Gene Symbol: G6pd
Description: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
Alias: G6pdx, glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase X-linked
Species: rat
Products:     G6pd

Top Publications

  1. Tylicki A, Kawalko A, Sokolska J, Strumilo S. Effect of anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate on the properties of certain enzymes in the heart, liver, and muscle of rats, and their effect on rats' cardiac electrophysiology. Horm Metab Res. 2007;39:268-72 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, ND may cause activation of ATP synthesis in muscle by enhanced malate-aspartate shuttle action. ..
  2. Jain M, Brenner D, Cui L, Lim C, Wang B, Pimentel D, et al. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase modulates cytosolic redox status and contractile phenotype in adult cardiomyocytes. Circ Res. 2003;93:e9-16 pubmed
    ..Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) functions as the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, responsible for the generation ..
  3. Gupte R, Floyd B, Kozicky M, George S, Ungvari Z, Neito V, et al. Synergistic activation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NAD(P)H oxidase by Src kinase elevates superoxide in type 2 diabetic, Zucker fa/fa, rat liver. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;47:219-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we determined whether the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the rate-limiting enzyme in the PPP, is modulated in the liver of Zucker obese fa/fa rats (9-11 weeks of age)...
  4. Sirugo G, Predazzi I, Bartlett J, Tacconelli A, Walther M, Williams S. G6PD A- deficiency and severe malaria in The Gambia: heterozygote advantage and possible homozygote disadvantage. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;90:856-9 pubmed publisher
    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is frequent in Africa, because it confers resistance to Plasmodium falciparum malaria; however, the nature of the protection and the genotypes associated with it have been controversial...
  5. Brand I, Heinickel A. Key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism as targets of the 11.5-kDa Zn(2+)-binding protein (parathymosin). J Biol Chem. 1991;266:20984-9 pubmed
    ..The behavior of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from this tissue could not be followed. A possible function of ZnBP in supramolecular organization of carbohydrate metabolism is proposed. ..
  6. Pessoa B, Peixoto E, Papadimitriou A, Lopes de Faria J, Lopes de Faria J. Spironolactone improves nephropathy by enhancing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and reducing oxidative stress in diabetic hypertensive rat. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2012;13:56-66 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor blocker, diminishes hyperglycemia-induced reduction in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity, improving oxidative stress damage...
  7. Dong L, Li L, Song Y, Duan Z, Sun S, Lin Y, et al. TRAF6-Mediated SM22α K21 Ubiquitination Promotes G6PD Activation and NADPH Production, Contributing to GSH Homeostasis and VSMC Survival In Vitro and In Vivo. Circ Res. 2015;117:684-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed that the expression and activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) are promoted in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferative VSMCs...
  8. Kuzniewicz M, Wickremasinghe A, Wu Y, McCulloch C, Walsh E, Wi S, et al. Incidence, etiology, and outcomes of hazardous hyperbilirubinemia in newborns. Pediatrics. 2014;134:504-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The etiology was not identified in 33 (70%). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity was measured in only 25 (53%) of whom 10 (40%) were deficient...
  9. Cattani D, Goulart P, Cavalli V, Winkelmann Duarte E, Dos Santos A, Pierozan P, et al. Congenital hypothyroidism alters the oxidative status, enzyme activities and morphological parameters in the hippocampus of developing rats. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;375:14-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities, associated with altered glutamate and neutral amino acids uptake ..

More Information


  1. Khan M, Priyamvada S, Khan S, Khan S, Naqshbandi A, Yusufi A. Protective effect of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on sodium nitroprusside-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage in rat kidney. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2012;31:1035-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, vegetarians who cannot consume FO can have similar health benefits from plant-derived ?-3 PUFA. ..
  2. Hu X, Wang Y, Wang J, Xue Y, Li Z, Nagao K, et al. Dietary saponins of sea cucumber alleviate orotic acid-induced fatty liver in rats via PPARalpha and SREBP-1c signaling. Lipids Health Dis. 2010;9:25 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the effect of saponins extracted from sea cucumber (Pearsonothuria graeffei) on the preventive activity of fatty liver in rats...
