Neuroreport. 2016;27:992-6 pubmed publisher
    The present study investigated the interaction of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ArcN) ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signaling on metabolic function...
  6. Vahl T, Drazen D, Seeley R, D Alessio D, Woods S. Meal-anticipatory glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion in rats. Endocrinology. 2010;151:569-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that meal-fed rats secrete the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) cephalically when anticipating a large meal...
  7. Sandoval D, Dunki Jacobs A, Sorrell J, Seeley R, D Alessio D. Impact of intestinal electrical stimulation on nutrient-induced GLP-1 secretion in vivo. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013;25:700-5 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Thus, both E- and M-stim of the duodenum, but only E-stim of the ileum augmented nutrient-stimulated GLP-1 release. These data demonstrate that factors beyond enteral nutrients could contribute to the regulation of GLP-1 secretion. ..
  8. Wang D, Luo P, Wang Y, Li W, Wang C, Sun D, et al. Glucagon-like peptide-1 protects against cardiac microvascular injury in diabetes via a cAMP/PKA/Rho-dependent mechanism. Diabetes. 2013;62:1697-708 pubmed publisher
    Impaired cardiac microvascular function contributes to cardiovascular complications in diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exhibits potential cardioprotective properties in addition to its glucose-lowering effect...
  9. Dozier K, Cureton E, Kwan R, Curran B, Sadjadi J, Victorino G. Glucagon-like peptide-1 protects mesenteric endothelium from injury during inflammation. Peptides. 2009;30:1735-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a proglucagon-derived hormone with cellular protective actions. We hypothesized that GLP-1 would protect the endothelium from injury during inflammation...
  10. Kindel T, Yang Q, Yoder S, Tso P. Nutrient-driven incretin secretion into intestinal lymph is different between diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats and Wistar rats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;296:G168-74 pubmed publisher
    The incretin hormones gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) augment postprandial glucose-mediated insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells...
  11. Crajoinas R, Oricchio F, Pessoa T, Pacheco B, Lessa L, Malnic G, et al. Mechanisms mediating the diuretic and natriuretic actions of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;301:F355-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut incretin hormone considered a promising therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes because it stimulates beta cell proliferation and insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner...
  12. Feng R, Qian C, Liu Q, Jin Y, Liu L, Li S, et al. Expression of sweet taste receptor and gut hormone secretion in modelled type 2 diabetes. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017;252:142-149 pubmed publisher
    Sweet taste receptors (STRs) are expressed in L cells which secret glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the gut. The STR blocker lactisole reduces GLP-1 secretion and increases blood glucose levels...
  13. Ben Shlomo S, Zvibel I, Shnell M, Shlomai A, Chepurko E, Halpern Z, et al. Glucagon-like peptide-1 reduces hepatic lipogenesis via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. J Hepatol. 2011;54:1214-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a gut-derived peptide degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4), stimulates insulin secretion in response to nutrients, yet its direct effect on the liver is controversial...
  14. Marroquí L, Vieira E, Gonzalez A, Nadal A, Quesada I. Leptin downregulates expression of the gene encoding glucagon in alphaTC1-9 cells and mouse islets. Diabetologia. 2011;54:843-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Although this hormone rapidly regulates alpha cell exocytosis, its long-term effects on glucagon gene expression are currently unknown...
  15. Johnson M, Saffrey M, Taylor V. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) increases in plasma and colon tissue prior to estrus and circulating levels change with increasing age in reproductively competent Wistar rats. Peptides. 2017;90:55-62 pubmed publisher
    ..whether peripheral changes occurred in the anorexigenic (appetite-reducing) hormones peptide-YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in female Wistar rats (32-44 weeks of age)...
  16. Kawano T, Tanaka K, Chi H, Eguchi S, Yamazaki F, Kitamura S, et al. Biophysical and pharmacological properties of glucagon-like peptide-1 in rats under isoflurane anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2012;115:62-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) increases insulin secretion and has an important role in maintaining glucose homeostasis...
