Gad1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Gad1
Description: glutamate decarboxylase 1
Alias: Gad67, glutamate decarboxylase 1, 67 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase, GAD-67, Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (brain), glutamate decarboxylase 1 variant GAD67NT, glutamate decarboxylase 67 kDa isoform, glutamic acid decarboxylase 1
Species: rat
Products:     Gad1

Top Publications

  1. Bond R, Wyborski R, Gottlieb D. Developmentally regulated expression of an exon containing a stop codon in the gene for glutamic acid decarboxylase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:8771-5 pubmed
    ..The central nervous system-derived cell lines B65 and C6 express a mixture of the adult and embryonic forms of GAD mRNA. They therefore are useful clonal models of central nervous system cells in the early phases of differentiation. ..
  2. Dirkx R, Thomas A, Li L, Lernmark A, Sherwin R, De Camilli P, et al. Targeting of the 67-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase to intracellular organelles is mediated by its interaction with the NH2-terminal region of the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:2241-6 pubmed
    The two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GAD67 and GAD65, synthesize the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid in neurons and pancreatic beta-cells...
  3. Jin H, Wu H, Osterhaus G, Wei J, Davis K, Sha D, et al. Demonstration of functional coupling between gamma -aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis and vesicular GABA transport into synaptic vesicles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:4293-8 pubmed
    ..Third, VGAT and SV-associated Ca(2+)calmodulin-dependent kinase II have been found to form a protein complex with GAD. A model is also proposed to link the neuronal stimulation to enhanced synthesis and packaging of GABA into SVs. ..
  4. Kanaani J, Diacovo M, El Husseini A, Bredt D, Baekkeskov S. Palmitoylation controls trafficking of GAD65 from Golgi membranes to axon-specific endosomes and a Rab5a-dependent pathway to presynaptic clusters. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:2001-13 pubmed
  5. Argence M, Vassias I, Kerhuel L, Vidal P, de Waele C. Stimulation by cochlear implant in unilaterally deaf rats reverses the decrease of inhibitory transmission in the inferior colliculus. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:1589-602 pubmed publisher
    ..GlyRalpha1 and GAD67 mRNA and protein were quantified in the CIC using in situ hybridization and immunohistofluorescence methods...
  6. Wyborski R, Bond R, Gottlieb D. Characterization of a cDNA coding for rat glutamic acid decarboxylase. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1990;8:193-8 pubmed
    ..These conserved non-coding regions may play a role in GAD mRNA regulation. The rat cDNA sequence will facilitate investigations into the structure and regulation of the GAD gene. ..
  7. Li Q, Guo M, Xu X, Xiao X, Xu W, Sun X, et al. Rapid decrease of GAD 67 content before the convulsion induced by hyperbaric oxygen exposure. Neurochem Res. 2008;33:185-93 pubmed
    ..Besides, in the latent period, GAD content also reduced. Such reduction came from a GAD subtype, GAD67, while the content of another GAD subtype, GAD65, remained almost unchanged...
  8. Zhang T, Hellstrom I, Bagot R, Wen X, Diorio J, Meaney M. Maternal care and DNA methylation of a glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 promoter in rat hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2010;30:13130-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Postmortem studies of human schizophrenic brains have revealed decreased forebrain expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) accompanied by increased methylation of a GAD1 promoter...
  9. Jaenisch N, Popp A, Guenther M, Schnabel J, Witte O, Frahm C. Pro-apoptotic function of GABA-related transcripts following stroke. Neurobiol Dis. 2014;70:237-44 pubmed publisher
    ..During brain development, embryonic splice variants of the GABA-synthesizing GAD67 gene (collectively termed EGAD) participate in cell proliferation, migration, and neuronal differentiation...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Shi L, Argenta A, Winseck A, Brunso Bechtold J. Stereological quantification of GAD-67-immunoreactive neurons and boutons in the hippocampus of middle-aged and old Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats. J Comp Neurol. 2004;478:282-91 pubmed
    ..It is possible that loss of CA1 inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal hippocampus contributes to the learning and memory impairments reported in old rats. ..