  3. Wilkinson Berka J, Tan G, Jaworski K, Miller A. Identification of a retinal aldosterone system and the protective effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism on retinal vascular pathology. Circ Res. 2009;104:124-33 pubmed publisher
    ..the MR and aldosterone may influence retinal angiogenesis; inflammation and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) were evaluated in OIR and cultured bovine retinal endothelial cells (BRECs) and bovine retinal pericytes (BRPs)...
  4. Biagiotti E, Malatesta M, Capellacci S, Fattoretti P, Gazzanelli G, Ninfali P. Quantification of G6PD in small and large intestine of rat during aging. Acta Histochem. 2002;104:225-34 pubmed
    Numerous studies have demonstrated a decrease in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity during aging in many cell types, including red blood cells, fibroblasts and lens cells...
  5. Garcia Nogales P, Almeida A, Bolanos J. Peroxynitrite protects neurons against nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis. A key role for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in neuroprotection. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:864-74 pubmed
    ..with both exogenous and endogenous peroxynitrite-mediated activation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), an enzyme that catalyzes the first rate-limiting step in the PPP...
  6. Kotaka M, Gover S, Vandeputte Rutten L, Au S, Lam V, Adams M. Structural studies of glucose-6-phosphate and NADP+ binding to human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2005;61:495-504 pubmed
    Human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is NADP(+)-dependent and catalyses the first and rate-limiting step of the pentose phosphate shunt...
  7. Glomglao W, Chansing K, Treesucon A, Siraprapapat P, Thongnoppakhun W, Sanpakit K, et al. Direct detection for G6PD Bangkok and G6PD Bangkok Noi mutations in the families with chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (CNSHA). Int J Lab Hematol. 2015;37:e21-4 pubmed publisher
  8. Faut M, Paiz A, San Martín de Viale L, Mazzetti M. Alterations of the redox state, pentose pathway and glutathione metabolism in an acute porphyria model. Their impact on heme pathway. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2013;238:133-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the rate-limiting enzyme of PP-pathway, was increased by 129% as well as that of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase...
  9. Ayesh Haj Yousef M, Bataineh A, Elamin E, Khader Y, Alawneh K, Rababah M. Adequate hemodialysis improves anemia by enhancing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in patients with end-stage renal disease. BMC Nephrol. 2014;15:155 pubmed publisher
    We conducted this study to determine the erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity level in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and to determine the effect of hemodialysis ..
  10. Zimatkin S, Baraban O, Emel yanchik S. Metabolic changes in rat brain histaminergic neurons during subhepatic cholestasis. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2008;38:807-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The changes were apparent after five days of cholestasis, reached a maximum at 10-20 days, decreased at 45 days, and completely disappeared at 90 days. ..
  11. Benatti U, Morelli A, Frascio M, Melloni E, Salamino F, Sparatore B, et al. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in membranes of erythrocytes from normal individuals and subjects with Mediterranean G6PD deficiency. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1978;85:1318-24 pubmed
  12. Sobngwi E, Gautier J, Kevorkian J, Villette J, Riveline J, Zhang S, et al. High prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency without gene mutation suggests a novel genetic mechanism predisposing to ketosis-prone diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:4446-51 pubmed
    ..The enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a defense mechanism against oxidative stress, and G6PD deficiency, an X-linked genetic disorder with male ..
  13. Won J, Im Y, Key L, Singh I, Singh A. The involvement of glucose metabolism in the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in glial cells: possible role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and CCAAT/enhancing binding protein. J Neurosci. 2003;23:7470-8 pubmed
    ..glucose concentration, and the reduction of NADPH generation via a block of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) by treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone or the antisense DNA oligomer of G6PD mRNA resulted in the inhibition of ..
  14. Ho Y, Howard A, Crapo J. Cloning and sequence of a cDNA encoding rat glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988;16:7746 pubmed
  15. Au S, Gover S, Lam V, Adams M. Human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase: the crystal structure reveals a structural NADP(+) molecule and provides insights into enzyme deficiency. Structure. 2000;8:293-303 pubmed
    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) catalyses the first committed step in the pentose phosphate pathway; the generation of NADPH by this enzyme is essential for protection against oxidative stress...