  17. Basalay M, Mastitskaya S, Mrochek A, Ackland G, del Arroyo A, Sanchez J, et al. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mediates cardioprotection by remote ischaemic conditioning. Cardiovasc Res. 2016;112:669-676 pubmed
    ..by the vagus nerve, here we tested the hypothesis that RIc cardioprotection is mediated by the actions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)...
  18. Cao Y, Cao X, Liu X. Expression of cholecystokinin2-receptor in rat and human L cells and the stimulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion by gastrin treatment. Acta Histochem. 2015;117:205-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In recent years, many receptors that regulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) have been identified in enteroendocrine L cell lines...
  19. Skarbaliene J, Secher T, Jelsing J, Ansarullah -, Neerup T, Billestrup N, et al. The anti-diabetic effects of GLP-1-gastrin dual agonist ZP3022 in ZDF rats. Peptides. 2015;69:47-55 pubmed publisher
    ..31±0.03 vs. 0.22±0.02%, respectively, P<0.05). These data suggest that ZP3022 may have therapeutic potential in the prevention/delay of beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. ..
  20. Yu J, Morimoto K, Bao W, Yu Z, Okita Y, Okada K. Glucagon-like peptide-1 prevented abdominal aortic aneurysm development in rats. Surg Today. 2016;46:1099-107 pubmed publisher
    To demonstrate the protective effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) signaling on the cardiovascular system, we conducted this study to show that the GLP-1 receptor analog (lixisenatide) could inhibit abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) ..
  21. Heinrich G, Gros P, Lund P, Bentley R, Habener J. Pre-proglucagon messenger ribonucleic acid: nucleotide and encoded amino acid sequences of the rat pancreatic complementary deoxyribonucleic acid. Endocrinology. 1984;115:2176-81 pubmed
    b>Glucagon, a pancreatic peptide hormone of 29 amino acids that regulates carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism, is one of a family of structurally similar regulatory peptides which include GH-releasing hormone, vasoactive intestinal ..
  22. Dhanvantari S, Seidah N, Brubaker P. Role of prohormone convertases in the tissue-specific processing of proglucagon. Mol Endocrinol. 1996;10:342-55 pubmed
    Proglucagon (proG) is processed in a tissue-specific manner to glucagon in the pancreas and to gilcentin, oxyntomodulin, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, and GLP-2 in the intestine...
  23. Suzuki Y, Zhang H, Saito N, Kojima I, Urano T, Mogami H. Glucagon-like peptide 1 activates protein kinase C through Ca2+-dependent activation of phospholipase C in insulin-secreting cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:28499-507 pubmed
    Although the stimulatory effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a cAMP-generating agonist, on Ca(2+) signal and insulin secretion is well established, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated...
  24. Liu Y, Shen W, Brubaker P, Kaestner K, Drucker D. Foxa3 (HNF-3gamma) binds to and activates the rat proglucagon gene promoter but is not essential for proglucagon gene expression. Biochem J. 2002;366:633-41 pubmed
    ..Foxa3 was detected by reverse transcriptase PCR in glucagon-producing cell lines and binds to the rat proglucagon gene G2 promoter element in GLUTag enteroendocrine cells...
  25. Paulsen S, Larsen L, Hansen G, Chelur S, Larsen P, Vrang N. Expression of the fatty acid receptor GPR120 in the gut of diet-induced-obese rats and its role in GLP-1 secretion. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e88227 pubmed publisher
    ..coupled receptor GPR120 has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects, to promote glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion, and to play a key role in sensing dietary fat and control energy balance...
  26. Kuhre R, Frost C, Svendsen B, Holst J. Molecular mechanisms of glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion from perfused rat small intestine. Diabetes. 2015;64:370-82 pubmed publisher
    Glucose is an important stimulus for glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion, but the mechanisms of secretion have not been investigated in integrated physiological models...
  27. Nelson D, Murali S, Liu X, Koopmann M, Holst J, Ney D. Insulin-like growth factor I and glucagon-like peptide-2 responses to fasting followed by controlled or ad libitum refeeding in rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;294:R1175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..regeneration in the intestine through mechanisms thought to involve insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2)...