  2. Tanaka I, Ezure K, Kondo M. Distribution of glycine transporter 2 mRNA-containing neurons in relation to glutamic acid decarboxylase mRNA-containing neurons in rat medulla. Neurosci Res. 2003;47:139-51 pubmed
    ..method for mRNA encoding either glycine transporter 2 (GLYT2) or glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform 67 (GAD67). GLYT2 mRNA-positive (GLYT2+) neurons were distributed widely and clustered in (1)...
  3. Horii A, Kitahara T, Smith P, Darlington C, Masumura C, Kubo T. Effects of unilateral labyrinthectomy on GAD, GAT1 and GABA receptor gene expression in the rat vestibular nucleus. Neuroreport. 2003;14:2359-63 pubmed
    ..quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method to investigate the mRNA expression of GAD65, GAD67, the GABAA receptor alpha1 subunit, the GABAB R1 subunit, and the GABA transporter GAT1, in the vestibular nucleus ..
  4. Martin D, Martin S, Wu S, Espina N. Regulatory properties of brain glutamate decarboxylase (GAD): the apoenzyme of GAD is present principally as the smaller of two molecular forms of GAD in brain. J Neurosci. 1991;11:2725-31 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  5. Turner C, Debenedetto D, Ware E, Walburg C, Lee A, Stowe R, et al. MK801-induced activated caspase-3 exhibits selective co-localization with GAD67. Neurosci Lett. 2009;462:152-6 pubmed publisher
    ..rapid and robust induction of the pro-apoptotic marker activated caspase-3 (AC3) and loss of the GABAergic marker GAD67 at P56. Thus, we hypothesized that NMDAR blockade-induced AC3 occurs in GAD67 positive cells at P7...
  6. Baptista M, Melo C, Armelão M, Herrmann D, Pimentel D, Leal G, et al. Role of the proteasome in excitotoxicity-induced cleavage of glutamic acid decarboxylase in cultured hippocampal neurons. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10139 pubmed publisher
    ..is responsible for synthesizing GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter, and exists in two isoforms--GAD65 and GAD67. The enzyme is cleaved under excitotoxic conditions, but the mechanisms involved and the functional consequences ..
  7. Raghuraman G, Prabhakar N, Kumar G. Post-translational modification of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 by intermittent hypoxia: evidence for the involvement of dopamine D1 receptor signaling. J Neurochem. 2010;115:1568-78 pubmed publisher
    ..was investigated in pheochromocytoma 12 cells, a neuronal cell line which is known to express active form of GAD67 in the cytosolic fraction and also assessed the underlying mechanisms contributing to IH-evoked response...
  8. Shikanai H, Yoshida T, Konno K, Yamasaki M, Izumi T, Ohmura Y, et al. Distinct neurochemical and functional properties of GAD67-containing 5-HT neurons in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus. J Neurosci. 2012;32:14415-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we characterized functional properties of GAD67-expressing 5-HTergic neurons (5-HT/GAD67 neurons) in the rat DRN, and compared with those of neurons expressing 5-..
  9. Liu Q, Li L, Guo Y, Li X, Mou Z, Wang X, et al. Injection of Toll-like receptor 4 siRNA into the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray attenuates withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent rats. Arch Ital Biol. 2016;154:133-142 pubmed publisher
    ..region of morphine-dependent rats on attenuating withdrawal syndrome, and regulating glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), glutamic acid (Glu), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)...
  10. Kapolowicz M, Thompson L. Acute high-intensity noise induces rapid Arc protein expression but fails to rapidly change GAD expression in amygdala and hippocampus of rats: Effects of treatment with D-cycloserine. Hear Res. 2016;342:69-79 pubmed publisher
  11. Caprioli D, Sawiak S, Merlo E, Theobald D, Spoelder M, Jupp B, et al. Gamma aminobutyric acidergic and neuronal structural markers in the nucleus accumbens core underlie trait-like impulsive behavior. Biol Psychiatry. 2014;75:115-23 pubmed publisher
  12. Chessler S, Lernmark A. Alternative splicing of GAD67 results in the synthesis of a third form of glutamic-acid decarboxylase in human islets and other non-neural tissues. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:5188-92 pubmed
    ..decarboxylase (GAD) have been identified in mammalian tissues: a 65-kDa form (GAD65) and a 67-kDa form (GAD67). Alternate splicing produces one or two smaller variants of GAD67 in the brain of embryonic mice and rats...
