Gene Symbol: Fyn
Description: FYN proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase
Alias: tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn, FYN oncogene related to SRC, FGR, YES, p59-Fyn, proto-oncogene c-Fyn, proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn
Species: rat
Products:     Fyn

Top Publications

  1. HOE H, Minami S, Makarova A, Lee J, Hyman B, Matsuoka Y, et al. Fyn modulation of Dab1 effects on amyloid precursor protein and ApoE receptor 2 processing. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:6288-99 pubmed
    ..mechanism underlying these alterations in processing and trafficking of APP and apoEr2, we examined the effect of Fyn, an Src family-tyrosine kinase known to interact with and phosphorylate Dab1...
  2. Kuo G, Arnaud L, Kronstad O Brien P, Cooper J. Absence of Fyn and Src causes a reeler-like phenotype. J Neurosci. 2005;25:8578-86 pubmed
    ..Biochemical and in vitro experiments implicate Src and Fyn in the Reelin-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of Dab1, which controls the positioning of radially migrating ..
  3. Araki T, Nawa H, Neel B. Tyrosyl phosphorylation of Shp2 is required for normal ERK activation in response to some, but not all, growth factors. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:41677-84 pubmed
  4. Grant S, O Dell T, Karl K, Stein P, Soriano P, Kandel E. Impaired long-term potentiation, spatial learning, and hippocampal development in fyn mutant mice. Science. 1992;258:1903-10 pubmed
    Mice with mutations in four nonreceptor tyrosine kinase genes, fyn, src, yes, and abl, were used to study the role of these kinases in long-term potentiation (LTP) and in the relation of LTP to spatial learning and memory...
  5. Um J, Nygaard H, Heiss J, Kostylev M, Stagi M, Vortmeyer A, et al. Alzheimer amyloid-? oligomer bound to postsynaptic prion protein activates Fyn to impair neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:1227-35 pubmed publisher
    ..PrP(C) is enriched in postsynaptic densities, and A?-PrP(C) interaction leads to Fyn kinase activation...
  6. Ittner L, Ke Y, Delerue F, Bi M, Gladbach A, van Eersel J, et al. Dendritic function of tau mediates amyloid-beta toxicity in Alzheimer's disease mouse models. Cell. 2010;142:387-97 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that tau, known as axonal protein, has a dendritic function in postsynaptic targeting of the Src kinase Fyn, a substrate of which is the NMDA receptor (NR)...
  7. Wu H, Hsu F, Gleichman A, Baconguis I, Coulter D, Lynch D. Fyn-mediated phosphorylation of NR2B Tyr-1336 controls calpain-mediated NR2B cleavage in neurons and heterologous systems. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:20075-87 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that Fyn-mediated phosphorylation of NR2B controls calpain-mediated NR2B cleavage...
  8. Yaka R, Thornton C, Vagts A, Phamluong K, Bonci A, Ron D. NMDA receptor function is regulated by the inhibitory scaffolding protein, RACK1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:5710-5 pubmed
    ..We found that RACK1 binds both the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor and the nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase, Fyn. RACK1 inhibits Fyn phosphorylation of NR2B and decreases NMDA receptor-mediated currents in CA1 hippocampal slices...
  9. Holmes K, Roberts O, Thomas A, Cross M. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2: structure, function, intracellular signalling and therapeutic inhibition. Cell Signal. 2007;19:2003-12 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, therapeutic inhibition of VEGFR-2 action is now having an impact in the clinic for the treatment of a number of diseases. ..

More Information


  1. Franco M, Furstoss O, Simon V, Benistant C, Hong W, Roche S. The adaptor protein Tom1L1 is a negative regulator of Src mitogenic signaling induced by growth factors. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:1932-47 pubmed
    ..is overcome by c-myc expression or p53 inactivation, two regulators of SFK mitogenic function; (iii) Src or Fyn coexpression overrides Tom1L1 mitogenic activity; (iv) overexpression of the adaptor reduces Src association with ..
  2. Chen M, Hou X, Zhang G. Tyrosine kinase and tyrosine phosphatase participate in regulation of interactions of NMDA receptor subunit 2A with Src and Fyn mediated by PSD-95 after transient brain ischemia. Neurosci Lett. 2003;339:29-32 pubmed
    ..receptor subunit 2A (NR2A) and the interactions among NR2A, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), Fyn/Src after brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)...
  3. Choudhry M, Mao H, Haque F, Khan M, Fazal N, Sayeed M. Role of NFAT and AP-1 in PGE2-mediated T cell suppression in burn injury. Shock. 2002;18:212-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggested that the suppression of T cell IL-2 production could result from PGE2-mediated alterations in the T cell signaling molecule p59fyn and NFAT/AP-1. ..
  4. Hildebrand M, Xu J, Dedek A, Li Y, Sengar A, Beggs S, et al. Potentiation of Synaptic GluN2B NMDAR Currents by Fyn Kinase Is Gated through BDNF-Mediated Disinhibition in Spinal Pain Processing. Cell Rep. 2016;17:2753-2765 pubmed publisher
    ..NMDAR potentiation through activation of TrkB and phosphorylation of the GluN2B subunit by the Src-family kinase Fyn. Surprisingly, we find that Cl--dependent disinhibition is necessary and sufficient to prime ..
  5. Weir M, Mann J, CORWIN T, Fulton Z, Hao J, Maniscalco J, et al. Novel autophosphorylation sites of Src family kinases regulate kinase activity and SH2 domain-binding capacity. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:1042-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Mimicking phosphorylation at the C-terminal site to the activation loop decreased Fyn activity...
  6. Peckham H, Giuffrida L, Wood R, Gonsalvez D, Ferner A, Kilpatrick T, et al. Fyn is an intermediate kinase that BDNF utilizes to promote oligodendrocyte myelination. Glia. 2016;64:255-69 pubmed publisher
    b>Fyn, a member of the Src family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, promotes central nervous system myelination during development; however the mechanisms mediating this effect remain unknown...
  7. Tse M, Liu X, Yang S, Ye K, Chan C. Fyn regulates adipogenesis by promoting PIKE-A/STAT5a interaction. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:1797-808 pubmed publisher
    b>Fyn is a tyrosine kinase with multiple roles in a variety of cellular processes. Here we report that Fyn is a new kinase involved in adipocyte differentiation. Elevated Fyn protein is detected specifically in the adipocytes of obese mice...
  8. Sasaki Y, Cheng C, Uchida Y, Nakajima O, Ohshima T, Yagi T, et al. Fyn and Cdk5 mediate semaphorin-3A signaling, which is involved in regulation of dendrite orientation in cerebral cortex. Neuron. 2002;35:907-20 pubmed
    ..How Sema3A and its receptors plexin-As and neuropilins regulate neuronal guidance is unknown. We observed that in fyn- and cdk5-deficient mice, Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse responses were attenuated compared to their ..
  9. Appleby M, Gross J, Cooke M, Levin S, Qian X, Perlmutter R. Defective T cell receptor signaling in mice lacking the thymic isoform of p59fyn. Cell. 1992;70:751-63 pubmed
    ..These data confirm that p59fynT plays a pivotal role in TCR signal transduction and demonstrate that additional developmentally regulated signaling components also contribute to TCR-induced lymphocyte activation. ..
  10. Wyneken U, Smalla K, Marengo J, Soto D, de la Cerda A, Tischmeyer W, et al. Kainate-induced seizures alter protein composition and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function of rat forebrain postsynaptic densities. Neuroscience. 2001;102:65-74 pubmed
    ..amounts of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1alpha, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein, protein kinases C, Fyn and TrkB, as well as the neuronal nitric oxide synthase, were significantly higher in seizure-developing than in ..
  11. Poole A, Pula G, Hers I, Crosby D, Jones M. PKC-interacting proteins: from function to pharmacology. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2004;25:528-35 pubmed
    ..In this article, we review recent work on C-KIPs and the implications for pharmacological and therapeutic development. ..
  12. Mao L, Wang J. Dopaminergic and cholinergic regulation of Fyn tyrosine kinase phosphorylation in the rat striatum in vivo. Neuropharmacology. 2015;99:491-9 pubmed publisher
    Src and Fyn are two Src family kinase (SFK) members that are expressed in mammalian brains and play important roles in the regulation of a variety of neuronal and synaptic substrates...
  13. Abe T, Matsumura S, Katano T, Mabuchi T, Takagi K, Xu L, et al. Fyn kinase-mediated phosphorylation of NMDA receptor NR2B subunit at Tyr1472 is essential for maintenance of neuropathic pain. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:1445-54 pubmed
    ..at Tyr1472 were attenuated by the NR2B-selective antagonist CP-101,606 and disappeared in mice lacking Fyn kinase, a Src-family tyrosine kinase...
  14. Yokoyama K, Tezuka T, Hoshina N, Nakazawa T, Yamamoto T. Phosphorylation at Tyr-694 of Nogo-A by Src-family kinases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;349:1401-5 pubmed
    ..Identification of tyrosine phosphorylation of Nogo-A will introduce an additional level of complexity into Nogo-A functions. ..
  15. Ho G, Hashimoto M, Adame A, Izu M, Alford M, Thal L, et al. Altered p59Fyn kinase expression accompanies disease progression in Alzheimer's disease: implications for its functional role. Neurobiol Aging. 2005;26:625-35 pubmed
    ..In this context, the main objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Fyn protein levels and the neurological and neuropathological alterations in AD...
  16. Wang H, Rusielewicz T, Tewari A, Leitman E, Einheber S, Melendez Vasquez C. Myosin II is a negative regulator of oligodendrocyte morphological differentiation. J Neurosci Res. 2012;90:1547-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that the activity of NMII in OPC is controlled by Fyn kinase via downregulation of RhoA-ROCK-NMII phosphorylation...
  17. Mao L, Wang J. Dopamine D2 receptors are involved in the regulation of Fyn and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 phosphorylation in the rat striatum in vivo. J Neurosci Res. 2016;94:329-38 pubmed publisher
    b>Fyn, a major Src family kinase (SFK) member that is densely expressed in striatal neurons, is actively involved in the regulation of cellular and synaptic activities in local neurons...
  18. Xu H, Zhao H, Tian W, Yoshida K, Roullet J, Cohen D. Regulation of a transient receptor potential (TRP) channel by tyrosine phosphorylation. SRC family kinase-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of TRPV4 on TYR-253 mediates its response to hypotonic stress. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:11520-7 pubmed
    ..This is the first example of direct regulation of TRP channel function through tyrosine phosphorylation. ..
  19. Sammar M, Gulbins E, Hilbert K, Lang F, Altevogt P. Mouse CD24 as a signaling molecule for integrin-mediated cell binding: functional and physical association with src-kinases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;234:330-4 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the CD24-associated kinases are involved in the activation of cell aggregation. ..
  20. Gauen L, Zhu Y, Letourneur F, Hu Q, Bolen J, Matis L, et al. Interactions of p59fyn and ZAP-70 with T-cell receptor activation motifs: defining the nature of a signalling motif. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:3729-41 pubmed
    ..We propose that the activation of cells by the tyrosine activating motif occurs in four discrete steps: binding of p59fyn, phosphorylation of the motif, binding of ZAP-70, and activation of ZAP-70 kinase activity. ..
  21. Ba M, Kong M, Ma G. Postsynaptic density protein 95-regulated NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of Fyn with NR2B in levodopa-induced dyskinesia rat models. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2015;9:199-206 pubmed publisher
    ..It was reported that Fyn-mediated NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation, can enhance NMDA receptor function...
  22. Lee G, Thangavel R, Sharma V, Litersky J, Bhaskar K, Fang S, et al. Phosphorylation of tau by fyn: implications for Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci. 2004;24:2304-12 pubmed
    ..In this study we determined that human tau tyr18 was phosphorylated by the src family tyrosine kinase fyn. By developing both polyclonal and monoclonal probes specific for phospho-tyr18, we found that the phosphorylation ..
  23. Homchaudhuri L, Polverini E, Gao W, Harauz G, Boggs J. Influence of membrane surface charge and post-translational modifications to myelin basic protein on its ability to tether the Fyn-SH3 domain to a membrane in vitro. Biochemistry. 2009;48:2385-93 pubmed publisher
    ..et al. (2008) Biochemistry 47, 267-282]. Since molecular modeling shows that the Fyn-SH3 domain has a negative surface charge density even after binding the MBP ligand, we have investigated the ..
  24. Gout I, Dhand R, Hiles I, Fry M, Panayotou G, Das P, et al. The GTPase dynamin binds to and is activated by a subset of SH3 domains. Cell. 1993;75:25-36 pubmed
  25. Cantore M, Reinehr R, Sommerfeld A, Becker M, Haussinger D. The Src family kinase Fyn mediates hyperosmolarity-induced Mrp2 and Bsep retrieval from canalicular membrane. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:45014-29 pubmed publisher
    ..the canalicular membrane in perfused rat liver was accompanied by an activating phosphorylation of the Src kinases Fyn and Yes but not of c-Src...
  26. Tang X, Jang S, Okada M, Chan C, Feng Y, Liu Y, et al. Netrin-1 mediates neuronal survival through PIKE-L interaction with the dependence receptor UNC5B. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:698-706 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, this process relies strongly on Fyn because PIKE-L is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to netrin-1, and the netrin-1-mediated interaction of UNC5B ..
  27. Sanchez E, Bigbee J, Fobbs W, Robinson S, Sato Bigbee C. Opioid addiction and pregnancy: perinatal exposure to buprenorphine affects myelination in the developing brain. Glia. 2008;56:1017-27 pubmed publisher
    ..studies also suggested a mechanism involving a MAG-dependent activation of the Src-family tyrosine kinase Fyn. These results support the idea that opioid signaling plays an important role in regulating myelination in vivo and ..
  28. Garg P, Verma R, Nihalani D, Johnstone D, Holzman L. Neph1 cooperates with nephrin to transduce a signal that induces actin polymerization. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:8698-712 pubmed
    ..Upon engagement, Neph1 is phosphorylated on specific tyrosine residues by Fyn, which results in the recruitment of Grb2, an event that is necessary for Neph1-induced actin polymerization at the ..
  29. Choudhry M, Uddin S, Sayeed M. Prostaglandin E2 modulation of p59fyn tyrosine kinase in T lymphocytes during sepsis. J Immunol. 1998;160:929-35 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that PGE2 released during sepsis could contribute to the sepsis-related suppression in T cell proliferation by attenuating p59fyn phosphorylation and its kinase activity...
  30. Hou X, Zhang G, Yan J, Chen M, Liu Y. Activation of NMDA receptors and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels mediates enhanced formation of Fyn-PSD95-NR2A complex after transient brain ischemia. Brain Res. 2002;955:123-32 pubmed
    ..studies have indicated that tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit 2A (NR2A) by Src family kinases (Src, Fyn, etc...
  31. Nishio H, Otsuka M, Kinoshita S, Tokuoka T, Nakajima M, Noda Y, et al. Phosphorylation of c-Cbl protooncogene product following ethanol administration in rat cerebellum: possible involvement of Fyn kinase. Brain Res. 2002;950:203-9 pubmed
    ..We also investigated whether Fyn kinase was involved in ethanol-induced Cbl phosphorylation...
  32. Tissir F, Goffinet A. Reelin and brain development. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2003;4:496-505 pubmed
  33. Osterhout D, Wolven A, Wolf R, Resh M, Chao M. Morphological differentiation of oligodendrocytes requires activation of Fyn tyrosine kinase. J Cell Biol. 1999;145:1209-18 pubmed
    ..Here we find that Fyn tyrosine kinase activity is upregulated very early during oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation...
  34. Gringhuis S, den Dunnen J, Litjens M, Van het Hof B, van Kooyk Y, Geijtenbeek T. C-type lectin DC-SIGN modulates Toll-like receptor signaling via Raf-1 kinase-dependent acetylation of transcription factor NF-kappaB. Immunity. 2007;26:605-16 pubmed
    ..Thus, this pathway is involved in regulation of adaptive immunity by DCs to bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. ..
  35. Girasol A, Albuquerque G, Mansour E, Araujo E, Degasperi G, Denis R, et al. Fyn mediates leptin actions in the thymus of rodents. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7707 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, by employing immunoblot, real-time PCR and flow citometry we show that the tyrosine kinase, Fyn, is constitutively associated with the ObR in thymic cells...
  36. Ko H, Lee S, Kim K, Joo S, Choi W, Shin C. The Role of TLR4 and Fyn Interaction on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated PAI-1 Expression in Astrocytes. Mol Neurobiol. 2015;52:8-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the role of non-receptor tyrosine kinase Fyn in the regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced upregulation of PAI-1 in rat primary astrocyte...
  37. Mondragón Rodríguez S, Trillaud Doppia E, Dudilot A, Bourgeois C, Lauzon M, Leclerc N, et al. Interaction of endogenous tau protein with synaptic proteins is regulated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent tau phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:32040-53 pubmed publisher
    ..activation leads to a selective phosphorylation of specific sites in tau, regulating the interaction of tau with Fyn and the PSD95-NMDA receptor complex...
  38. Arold S, Franken P, Strub M, Hoh F, Benichou S, Benarous R, et al. The crystal structure of HIV-1 Nef protein bound to the Fyn kinase SH3 domain suggests a role for this complex in altered T cell receptor signaling. Structure. 1997;5:1361-72 pubmed
    ..core of HIV-1 Nef protein alone and in complex with the wild-type SH3 domain of the p59fyn protein tyrosine kinase (Fyn), at 3.0 A resolution...
  39. Klein C, Kramer E, Cardine A, Schraven B, Brandt R, Trotter J. Process outgrowth of oligodendrocytes is promoted by interaction of fyn kinase with the cytoskeletal protein tau. J Neurosci. 2002;22:698-707 pubmed
    b>Fyn kinase plays an important role during myelination and has been shown to promote morphological differentiation of cultured oligodendrocytes. We analyzed the downstream targets of Fyn kinase in oligodendrocytes...
  40. Um J, Kaufman A, Kostylev M, Heiss J, Stagi M, Takahashi H, et al. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 is a coreceptor for Alzheimer a? oligomer bound to cellular prion protein. Neuron. 2013;79:887-902 pubmed publisher
    ..At the postsynaptic density (PSD), extracellular A?o bound to lipid-anchored PrP(C) activates intracellular Fyn kinase to disrupt synapses...
  41. Yagi T, Aizawa S, Tokunaga T, Shigetani Y, Takeda N, Ikawa Y. A role for Fyn tyrosine kinase in the suckling behaviour of neonatal mice. Nature. 1993;366:742-5 pubmed
    Non-receptor-type tyrosine kinases of the Src family, such as Src, Yes and Fyn, are strongly expressed in the brain and have been suggested to have an important function in the central nervous system...
  42. Sandilands E, Brunton V, Frame M. The membrane targeting and spatial activation of Src, Yes and Fyn is influenced by palmitoylation and distinct RhoB/RhoD endosome requirements. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:2555-64 pubmed
    ..We show here that although two other ubiquitous Src family kinases (SFKs) Yes and Fyn also require intact actin filaments for peripheral membrane targeting, they display distinct spatial activation and ..