  28. Gaitonde S, Kohli R, Seeley R. The role of the gut hormone GLP-1 in the metabolic improvements caused by ileal transposition. J Surg Res. 2012;178:33-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Such data support the notion that rather than restriction or malabsorption, the underling molecular mechanisms that mediate the potent improvements produced by bariatric procedures involve increased activation of GLP-1 signaling. ..
  29. Drucker D. Glucagon-like peptides: regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The glucagon-like peptides, GLP-1 and GLP-2 are prototype peptide hormones released from gut endocrine cells in response to ..
  30. Geary N, Asarian L. Estradiol increases glucagon's satiating potency in ovariectomized rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;281:R1290-4 pubmed
    ..these effects of estradiol involve a change in the sensitivity of the signaling pathway through which pancreatic glucagon released during meals contributes to meal termination (satiation), glucagon or glucagon antibodies were infused ..
  31. . Glucagon-like Peptide 2. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 1999;10:153-156 pubmed
    b>Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is secreted in a nutrient-dependent manner from enteroendocrine cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract and is trophic to the intestinal epithelial mucosa...
  32. Collie N, Walsh J, Wong H, Shively J, Davis M, Lee T, et al. Purification and sequence of rat oxyntomodulin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:9362-6 pubmed
    Structural information about rat enteroglucagon, intestinal peptides containing the pancreatic glucagon sequence, has been based previously on cDNA, immunologic, and chromatographic data...
  33. Yamato E, Noma Y, Tahara Y, Ikegami H, Yamamoto Y, Cha T, et al. Suppression of synthesis and release of glucagon by glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36 amide) without affect on mRNA level in isolated rat islets. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990;167:431-7 pubmed
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been reported to inhibit glucagon release...
  34. Kreisler A, Rinaman L. Hindbrain glucagon-like peptide-1 neurons track intake volume and contribute to injection stress-induced hypophagia in meal-entrained rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016;310:R906-16 pubmed publisher
    Published research supports a role for central glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) signaling in suppressing food intake in rodent species...
  35. Kim S, Woodcroft K, Novak R. Insulin and glucagon regulation of glutathione S-transferase expression in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;305:353-61 pubmed
    ..Insulin and glucagon effects on GST expression and the signaling pathway involved in the glucagon regulation of GST expression were ..
  36. Morales P, Torres G, Sotomayor Flores C, Peña Oyarzun D, Rivera Mejías P, Paredes F, et al. GLP-1 promotes mitochondrial metabolism in vascular smooth muscle cells by enhancing endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria coupling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;446:410-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these results strongly suggest that GLP-1 increases ER-mitochondria communication in VSMC, resulting in higher mitochondrial activity. ..
  37. Goyal S, Kumar S, Bijjem K, Singh M. Role of glucagon-like peptide- 1 in vascular endothelial dysfunction. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48:61-9 pubmed
    The present study has been undertaken to investigate the effect of exendin-4 (a glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist) in diabetes mellitus (DM) and hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED)...
  38. Lee N, Sowa H, Hinoi E, Ferron M, Ahn J, Confavreux C, et al. Endocrine regulation of energy metabolism by the skeleton. Cell. 2007;130:456-69 pubmed
    ..By revealing that the skeleton exerts an endocrine regulation of sugar homeostasis this study expands the biological importance of this organ and our understanding of energy metabolism. ..
  39. Kageyama K, Yamagata S, Akimoto K, Sugiyama A, Murasawa S, Suda T. Action of glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose levels on corticotropin-releasing factor and vasopressin gene expression in rat hypothalamic 4B cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;362:221-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an important regulator of metabolism or energy homeostasis, is implicated in the ..
  40. Harney J, Rodgers R. Insulin-like stimulation of cardiac fuel metabolism by physiological levels of glucagon: involvement of PI3K but not cAMP. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;295:E155-61 pubmed publisher
    At concentrations around 10(-9) M or higher, glucagon increases cardiac contractility by activating adenylate cyclase/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AC/cAMP). However, blood levels in vivo, in rats or humans, rarely exceed 10(-10) M...
  41. Renner E, Puskas N, Dobolyi A, Palkovits M. Glucagon-like peptide-1 of brainstem origin activates dorsomedial hypothalamic neurons in satiated rats. Peptides. 2012;35:14-22 pubmed publisher
    ..possible origin of fibers conducting satiation signals to the DMHv could be in the lower brainstem, especially glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-containing neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS)...