  13. Fong A, Stornetta R, Foley C, Potts J. Immunohistochemical localization of GAD67-expressing neurons and processes in the rat brainstem: subregional distribution in the nucleus tractus solitarius. J Comp Neurol. 2005;493:274-90 pubmed
    ..of immunohistochemical localization of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) protein, specifically the 67-kDa isoform (GAD67), as a marker for GABAergic neurons in the medulla and to provide a detailed map of GAD67-immunoreactive (-ir) ..
  14. Guo J, Liu J, Fu W, Ma W, Xu Z, Yuan M, et al. The effect of electroacupuncture on spontaneous recurrent seizure and expression of GAD(67) mRNA in dentate gyrus in a rat model of epilepsy. Brain Res. 2008;1188:165-72 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that EA at St36 possess some curative effect on epileptic rats, related with change of GAD(67) mRNA level in DG region. ..
  15. Turner C, Debenedetto D, Ware E, Stowe R, Lee A, Swanson J, et al. Postnatal exposure to MK801 induces selective changes in GAD67 or parvalbumin. Exp Brain Res. 2010;201:479-88 pubmed publisher
    ..schizophrenic brains, there is a specific loss of neurons that co-express glutamic acid decarboxylase-parvalbumin (GAD67-PV)...
  16. Liu H, Zhang Y, Li S, Yan Y, Li Y. Dynamic regulation of glutamate decarboxylase 67 gene expression by alternative promoters and splicing during rat testis maturation. Mol Biol Rep. 2010;37:3111-9 pubmed publisher
    ..forms of GAD encoded by separate genes have been identified in mammalian brain, with molecular weight of 67 kDa (GAD67) and 65 kDa (GAD65). Here, we studied the transcriptional regulation of GAD67...
  17. Maqueda J, Ramirez M, Lamas M, Gutierrez R. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)67, but not GAD65, is constitutively expressed during development and transiently overexpressed by activity in the granule cells of the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2003;353:69-71 pubmed
    ..By contrast, GAD(65) is neither expressed in granule cells nor in their mossy fibers at any age nor after seizures, despite the presence of GAD(65) mRNA, confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in situ. ..
  18. Leke R, Silveira T, Escobar T, Schousboe A. Expression of Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) mRNA in the brain of bile duct ligated rats serving as a model of hepatic encephalopathy. Neurochem Res. 2014;39:605-11 pubmed publisher
    ..be noted that the GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is expressed in the brain in two isoforms GAD67 and GAD65, GAD65 being related to the synthesis of GABA that occurs via the TCA cycle and coupled to the vesicular ..
  19. Billings L, Marshall J. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 mRNA regulation in two globus pallidus neuron populations by dopamine and the subthalamic nucleus. J Neurosci. 2004;24:3094-103 pubmed
    ..This pattern of results has implications for pallidal control of striatal versus downstream basal ganglia nuclei. ..
  20. Vaghi V, Pennucci R, Talpo F, Corbetta S, Montinaro V, Barone C, et al. Rac1 and rac3 GTPases control synergistically the development of cortical and hippocampal GABAergic interneurons. Cereb Cortex. 2014;24:1247-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that Rac1 and Rac3 contribute synergistically to postmitotic development of specific populations of GABAergic cells, suggesting that these proteins regulate their migration and differentiation. ..