  16. Kuraguchi M, Thomas G, Williams E. Somatic mutation of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd) gene in colonic stem cells and crypt restricted loss of G6PD activity. Mutat Res. 1997;379:69-75 pubmed
    ..The present study identifies and characterises somatic mutations in the g6pd gene in individual mouse colonic crypts showing histochemically demonstrable loss of G6PD activity...
  17. Temel Y, Kocyigit U. Purification of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from rat (Rattus norvegicus) erythrocytes and inhibition effects of some metal ions on enzyme activity. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2017;31: pubmed publisher
    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the first enzyme on which the pentose phosphate pathway was checked. In this study, purification of a G6PD enzyme was carried out by using rat erythrocytes with a specific activity of 13...
  18. Shakya G, Randhi P, Pajaniradje S, Mohankumar K, Rajagopalan R. Hypoglycaemic role of wheatgrass and its effect on carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in type II diabetic rats. Toxicol Ind Health. 2016;32:1026-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, we conclude that WG can act as a potent anti-hyperglycaemic agent. ..
  19. Chettimada S, Joshi S, Alzoubi A, Gebb S, McMurtry I, Gupte R, et al. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase plays a critical role in hypoxia-induced CD133+ progenitor cells self-renewal and stimulates their accumulation in the lungs of pulmonary hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014;307:L545-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity was increased threefold in hypoxic CD133(+) cells...
  20. Maiga B, Dolo A, Campino S, Sepúlveda N, Corran P, Rockett K, et al. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase polymorphisms and susceptibility to mild malaria in Dogon and Fulani, Mali. Malar J. 2014;13:270 pubmed publisher
    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is associated with protection from severe malaria, and potentially uncomplicated malaria phenotypes...
  21. Arieli Y, Kotler D, Eynan M, Hochman A. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning protects rats against CNS oxygen toxicity. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2014;197:29-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Repeated exposure to non-convulsive HBO provides protection against CNS-OT. The protective mechanism involves alterations in the enzymatic activity of the antioxidant system and lower levels of peroxynitrite, mainly in the hippocampus. ..
  22. Zhao L, Shen P, Han Y, Zhang X, Nie K, Cheng H, et al. Effects of acupuncture on glycometabolic enzymes in multi-infarct dementia rats. Neurochem Res. 2011;36:693-700 pubmed publisher
  23. Pari L, Amudha K. Hepatoprotective role of naringin on nickel-induced toxicity in male Wistar rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;650:364-70 pubmed publisher
    ..All these changes were supported by histopathological observations. These results clearly demonstrate that naringin has the potential in alleviating the toxic effects of nickel in rat liver. ..
  24. Chettimada S, Gupte R, Rawat D, Gebb S, McMurtry I, Gupte S. Hypoxia-induced glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase overexpression and -activation in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells: implication in pulmonary hypertension. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015;308:L287-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that the activity and expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, are increased in hypoxic PASM cells and in lungs of ..
  25. Apinjoh T, Anchang Kimbi J, Njua Yafi C, Ngwai A, Mugri R, Clark T, et al. Association of candidate gene polymorphisms and TGF-beta/IL-10 levels with malaria in three regions of Cameroon: a case-control study. Malar J. 2014;13:236 pubmed publisher
    ..were more susceptible to hyperpyrexia while both females and males with the rs1050828 and rs1050829 SNPs of G6PD, respectively, were more vulnerable to anaemia...
  26. Pretsch W, Charles D, Merkle S. X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Mus musculus. Biochem Genet. 1988;26:89-103 pubmed
    A mouse with X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency has been recovered in offspring of 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea-treated male mice...
  27. Ayene I, Biaglow J, Kachur A, Stamato T, Koch C. Mutation in G6PD gene leads to loss of cellular control of protein glutathionylation: mechanism and implication. J Cell Biochem. 2008;103:123-35 pubmed
    More than 400 million people are susceptible to oxidative stress due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency...
  28. Díaz Flores M, Ibáñez Hernández M, Galván R, Gutierrez M, Duran Reyes G, Medina Navarro R, et al. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and NADPH/NADP+ ratio in liver and pancreas are dependent on the severity of hyperglycemia in rat. Life Sci. 2006;78:2601-7 pubmed
    ..NADPH/NADP+ is regulated by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the liver and pancreas, whereas levels of reduced glutathione are mainly dependent on the NADPH supply. ..
  29. Jain M, Cui L, Brenner D, Wang B, Handy D, Leopold J, et al. Increased myocardial dysfunction after ischemia-reperfusion in mice lacking glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Circulation. 2004;109:898-903 pubmed
    ..Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the rate-limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, generates NADPH in a reaction linked to the de novo ..
  30. Moura M, Kawashita N, Brito S, Brito M, Kettelhut I, Migliorini R. Effect of cold acclimation on brown adipose tissue fatty acid synthesis in rats adapted to a high-protein, carbohydrate-free diet. Metabolism. 2001;50:1493-8 pubmed
  31. White R, McNulty S, Roman S, Garg U, Wirtz E, Kohlbrecher D, et al. Chromosomal localization, hematologic characterization, and iron metabolism of the hereditary erythroblastic anemia (hea) mutant mouse. Blood. 2004;104:1511-8 pubmed
    ..When this diet is removed there is reversion to anemia with concomitant loss of overloaded iron stores. We speculate that the hea/fsn gene is required for iron uptake into erythropoietic cells and for kidney iron reabsorption. ..
  32. Beutler E, Kuhl W, Gelbart T, Forman L. DNA sequence abnormalities of human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:4145-50 pubmed
    Over 400 supposedly biochemically and genetically distinct variants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) have been described in the past...
  33. Epstein C. Mammalian oocytes: X chromosome activity. Science. 1969;163:1078-9 pubmed
  34. Hendriksen P, Hoogerbrugge J, Baarends W, de Boer P, Vreeburg J, Vos E, et al. Testis-specific expression of a functional retroposon encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the mouse. Genomics. 1997;41:350-9 pubmed
    The X-chromosomal gene glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6pd) is known to be expressed in most cell types of mammalian species. In the mouse, we have detected a novel gene, designated G6pd-2, encoding a G6PD isoenzyme...
  35. Hodge D, Charron T, Stabile L, Klautky S, Salati L. Structural characterization and tissue-specific expression of the mouse glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene. DNA Cell Biol. 1998;17:283-91 pubmed
    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity differs among tissues and, in liver, with the dietary state of the mouse...
  36. Abhilash P, Nisha P, Prathapan A, Nampoothiri S, Lijo Cherian O, Sunitha T, et al. Cardioprotective effects of aqueous extract of Oxalis corniculata in experimental myocardial infarction. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2011;63:535-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provided evidence that O. corniculata was found to be protecting the myocardium against ischemic insult and the protective effect could attribute to its antioxidative and antihyperlipidemic activities. ..
  37. da Cunha A, Ferreira A, da Cunha M, Pederzolli C, Becker D, Coelho J, et al. Chronic hyperhomocysteinemia induces oxidative damage in the rat lung. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;358:153-60 pubmed publisher
  38. Ramos K, Colquhoun A. Protective role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the metabolic response of C6 rat glioma cells to polyunsaturated fatty acid exposure. Glia. 2003;43:149-66 pubmed
  39. Lakhkar A, Dhagia V, Joshi S, Gotlinger K, Patel D, Sun D, et al. 20-HETE-induced mitochondrial superoxide production and inflammatory phenotype in vascular smooth muscle is prevented by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibition. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016;310:H1107-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), a major source of NADPH in the cell, prevents 20-HETE synthesis and 20-HETE-induced proinflammatory signaling ..
  40. Kalaiarasi P, Pugalendi K. Antihyperglycemic effect of 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid, aglycone of glycyrrhizin, on streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;606:269-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results show that 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid at 100 mg/kg of body weight possesses a potential antihyperglycemic effect that is comparable with glibenclamide. ..
  41. Gao L, Mejias R, Echevarria M, Lopez Barneo J. Induction of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene expression by chronic hypoxia in PC12 cells. FEBS Lett. 2004;569:256-60 pubmed
    We studied the regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene expression by chronic hypoxia. G6PD mRNA level and activity were increased in PC12 cells by hypoxia in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
  42. Bublitz C, Steavenson S. The pentose phosphate pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:12849-53 pubmed
    ..The activity of the microsomal pentose phosphate pathway is estimated to be about 1.5% that of the cytoplasmic pathway. ..
  43. Santana M, Monteiro W, Costa M, Sampaio V, Brito M, Lacerda M, et al. High frequency of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the Western brazilian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;91:74-6 pubmed publisher
    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common human genetic abnormalities, and it has a significant prevalence in the male population (X chromosome linked)...
  44. Moraes T, Dalazen G, Jacques C, de Freitas R, Rosa A, Dutra Filho C. Glutathione metabolism enzymes in brain and liver of hyperphenylalaninemic rats and the effect of lipoic acid treatment. Metab Brain Dis. 2014;29:609-15 pubmed publisher
    ..in the metabolism and function of GSH, such as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and GSH content in ..
  45. Patil R, Prakash K, Maheshwari V. Hypolipidemic Effect of Celastrus paniculatus in Experimentally Induced Hypercholesterolemic Wistar Rats. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2010;25:405-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Histological studies showed less cholesterol deposits in the aorta of animals fed with seed extract of C. paniculatus compared to the induced hypercholesterolemic animals not given C. paniculatus supplement. ..
  46. Talukdar I, Szeszel Fedorowicz W, Salati L. Arachidonic acid inhibits the insulin induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase via p38 MAP kinase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:40660-7 pubmed
    ..The lipogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is unique in this gene family, in that fatty acids inhibit at a post-transcriptional step...
  47. Sailaja Y, Baskar R, Saralakumari D. The antioxidant status during maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes in type 2 diabetics. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003;35:133-9 pubmed
    ..The present study reveals that the alterations in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system lean toward early senescence of erythrocytes in type 2 diabetic patients. ..
  48. Paglialunga F, Fico A, Iaccarino I, Notaro R, Luzzatto L, Martini G, et al. G6PD is indispensable for erythropoiesis after the embryonic-adult hemoglobin switch. Blood. 2004;104:3148-52 pubmed
    Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) (EC is an essential enzyme for the rapid production of NADPH, as required on exposure to oxidative stress...
  49. Hussein R, Khalifa F. The protective role of ellagitannins flavonoids pretreatment against N-nitrosodiethylamine induced-hepatocellular carcinoma. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2014;21:589-96 pubmed publisher
    ..ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), direct and total bilirubin...
  50. McCommis K, Douglas D, Krenz M, Baines C. Cardiac-specific hexokinase 2 overexpression attenuates hypertrophy by increasing pentose phosphate pathway flux. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2:e000355 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that HK2 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by decreasing ROS accumulation via increased pentose phosphate pathway flux. ..
  51. Huong D, Ide T. Dietary lipoic acid-dependent changes in the activity and mRNA levels of hepatic lipogenic enzymes in rats. Br J Nutr. 2008;100:79-87 pubmed
    ..Lipoic acid appeared to reduce hepatic lipogenesis and hence decreases serum and liver lipid levels. Alterations in serum concentrations of insulin and (or) adiponectin may trigger this consequence. ..
  52. Beutler E, Mathai C, Smith J. Biochemical variants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase giving rise to congenital nonspherocytic hemolytic disease. Blood. 1968;31:131-50 pubmed
  53. Thomas M, Bader C, Monet J. Sex steroid hormone modulation of NADPH pathways in MCF-7 cells. Cancer Res. 1990;50:1195-200 pubmed
    Hormonal modulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and of utilization pathways of NADPH generated by G6PD was studied in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, using a quantitative cytochemical method...