  42. Hurtado Carneiro V, Sanz C, Roncero I, Vazquez P, Blazquez E, Alvarez E. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) can reverse AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and S6 kinase (P70S6K) activities induced by fluctuations in glucose levels in hypothalamic areas involved in feeding behaviour. Mol Neurobiol. 2012;45:348-61 pubmed publisher
    The anorexigenic peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), reduces glucose metabolism in the human hypothalamus and brain stem...
  43. Matsui K, Oda T, Nishizawa E, Sano R, Yamamoto H, Fukuda S, et al. Pancreatic function of spontaneously diabetic torii rats in pre-diabetic stage. Exp Anim. 2009;58:363-74 pubmed
    ..When the islets were treated with tolbutamide or glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (tGLP-1) in the presence of 11...
  44. Zhang R, Jankord R, Flak J, Solomon M, D Alessio D, Herman J. Role of glucocorticoids in tuning hindbrain stress integration. J Neurosci. 2010;30:14907-14 pubmed publisher
    ..g., glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)] neurons...
  45. Fujiwara K, Maekawa F, Dezaki K, Nakata M, Yashiro T, Yada T. Oleic acid glucose-independently stimulates glucagon secretion by increasing cytoplasmic Ca2+ via endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release and Ca2+ influx in the rat islet alpha-cells. Endocrinology. 2007;148:2496-504 pubmed
    The effect of long-chain free fatty acids on glucagon secretion from islet alpha-cells has been a controversial issue...
  46. McKay N, Galante D, Daniels D. Endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 reduces drinking behavior and is differentially engaged by water and food intakes in rats. J Neurosci. 2014;34:16417-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced in the ileum and the nucleus of the solitary tract. It is well known that GLP-1 controls food intake, but there is a growing literature indicating that GLP-1 also is involved in fluid intake...
  47. Dong Z, Chai W, Wang W, Zhao L, Fu Z, Cao W, et al. Protein kinase A mediates glucagon-like peptide 1-induced nitric oxide production and muscle microvascular recruitment. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;304:E222-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) causes vasodilation and increases muscle glucose uptake independent of insulin...
  48. Walsh N, Yusta B, DaCambra M, Anini Y, Drucker D, Brubaker P. Glucagon-like peptide-2 receptor activation in the rat intestinal mucosa. Endocrinology. 2003;144:4385-92 pubmed
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases small intestinal growth and function in rodents and human subjects...
  49. Barakat G, Moustafa M, Bikhazi A. Effects of selenium and exendin-4 on glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor, IRS-1, and Raf-1 in the liver of diabetic rats. Biochem Genet. 2012;50:922-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we investigated their effects on the expression of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), and Raf-1 in the livers of rats with ..
  50. Lizárraga Mollinedo E, Fernández Millán E, Martín J, Martínez Honduvilla C, Escriva F, Alvarez C. Early undernutrition induces glucagon resistance and insulin hypersensitivity in the liver of suckling rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;302:E1070-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Insulin and glucagon play major roles in this adaptation: throughout suckling, their blood concentrations are low and high, ..
  51. Wang L, Guo F, Wei S, Zhao R. Neonatal intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA encoding GLP-1 reduces serum insulin level and modifies skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain composition in adult rats. Physiol Res. 2010;59:571-9 pubmed
  52. Ruiter M, la Fleur S, Van Heijningen C, van der Vliet J, Kalsbeek A, Buijs R. The daily rhythm in plasma glucagon concentrations in the rat is modulated by the biological clock and by feeding behavior. Diabetes. 2003;52:1709-15 pubmed
    ..How the SCN orchestrates this rhythm is unknown. Because glucagon stimulates hepatic glucose production, we hypothesized that if glucagon has a daily rhythm, then it may be ..
  53. Fujita Y, Wideman R, Speck M, Asadi A, King D, Webber T, et al. Incretin release from gut is acutely enhanced by sugar but not by sweeteners in vivo. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296:E473-9 pubmed publisher
    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are released during meals from endocrine cells located in the gut mucosa and stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells in a glucose-..