  21. Kanaani J, Cianciaruso C, Phelps E, Pasquier M, Brioudes E, Billestrup N, et al. Compartmentalization of GABA synthesis by GAD67 differs between pancreatic beta cells and neurons. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0117130 pubmed publisher
    ..The localization of the two non-allelic isoforms GAD65 and GAD67 to vesicular membranes is important for rapid delivery and accumulation of GABA for regulated secretion...
  22. Schreiber S, Bernstein H, Fendrich R, Stauch R, Ketzler B, Dobrowolny H, et al. Increased density of GAD65/67 immunoreactive neurons in the posterior subiculum and parahippocampal gyrus in treated patients with chronic schizophrenia. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2011;12:57-65 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a long term effect of neuroleptics on the GABAergic system cannot be excluded. ..
  23. Turner C, Ware E, Stowe R, Debenedetto D, Walburg C, Lee A, et al. Postnatal expression of GAD67. Neurochem Res. 2010;35:254-61 pubmed publisher
    ..blockade promotes apoptosis at postnatal day 7 (P7) and is linked to loss of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) expression in older animals...
  24. Trifonov S, Houtani T, Kase M, Toida K, Maruyama M, Yamashita Y, et al. Lateral regions of the rodent striatum reveal elevated glutamate decarboxylase 1 mRNA expression in medium-sized projection neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;35:711-22 pubmed publisher
    ..we found that the mouse lateral striatum concentrates medium-sized projection neurons with high-level expression of GAD1, but not of GAD2, mRNA...
  25. Fatemi S, Reutiman T, Folsom T. Chronic psychotropic drug treatment causes differential expression of Reelin signaling system in frontal cortex of rats. Schizophr Res. 2009;111:138-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Again, several of the protein products for Reelin, Vldlr, Dab-1, Gsk3 beta, Gad65, and Gad67 were also significantly altered by multiple drugs...
  26. Michelsen B, Petersen J, Boel E, Møldrup A, Dyrberg T, Madsen O. Cloning, characterization, and autoimmune recognition of rat islet glutamic acid decarboxylase in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:8754-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, mammalian cell lines expressing functionally active, recombinant GAD may become important tools to study the nature and the role of GAD autoreactivity in IDDM. ..
  27. Liu H, Wang Z, Li S, Zhang Y, Yan Y, Li Y. Utilization of an intron located polyadenlyation site resulted in four novel glutamate decarboxylase transcripts. Mol Biol Rep. 2009;36:1469-74 pubmed publisher
    ..by separate genes have been identified in mammalian brain, with molecular weight of 65 kDa (GAD65) and 67 kDa (GAD67)...
  28. Fukami S, Watanabe K, Iwata N, Haraoka J, Lu B, Gerard N, et al. Abeta-degrading endopeptidase, neprilysin, in mouse brain: synaptic and axonal localization inversely correlating with Abeta pathology. Neurosci Res. 2002;43:39-56 pubmed
  29. Carta A, Fenu S, Pala P, Tronci E, Morelli M. Selective modifications in GAD67 mRNA levels in striatonigral and striatopallidal pathways correlate to dopamine agonist priming in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:2563-72 pubmed
    ..2 mg/kg), the dopamine precursor L-DOPA (50 mg/kg) or with vehicle (drug-naive), and GAD67, dynorphin and enkephalin mRNAs were evaluated in the striatum by in situ hybridization, 3 days after priming...
  30. Erbel Sieler C, Dudley C, Zhou Y, Wu X, Estill S, Han T, et al. Behavioral and regulatory abnormalities in mice deficient in the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:13648-53 pubmed
    ..These observations raise the possibility that a regulatory program controlled in inhibitory interneurons by the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors may be either substantively or tangentially relevant to psychosis. ..
  31. Julien J, Samama P, Mallet J. Rat brain glutamic acid decarboxylase sequence deduced from a cloned cDNA. J Neurochem. 1990;54:703-5 pubmed
    ..However, the deduced amino acid sequence of the carboxy-terminal end of the rat protein, downstream of residue 557, is totally different from the cat, whereas it agrees with a published partial peptidic sequence of the rat protein. ..