  43. Kotadia B, Ravindranath T, Choudhry M, Haque F, Al Ghoul W, Sayeed M. Effects of pentoxyfylline on mesenteric lymph node T-cells in a rat model of thermal injury. Shock. 2003;20:517-20 pubmed
    ..b>P59 fyn autophosphorylation and its kinase activity was determined using in vitro kinase assay...
  44. Burrell T, Divekar S, Weeber E, Rebeck G. Fyn tyrosine kinase increases Apolipoprotein E Receptor 2 levels and phosphorylation. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e110845 pubmed publisher
    Apolipoprotein E Receptor 2 (ApoER2) and the tyrosine kinase Fyn are both members of the Reelin pathway, a signaling pathway essential for the laminar formation of the cortex during development and proper dendritic spine density and long-..
  45. Yaka R, Phamluong K, Ron D. Scaffolding of Fyn kinase to the NMDA receptor determines brain region sensitivity to ethanol. J Neurosci. 2003;23:3623-32 pubmed
    ..We report here that the brain region-specific compartmentalization of Fyn kinase determines NMDA receptor sensitivity to ethanol...
  46. Sun J, Pedersen M, Ronnstrand L. Gab2 is involved in differential phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling by two splice forms of c-Kit. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:27444-51 pubmed publisher
  47. Yuasa S, Hattori K, Yagi T. Defective neocortical development in Fyn-tyrosine-kinase-deficient mice. Neuroreport. 2004;15:819-22 pubmed
    b>Fyn tyrosine kinase is involved in the tyrosine-phosphorylation of Disabled-1 in the Reelin signaling pathway, and absence of Fyn is expected to result in a reeler-like phenotype...
  48. Puertollano R. Interactions of TOM1L1 with the multivesicular body sorting machinery. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9258-64 pubmed
    ..We showed that a fraction of Fyn kinase localizes at endosomes and that this distribution becomes more evident after epidermal growth factor ..
  49. Chow A, Davis A, Gawler D. Identification of a novel protein complex containing annexin VI, Fyn, Pyk2, and the p120(GAP) C2 domain. FEBS Lett. 2000;469:88-92 pubmed
    ..Here we provide evidence that p55 is the Src family kinase Fyn and p120 is the focal adhesion kinase family member Pyk2...
  50. Xiao S, Wang J, Jiang J, Cao X, Wu G, Zhao H. Characterization of Fyn signaling on the age-dependent immuno-modulation on traumatic rats. Brain Res. 2009;1255:162-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In parallel, Fyn expression in cerebral cortex was augmented with the highest level at 3 day of trauma in both age groups of rats, ..
  51. Fang X, Lang Y, Wang Y, Mo W, Wei H, Xie J, et al. Shp2 activates Fyn and Ras to regulate RBL-2H3 mast cell activation following Fc?RI aggregation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40566 pubmed publisher
    ..pull-down assay reveals that the down-regulation of Shp2 expression in RBL cells leads to decreased activities of Fyn, PLC?, JNK, p38MAPK, and Ras/Erk1/2 after Fc?R? aggregation...
  52. Rizvi F, Shukla S, Kakkar P. Essential role of PH domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 2 in Nrf2 suppression via modulation of Akt/GSK3?/Fyn kinase axis during oxidative hepatocellular toxicity. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1153 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Akt inhibition enhanced nuclear translocation as well as phosphorylation of Fyn kinase, an enzyme linked to Nrf2 degradation, by relieving GSK3? from phosphorylation-mediated repression...
  53. Carmo A, Mason D, Beyers A. Physical association of the cytoplasmic domain of CD2 with the tyrosine kinases p56lck and p59fyn. Eur J Immunol. 1993;23:2196-201 pubmed