Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Fshb
Description: follicle stimulating hormone beta subunit
Alias: FSH-B, FSH-beta, follitropin subunit beta, follicle - stimulating hormone subunit beta, follicle stimulating hormone, beta polypeptide, follicle-stimulating hormone subunit beta, follitropin beta chain
- Wreford N, Rajendra Kumar T, Matzuk M, de Kretser D. Analysis of the testicular phenotype of the follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit knockout and the activin type II receptor knockout mice by stereological analysis. Endocrinology. 2001;142:2916-20 pubmed..stereological analysis of testicular cell types in mice with targeted disruption of genes encoding the FSH beta-subunit and the activin type IIA receptor (ActRIIA)...
- Buensuceso A, Deroo B. The ephrin signaling pathway regulates morphology and adhesion of mouse granulosa cells in vitro. Biol Reprod. 2013;88:25 pubmed publisher..The present study identifies Eph-ephrin signaling as a novel FSH-mediated pathway regulating granulosa cell morphology and adhesion. ..
- Purwana I, Kanasaki H, Mijiddorj T, Oride A, Miyazaki K. Induction of dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) by pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation: role for gonadotropin subunit expression in mouse pituitary LbetaT2 cells. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:996-1004 pubmed publisher..Overexpression of MAP3K1, a kinase upstream of MAPK3/1, increased both the Lhb and the Fshb subunit promoter activities, which could be completely inhibited by cotransfection with DUSP1-expressing vectors...
- Gharib S, Roy A, Wierman M, Chin W. Isolation and characterization of the gene encoding the beta-subunit of rat follicle-stimulating hormone. DNA. 1989;8:339-49 pubmed..The characterization of the rat FSH-beta gene will enable further study of the regulation of rat FSH using in vitro systems. ..
- Alam H, Maizels E, Park Y, Ghaey S, Feiger Z, Chandel N, et al. Follicle-stimulating hormone activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is necessary for induction of select protein markers of f. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:19431-40 pubmed..These results show that FSH enhances HIF-1 activity downstream of the PI 3-kinase/AKT/Rheb/mTOR pathway in GCs and that HIF-1 activity is necessary for FSH to induce multiple follicular differentiation markers. ..
- Burger L, Haisenleder D, Aylor K, Dalkin A, Prendergast K, Marshall J. Regulation of luteinizing hormone-beta and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-beta gene transcription by androgens: testosterone directly stimulates FSH-beta transcription independent from its role on follistatin gene expression. Endocrinology. 2004;145:71-8 pubmed..The increase in FSH-beta PT in response to T was androgen specific and occurs in the presence of excess FS, suggesting that T stimulates FSH-beta transcription independently of modulation of FS. ..
- Suszko M, Lo D, Suh H, Camper S, Woodruff T. Regulation of the rat follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit promoter by activin. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:318-32 pubmed..Taken together, these studies suggest that the regulation of FSHbeta is dependent on activin-mediated signaling factors in concert with pituitary-derived nuclear regulatory proteins. ..
- Tsai Turton M, Luderer U. Opposing effects of glutathione depletion and follicle-stimulating hormone on reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in cultured preovulatory rat follicles. Endocrinology. 2006;147:1224-36 pubmed..These findings provide evidence that oxidative stress induces apoptosis in preovulatory follicles and that the antiapoptotic effect of FSH is mediated in part by stimulation of follicular GSH synthesis and suppression of ROS production. ..
- Garrel G, Racine C, L hôte D, Denoyelle C, Guigon C, di Clemente N, et al. Anti-Müllerian hormone: a new actor of sexual dimorphism in pituitary gonadotrope activity before puberty. Sci Rep. 2016;6:23790 pubmed publisher..show that AMH is functionally coupled to the Smad pathway in L?T2 gonadotrope cells and dose-dependently increases Fshb transcript levels...
- Lannes J, L HÃ´te D, Garrel G, LaverriÃ¨re J, Cohen Tannoudji J, QuÃ©rat B. Rapid communication: A microRNA-132/212 pathway mediates GnRH activation of FSH expression. Mol Endocrinol. 2015;29:364-72 pubmed publisher..We first showed that the GnRH stimulation of FSH secretion was reduced and Fshb mRNA abolished by blocking miR-132/212 action in rat pituitary cells...
- Schirman Hildesheim T, Gershon E, Litichever N, Galiani D, Ben Aroya N, Dekel N, et al. Local production of the gonadotropic hormones in the rat ovary. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;282:32-8 pubmed publisher..Thus, these findings may imply the existence of a local GnRH-gonadotropin axis in the mammalian ovary that may be involved in the management of processes that lead to ovulation. ..
- Matthews C, Borgato S, Beck Peccoz P, Adams M, Tone Y, Gambino G, et al. Primary amenorrhoea and infertility due to a mutation in the beta-subunit of follicle-stimulating hormone. Nat Genet. 1993;5:83-6 pubmed..Sequence analysis of the FSH beta-subunit gene indicated that she is homozygous for a two nucleotide frameshift deletion in the coding sequence...
- Chen H, Zhao L, Chu G, Kito G, Yamauchi N, Shigeyoshi Y, et al. FSH induces the development of circadian clockwork in rat granulosa cells via a gap junction protein Cx43-dependent pathway. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;304:E566-75 pubmed publisher..In addition, both lindane and CBX induced a clear phase-delay shift of Per2 oscillations. These findings suggest that FSH induces the development of the clock system by increasing the expression of Cx43. ..
- Yao B, Yi N, Zhou S, Ouyang W, Xu H, Ge Y, et al. The effect of induced anti-follicle-stimulating hormone autoantibody on serum hormone level and apoptosis in rat testis. Life Sci. 2012;91:83-8 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that FSH autoantibody could cause the reduction of inhibin B, thereby inducing hypospermatogenesis via augment of spermatogenic cell apoptosis. ..
- Lukefahr A, Frye J, Wright L, Marion S, Hoyer P, Funk J. Decreased bone mineral density in rats rendered follicle-deplete by an ovotoxic chemical correlates with changes in follicle-stimulating hormone and inhibin A. Calcif Tissue Int. 2012;90:239-49 pubmed publisher..Thus, for the first time, both the hormonal milieu of perimenopause and the association of dynamic perimenopausal changes in FSH and inhibin A with decreased BMD have been reproduced in an animal model. ..
- Gregory S, Lacza C, Detz A, Xu S, Petrillo L, Kaiser U. Synergy between activin A and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in transcriptional activation of the rat follicle-stimulating hormone-beta gene. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:237-54 pubmed..The results indicate that SMAD3 plays an important role in the synergistic effects of activin and GnRH and demonstrate that this synergy is mediated by a palindromic cis-element located at -266/-259 of the rFSHbeta gene promoter. ..
- Zakaria M, Jeong K, Lacza C, Kaiser U. Pituitary homeobox 1 activates the rat FSHbeta (rFSHbeta) gene through both direct and indirect interactions with the rFSHbeta gene promoter. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:1840-52 pubmed..These results identify a functional Ptx1 binding site in the rFSHbeta gene promoter and suggest the presence of an additional activating pathway that is independent of direct binding of Ptx1 to the promoter. ..
- Burger L, Haisenleder D, Wotton G, Aylor K, Dalkin A, Marshall J. The regulation of FSHbeta transcription by gonadal steroids: testosterone and estradiol modulation of the activin intracellular signaling pathway. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293:E277-85 pubmed..These findings suggest that T regulates FSHbeta transcription, in part, through modulation of various components of the activin-signaling system. ..
- Sun L, Peng Y, Sharrow A, Iqbal J, Zhang Z, Papachristou D, et al. FSH directly regulates bone mass. Cell. 2006;125:247-60 pubmed..Osteoclasts and their precursors possess G(i2alpha)-coupled FSHRs that activate MEK/Erk, NF-kappaB, and Akt to result in enhanced osteoclast formation and function. We suggest that high circulating FSH causes hypogonadal bone loss. ..
- Suszko M, Balkin D, Chen Y, Woodruff T. Smad3 mediates activin-induced transcription of follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit gene. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:1849-58 pubmed
- Kumar T, Wang Y, Lu N, Matzuk M. Follicle stimulating hormone is required for ovarian follicle maturation but not male fertility. Nat Genet. 1997;15:201-4 pubmed..Minimal data has been accumulated so far involving human mutations in the FSH beta, LH beta, or the gonadotropin receptor genes...
- Ciccone N, Lacza C, Hou M, Gregory S, Kam K, Xu S, et al. A composite element that binds basic helix loop helix and basic leucine zipper transcription factors is important for gonadotropin-releasing hormone regulation of the follicle-stimulating hormone beta gene. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:1908-23 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, a composite element bound by both USF and CREB serves to integrate signals for basal and GnRH-stimulated transcription of the rat FSHbeta gene. ..
- Ambao V, Rulli S, Carino M, Console G, Ulloa Aguirre A, Calandra R, et al. Hormonal regulation of pituitary FSH sialylation in male rats. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;309:39-47 pubmed publisher..ST3Gal III expression remained unchanged in all the experimental conditions examined. These results show that the synthesis of FSH isoforms possessing alpha2,6-linked sialic acid is hormonally regulated in male rats. ..
- Zhang X, Zhou Y, Mehta K, Danila D, Scolavino S, Johnson S, et al. A pituitary-derived MEG3 isoform functions as a growth suppressor in tumor cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:5119-26 pubmed..Taken together, our data suggest that MEG3 may represent a novel growth suppressor, which may play an important role in the development of human pituitary adenomas. ..
- Liu J, Kuulasmaa T, Kosma V, Butzow R, Vänttinen T, Hyden Granskog C, et al. Expression of betaglycan, an inhibin coreceptor, in normal human ovaries and ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors and its regulation in cultured human granulosa-luteal cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:5002-8 pubmed..The specific expression and regulation pattern of betaglycan gene may be related to the functional antagonism of inhibins to activin signal transduction in human ovaries...
- Pals K, Roudbaraki M, Denef C. Growth hormone-releasing hormone and glucocorticoids determine the balance between luteinising hormone (LH) beta- and LH beta/follicle-stimulating hormone beta-positive gonadotrophs and somatotrophs in the 14-day-old rat pituitary tissue in aggregate. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:535-48 pubmed publisher..GHRH may not expand the somatotroph population unless glucocorticoid hormone is present to maintain terminal differentiation. ..
- Dalkin A, Burger L, Aylor K, Haisenleder D, Workman L, Cho S, et al. Regulation of gonadotropin subunit gene transcription by gonadotropin-releasing hormone: measurement of primary transcript ribonucleic acids by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. Endocrinology. 2001;142:139-46 pubmed..Additionally, concentrations are elevated in long term castrates, and following an exogenous GnRH pulse the transcriptional burst is rapid and brief. ..
- Fortin J, Boehm U, Deng C, Treier M, Bernard D. Follicle-stimulating hormone synthesis and fertility depend on SMAD4 and FOXL2. FASEB J. 2014;28:3396-410 pubmed publisher..Loss-of-function mutations in the FSHB/Fshb gene cause hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in humans and mice...
- Haisenleder D, Burger L, Walsh H, Stevens J, Aylor K, Shupnik M, et al. Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation of gonadotropin subunit transcription in rat pituitaries: evidence for the involvement of Jun N-terminal kinase but not p38. Endocrinology. 2008;149:139-45 pubmed..For LHbeta, JNK is essential in mediating responses to pulsatile GnRH. JNK also regulates FSHbeta transcription (i.e. maintaining basal expression) but does not play a role in responses to GnRH. ..
- Moriyama R, Yamazaki T, Kato T, Kato Y. Long-chain unsaturated fatty acids reduce the transcriptional activity of the rat follicle-stimulating hormone Î²-subunit gene. J Reprod Dev. 2016;62:195-9 pubmed publisher..LCFAs) and the LCFA receptor agonist GW9508 on the transcription of the gonadotropin subunit genes Cga, Lhb and Fshb because LCFA receptor GPR120 was observed in mouse gonadotropes in our recent study...