  32. Popp A, Urbach A, Witte O, Frahm C. Adult and embryonic GAD transcripts are spatiotemporally regulated during postnatal development in the rat brain. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4371 pubmed publisher
    ..GAD exists in two adult isoforms, GAD65 and GAD67. During embryonic brain development at least two additional transcripts exist, I-80 and I-86, which are ..
  33. Condie B, Bain G, Gottlieb D, Capecchi M. Cleft palate in mice with a targeted mutation in the gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase 67. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:11451-5 pubmed
    ..The striking similarity in phenotype between the receptor and ligand mutations clearly demonstrates a role for GABA signaling in normal palate development. ..
  34. Makinson R, Lundgren K, Seroogy K, Herman J. Chronic social subordination stress modulates glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 mRNA expression in central stress circuits. Physiol Behav. 2015;146:7-15 pubmed
    ..We found that social subordination decreases GAD67 mRNA in the peri-paraventricular nucleus region of the hypothalamus and the interfascicular nucleus of the bed ..
  35. Ikeda M, Ozaki N, Yamanouchi Y, Suzuki T, Kitajima T, Kinoshita Y, et al. No association between the glutamate decarboxylase 67 gene (GAD1) and schizophrenia in the Japanese population. Schizophr Res. 2007;91:22-6 pubmed
    ..One of the most consistent findings is the reduced level of 67 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform (GAD(67))...
  36. Zhang X, Lee T, Xiong X, Chen Q, Davidson C, Wetsel W, et al. Methamphetamine induces long-term changes in GABAA receptor alpha2 subunit and GAD67 expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;351:300-5 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that inhibition of GABA transmission in the NAc is related to METH behavioral sensitization, whereas activation of GABA transmission in the caudate is associated with METH-induced neurotoxicity. ..
  37. Joh H, Searles R, Selmanoff M, Alkayed N, Koehler R, Hurn P, et al. Estradiol alters only GAD67 mRNA levels in ischemic rat brain with no consequent effects on GABA. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2006;26:518-26 pubmed
    ..Glutamic acid decarboxylase is the principal enzyme for GABA synthesis and has two isoforms, GAD65 and GAD67, which differ in size and cellular distribution...
  38. Kinoshita A, Noda M, Kinoshita M. Differential localization of septins in the mouse brain. J Comp Neurol. 2000;428:223-39 pubmed
  39. Ango F, Di Cristo G, Higashiyama H, Bennett V, Wu P, Huang Z. Ankyrin-based subcellular gradient of neurofascin, an immunoglobulin family protein, directs GABAergic innervation at purkinje axon initial segment. Cell. 2004;119:257-72 pubmed
    ..Disruption of NF186-ankyrinG interactions at AIS reduced pinceau synapse formation. These results implicate ankyrin-based localization of L1CAMs in subcellular organization of GABAergic synapses. ..
  40. Tanaka I, Ezure K. Overall distribution of GLYT2 mRNA-containing versus GAD67 mRNA-containing neurons and colocalization of both mRNAs in midbrain, pons, and cerebellum in rats. Neurosci Res. 2004;49:165-78 pubmed
    ..We combined this method with in situ hybridization for mRNA encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform 67 (GAD67), and have presented for the first time global and detailed views of the distribution of glycinergic neurons in ..
  41. Luo Y, Lathia J, Mughal M, Mattson M. SDF1alpha/CXCR4 signaling, via ERKs and the transcription factor Egr1, induces expression of a 67-kDa form of glutamic acid decarboxylase in embryonic hippocampal neurons. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:24789-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Gel-shift analysis showed that SDF1alpha enhances DNA binding activity to the Egr1-containing promoter for GAD67. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis using an Egr1 antibody indicated that SDF1alpha stimulation increases ..
  42. Cashion A, Smith M, Wise P. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) gene expression in discrete regions of the rostral preoptic area change during the oestrous cycle and with age. J Neuroendocrinol. 2004;16:711-6 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that a loss of rhythmicity in GAD(67) gene expression and maintenance of inhibitory tone on proestrous afternoon may alter the timing and amplitude of the LH surge, as previously observed in middle-aged rats. ..
  43. Jacobs S, Ruusuvuori E, Sipilä S, Haapanen A, Damkier H, Kurth I, et al. Mice with targeted Slc4a10 gene disruption have small brain ventricles and show reduced neuronal excitability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:311-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, Slc4a10 is a promising pharmacological target for the therapy of epilepsy or elevated intracranial pressure. ..
  44. Donner J, Sipilä T, Ripatti S, Kananen L, Chen X, Kendler K, et al. Support for involvement of glutamate decarboxylase 1 and neuropeptide Y in anxiety susceptibility. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2012;159B:316-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The most significant evidence for association was observed in glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) with phobias (P?=?0.0005)...
  45. Salin P, Manrique C, Forni C, Kerkerian Le Goff L. High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus selectively reverses dopamine denervation-induced cellular defects in the output structures of the basal ganglia in the rat. J Neurosci. 2002;22:5137-48 pubmed
    ..The lesion-induced increases in intraneuronal glutamate decarboxylase 67 kDa isoform (GAD67) mRNA levels on the lesion side were reversed by STN HFS in the substantia nigra, partially ..
  46. Maekawa S, Kobayashi Y, Odagaki S, Makino M, Kumanogoh H, Nakamura S, et al. Interaction of NAP-22 with brain glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Neurosci Lett. 2013;537:50-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Two isoforms of GAD, GAD65 and GAD67, were expressed in bacteria as GST-fusion forms and the interaction with NAP-22 was confirmed in vitro...
  47. Grob M, Trottier J, Drolet G, Mouginot D. Characterization of the neurochemical content of neuronal populations of the lamina terminalis activated by acute hydromineral challenge. Neuroscience. 2003;122:247-57 pubmed
    ..We show that acute furosemide treatment (4 h) significantly reduced the expression of GAD67 mRNA, the active holoenzyme predictive of GABA synthesis, within the SFO...
  48. Sirvanci S, Canillioglu Y, Akakin D, Midillioğlu S, Yildiz S, Onat F, et al. Glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactivity in the mossy fiber terminals of the hippocampus of genetic absence epileptic rats. Turk Neurosurg. 2011;21:499-503 pubmed
  49. Briski K, Singh S. Hindbrain neuroglucopenia elicits site-specific transcriptional activation of glutamate decarboxylase-immunopositive neurons in the septopreoptic area of female rat brain. Neuroendocrinology. 2008;87:113-20 pubmed
    ..The current studies also support the view that a proportion of neuroglucoprivic-sensitive GABA neurons in the MEPO and rMPO may be direct substrates for mu-R ligand modulatory actions during this state of central substrate imbalance. ..
  50. Zhang K, Hill K, Labak S, Blatt G, Soghomonian J. Loss of glutamic acid decarboxylase (Gad67) in Gpr88-expressing neurons induces learning and social behavior deficits in mice. Neuroscience. 2014;275:238-47 pubmed publisher
    ..and object recognition preferences in mice lacking the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase, Gad67, in neurons expressing the protein Gpr88, an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor primarily expressed in the striatum...
  51. Martin D, Liu H, Martin S, Wu S. Structural features and regulatory properties of the brain glutamate decarboxylases. Neurochem Int. 2000;37:111-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, GAD is a dimeric enzyme and conserved features of GADs superfamily of pyridoxal-P proteins indicate the dimer-forming interactions are mediated mainly by the carboxyl-terminal domain. ..
  52. Grove Strawser D, Jimenez Linan M, Rubin B. Middle-aged female rats lack the dynamic changes in GAD(67) mRNA levels observed in young females on the day of a luteinising hormone surge. J Neuroendocrinol. 2007;19:708-16 pubmed
  53. Woo T, Kim A, Viscidi E. Disease-specific alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission on inhibitory interneurons in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Brain Res. 2008;1218:267-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the density of GAD67+ neurons in layers 2-5 of the prefrontal cortex was decreased by 27-36% in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder...