Gene Symbol: F2
Description: coagulation factor II
Alias: prothrombin, coagulation factor 2, thrombin
Species: rat
Products:     F2

Top Publications

  1. Hansson K, Lindblom A, Elg M, Lövgren A. Recombinant human prothrombin (MEDI8111) prevents bleeding in haemophilia A and B mice. Haemophilia. 2016;22:453-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment may be complicated by inhibitory antibodies that require bypass therapy such as FEIBA(®) in which prothrombin (FII) is suggested to be the main active component...
  2. Bregoli L, Baldassare J, Raben D. Nuclear diacylglycerol kinase-theta is activated in response to alpha-thrombin. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:23288-95 pubmed
    ..Previous work from our laboratory showed that stimulation of quiescent fibroblasts with alpha-thrombin leads to the production of two lipid second messengers in the nucleus: an increase in nuclear diacylglycerol mass ..
  3. Narita M, Usui A, Narita M, Niikura K, Nozaki H, Khotib J, et al. Protease-activated receptor-1 and platelet-derived growth factor in spinal cord neurons are implicated in neuropathic pain after nerve injury. J Neurosci. 2005;25:10000-9 pubmed
    Recently, it has been reported that both thrombin-sensitive protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are present not only in platelets, but also in the CNS, which indicates that they have various ..
  4. Li J, Liu Y, Yin W, Zhang C, Huang J, Liao C, et al. Alterations of the preoperative coagulation profile in patients with acute appendicitis. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011;49:1333-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with control subjects, prothrombin time (PT), fibrinogen (Fib) and endotoxin increased (all p<0.01), FVII:C decreased (p<0...
  5. Takahashi R, Ono K, Ikeda T, Akagi A, Noto D, Nozaki I, et al. Coagulation and fibrinolysis abnormalities in familial amyloid polyneuropathy. Amyloid. 2012;19:129-32 pubmed publisher
    ..However, few have investigated coagulation and fibrinolysis in FAP. The objective of this study was to determine abnormalities in plasma biomarkers of coagulation and fibrinolysis in FAP...
  6. Lefkowitz J, Weller A, Nuss R, Santiago Borrero P, Brown D, Ortiz I. A common mutation, Arg457-->Gln, links prothrombin deficiencies in the Puerto Rican population. J Thromb Haemost. 2003;1:2381-8 pubmed
    ..families with Puerto Rican ancestry were identified as having at least one member with bleeding due to a prothrombin deficiency...
  7. Sommeijer D, Florquin S, Hoedemaker I, Timmerman J, Reitsma P, ten Cate H. Renal tissue factor expression is increased in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2005;101:e86-94 pubmed
    ..Three or 10 weeks after injection, fibrin, thrombin and TF staining and TF activity were evaluated in the kidney...
  8. Herrera R, Díaz de Amaya E, Perez Aguilar R, Joo Turoni C, Marañón R, Berman S, et al. Inflammatory and prothrombotic activation with conserved endothelial function in patients with chronic, asymptomatic Chagas disease. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2011;17:502-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Endothelial function was determined by reactive hyperemia (pulse plethysmography). In patients, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, d-dimer, PAI-1, and fibrinogen were higher...
  9. Rungroj N, Sritippayawan S, Thongnoppakhun W, Paemanee A, Sawasdee N, Nettuwakul C, et al. Prothrombin haplotype associated with kidney stone disease in Northeastern Thai patients. Urology. 2011;77:249.e17-23 pubmed publisher
    ..including trefoil factor 1, calgranulin (A, B, and C), bikunin, osteopontin, tamm-Horsfall protein, and prothrombin, respectively, were initially genotyped in 112 individuals each and in additional subjects to consist of 164 ..

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Ay C, Dunkler D, Simanek R, Thaler J, Koder S, Marosi C, et al. Prediction of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer by measuring thrombin generation: results from the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:2099-103 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate thrombin generation, a key process in hemostasis, as predictor of cancer-associated VTE...
  2. Peters M, Plaat B, ten Cate H, Wolters H, Weening R, Brandjes D. Enhanced thrombin generation in children with sickle cell disease. Thromb Haemost. 1994;71:169-72 pubmed
    ..Significantly increased plasma concentrations of the prothrombin fragment F1+2 and of thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) complexes were found in SCD patients...
  3. Saito T, Yamamoto Y, Matsumura T, Nozaki S, Fujimura H, Shinno S. Coagulation system activated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients with cardiac dysfunction. Brain Dev. 2005;27:415-8 pubmed
    ..and fibrinogen degradation products (FDP), as well as plasma fibrinogen, thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), prothrombin fragment (F1+2), and D-dimer...
  4. Goschnick M, Lau L, Wee J, Liu Y, Hogarth P, Robb L, et al. Impaired "outside-in" integrin alphaIIbbeta3 signaling and thrombus stability in TSSC6-deficient mice. Blood. 2006;108:1911-8 pubmed
    ..TSSC6 is expressed on the surface of murine platelets and is up-regulated by thrombin stimulation, indicating an intracellular pool of TSSC6...
  5. Yamashita J, Nakajima K, Ohno Y, Kaneshiro Y, Matsuo T, Tanaka H, et al. Protective effects of antithrombin on puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;589:239-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that thrombin plays an important role in the pathogenesis of puromycin aminonucleoside-induced nephrotic syndrome...
  6. Thirumangalakudi L, Rao H, Grammas P. Involvement of PGE2 and PGDH but not COX-2 in thrombin-induced cortical neuron apoptosis. Neurosci Lett. 2009;452:172-5 pubmed publisher
    The pathways that contribute to thrombin-induced neuron death have been incompletely defined. Induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in prostaglandin synthesis, promotes neuronal injury...
  7. Kung C, Lee Y, Yen M. In vivo anticoagulant effect of ethyl pyruvate in endotoxemic rats. Thromb Res. 2011;127:582-8 pubmed publisher
    ..All used doses of EP significantly prevented prothrombin time prolongation, and reduced mRNA expression of tissue factor in lung tissue induced by LPS...
  8. Banfield D, MacGillivray R. Partial characterization of vertebrate prothrombin cDNAs: amplification and sequence analysis of the B chain of thrombin from nine different species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:2779-83 pubmed
    The cDNA sequence of the B chain of thrombin (EC has been determined from nine vertebrate species (rat, mouse, rabbit, chicken, gecko, newt, rainbow trout, sturgeon, and hagfish). The amino acid sequence identities vary from 96...
  9. Cavanaugh K, Gurwitz D, Cunningham D, Bradshaw R. Reciprocal modulation of astrocyte stellation by thrombin and protease nexin-1. J Neurochem. 1990;54:1735-43 pubmed
    ..b>Thrombin rapidly reversed the stellation induced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP, forskolin, or isoproterenol in cultured rat ..
  10. Gurgey A, Balta G, Boyvat A. Factor V Leiden mutation and PAI-1 gene 4G/5G genotype in thrombotic patients with Behcet's disease. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2003;14:121-4 pubmed
    ..The present study was designed to analyse the role of the factor V Leiden and the prothrombin G20210A mutations and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism on the thrombotic risk of patients ..
  11. Ekmekci Y, Keven K, Akar N, Egin Y, Sengul S, Kutlay S, et al. Thrombophilia and avascular necrosis of femoral head in kidney allograft recipients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006;21:3555-8 pubmed
    ..We aimed to search for the relation of both prothrombin gene G20210A mutation and factor V G1691A (factor V Leiden) mutation with AVN among kidney transplant ..
  12. Grover P, Miyazawa K, Coleman M, Stahl J, Ryall R. Renal prothrombin mRNA is significantly decreased in a hyperoxaluric rat model of nephrolithiasis. J Pathol. 2006;210:273-81 pubmed
    Although urinary prothrombin fragment 1 (UPTF1) possesses several hallmarks expected of a regulatory protein in urolithiasis, its precise role remains unknown...
  13. Matsumoto K, Yano Y, Gabazza E, Araki R, Bruno N, Suematsu M, et al. Inverse correlation between activated protein C generation and carotid atherosclerosis in Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med. 2007;24:1322-8 pubmed
    ..The plasma levels of the thrombin-anti-thromobin complex (TAT) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were measured by enzyme-linked ..
  14. Sundivakkam P, Kwiatek A, Sharma T, Minshall R, Malik A, Tiruppathi C. Caveolin-1 scaffold domain interacts with TRPC1 and IP3R3 to regulate Ca2+ store release-induced Ca2+ entry in endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C403-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that CSD interacts with TRPC1 and IP(3)R3 and thereby regulates Ca(2+) store release-induced Ca(2+) entry in endothelial cells. ..
  15. Yang Y, Li P, Liu M. [Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on hemorheology and coagulation in atherosclerotic rats]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010;90:2004-7 pubmed
    ..05), but activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), erythrocyte deformation index(DI), plasma NO and T-AOC were lower (all P < 0...
  16. Parrales A, Lopez E, López Colomé A. Thrombin activation of PI3K/PDK1/Akt signaling promotes cyclin D1 upregulation and RPE cell proliferation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813:1758-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon the breakdown of the BRB due to trauma or metabolic imbalance the contact of RPE with serum-contained thrombin has been shown to stimulate the proliferation of otherwise quiescent RPE cells...
  17. Machida T, Takata F, Matsumoto J, Miyamura T, Hirata R, Kimura I, et al. Contribution of thrombin-reactive brain pericytes to blood-brain barrier dysfunction in an in vivo mouse model of obesity-associated diabetes and an in vitro rat model. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177447 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that brain pericytes respond to increased brain thrombin levels in diabetes, leading to BBB dysfunction and diabetic CNS complications...
  18. Konishi N, Hiroe K, Kawamura M. Differential effects of TAK-442, a novel orally active direct factor Xa inhibitor, and ximelagatran, a thrombin inhibitor, on factor V-mediated feedback on coagulation cascade and bleeding. Thromb Haemost. 2010;104:504-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In normal plasma, TAK-442 delayed the onset of tissue factor-induced thrombin generation and prolonged prothrombin time (PT) with more gradual concentration-response curve than melagatran, the active form of ximelagatran...
  19. Karlström E, Norgård M, Hultenby K, Somogyi Ganss E, Sugars R, Andersson G, et al. Localization and expression of prothrombin in rodent osteoclasts and long bones. Calcif Tissue Int. 2011;88:179-88 pubmed publisher
    The serum protein prothrombin (PT) is proteolytically converted to thrombin during the coagulation cascade by the cell-associated prothrombinase complex...
  20. Walter J, Handel L, Brodhun M, van Rossum D, Hanisch U, Liebmann L, et al. Expression of coagulation factors and their receptors in tumor tissue and coagulation factor upregulation in peripheral blood of patients with cerebral carcinoma metastases. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012;138:141-51 pubmed publisher
    ..intracerebral metastases of clear-cell renal cell carcinomas and of small-cell carcinomas of the lung express prothrombin, thrombin, factor X, and the protease-activated receptors type 1, 2, 3, and 4...
  21. Tsai H, Tsao C, Liao M, Ka S, Liaw W, Wu C. Application of thrombelastography in liver injury induced by endotoxin in rat. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2012;23:118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..TEG variables (R-time, K-time, ?-angle and maximal amplitude), thrombin-antithrombin complex and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were also measured...
  22. Qiu P, Li Y, Shiloach J, Cui X, Sun J, Trinh L, et al. Bacillus anthracis cell wall peptidoglycan but not lethal or edema toxins produces changes consistent with disseminated intravascular coagulation in a rat model. J Infect Dis. 2013;208:978-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with control at 6 hours, PGN decreased platelet and fibrinogen levels and increased prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times and tissue factor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, protein C, ..
  23. Smith S, Travers R, Morrissey J. How it all starts: Initiation of the clotting cascade. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;50:326-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on how the initiation phase of the blood clotting cascade is regulated in both pathways, with a discussion of the contributions of these pathways to hemostasis versus thrombosis. ..
  24. Nobukata H, Katsuki Y, Ishikawa T, Inokuma M, Shibutani Y. Effect of dienogest on bleeding time, coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelet aggregation in female rats. Toxicol Lett. 1999;104:93-101 pubmed
    ..In comparison with MPA and danazol, dienogest may induce a relatively high incidence of bleeding in patients with endometriosis partially because of its minimal effect on hemostasis. ..
  25. Butt C, Zheng H, Randell E, Robb D, Parfrey P, Xie Y. Combined carrier status of prothrombin 20210A and factor XIII-A Leu34 alleles as a strong risk factor for myocardial infarction: evidence of a gene-gene interaction. Blood. 2003;101:3037-41 pubmed
    Studies associating the prothrombin 20210G>A (FII 20210A), factor V Leiden (FVL), and factor XIII Leu34 (FXIII-A Leu34) alleles with myocardial infarction (MI) have yielded conflicting results...
  26. Silingardi M, Salvarani C, Boiardi L, Accardo P, Iorio A, Olivieri I, et al. Factor V Leiden and prothrombin gene G20210A mutations in Italian patients with Behçet's disease and deep vein thrombosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;51:177-83 pubmed
    ..the frequency and type of vascular lesions and to study the association of factor V gene G1691A (Leiden) and prothrombin gene G20210A polymorphisms with venous thrombosis in Italian patients with Behçet's disease (BD)...
  27. Xiao L, Ma Z, Li X, Lin Q, Que H, Liu S. cDNA microarray analysis of spinal cord injury and regeneration related genes in rat. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2005;57:705-13 pubmed
    ..e., stearyl-CoA desaturase, coagulation factor II (F2), endosulfin alpha (Ensa), were further confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
  28. Na L, Jun Tian L, Qiang Zong Z. Ellagic acid-induced hypercoagulable state in animals: a potentially useful animal hypercoagulable model for evaluation of anticoagulants. Chin Med Sci J. 2010;25:237-42 pubmed
    ..b>Prothrombin time (PT) and the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in rats and rabbits were measured by means of ..
  29. de Oliveira L, Pires M, Magrisso A, Munhoz T, Roesler R, de Oliveira J. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate inhibits in vitro and ex vivo platelet aggregation induced by ADP and ameliorates coagulation alterations in experimental sepsis in rats. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2010;29:387-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, treatment with FBP 2 g/kg prevented thrombocytopenia (P < 0.001), prolongation of prothrombin and partial thromboplastin time (P < 0.001), but not fibrinogen, in septic rats...
  30. Smith J, Winkelstein B. The role of spinal thrombin through protease-activated receptor 1 in hyperalgesia after neural injury. J Neurosurg Spine. 2017;26:532-541 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of these studies was to determine whether the blood-borne serine protease thrombin also crosses a permeable BSCB, contributing to nociception through its activation of protease-activated receptor-..
  31. Sun W, Witte D, Degen J, Colbert M, Burkart M, Holmbäck K, et al. Prothrombin deficiency results in embryonic and neonatal lethality in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:7597-602 pubmed
    The conversion of prothrombin (FII) to the serine protease, thrombin (FIIa), is a key step in the coagulation cascade because FIIa triggers platelet activation, converts fibrinogen to fibrin, and activates regulatory pathways that both ..
  32. Przewozny T, Gasecki D, Narozny W, Nyka W. Risk factors of sensorineural hearing loss in patients with ischemic stroke. Otol Neurotol. 2008;29:745-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated risk factors of sensorineural hearing loss (SHL) in patients with early stage of ischemic stroke (IS)...
  33. Sun Y, Wang J, Wu X, Xi C, Gai Y, Liu H, et al. Validating the incidence of coagulopathy and disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients with traumatic brain injury--analysis of 242 cases. Br J Neurosurg. 2011;25:363-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) on admission, platelet counts (PLT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB), D-dimer (D-DT) and DIC scores were ..
  34. Liu F, Jian X, Zhang Z, Liu H, Zhou Q, Zhang W, et al. [Experimental anticoagulant therapy of acute lung injury induced by paraquat]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2012;30:190-3 pubmed
    ..After exposure the rats were sacrificed, the venous blood and lung tissues were collected to detect the prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, thrombin time and D-dimer in blood and the ..
  35. Yang A, Zhou H, Lin Y, Luo J, Cui H, Tang T, et al. Thrombin promotes the expression of thrombospondin-1 and -2 in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage. J Neurol Sci. 2012;323:141-6 pubmed publisher
    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most severe types of stroke. Thrombin has been reported to participate in brain repair following ICH and play an important role in angiogenesis...
  36. O Marcaigh A, Nichols W, Hassinger N, Mullins J, Mallouh A, Gilchrist G, et al. Genetic analysis and functional characterization of prothrombins Corpus Christi (Arg382-Cys), Dhahran (Arg271-His), and hypoprothrombinemia. Blood. 1996;88:2611-8 pubmed
    The structural abnormalities and functional characteristics of dysfunctional prothrombin variants in two new kindreds have been determined...
  37. Psuja P, Zozulińska M, Turowiecka Z, Cieślikowski W, Vinazzer H, Zawilska K. Plasma markers of hypercoagulability in patients with serious infections and risk of septic shock. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2002;8:225-30 pubmed
    ..Standard screening of hemostasis revealed significantly increased mean values of prothrombin time, fibrinogen, and fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) concentration...
  38. Cadoni G, Scipione S, Rocca B, Agostino S, La Greca C, Bonvissuto D, et al. Lack of association between inherited thrombophilic risk factors and idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss in Italian patients. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2006;115:195-200 pubmed
    ..The factor V Leiden G1691A, the prothrombin G20210A allele, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotypes were investigated...
  39. Undas A, Wiek I, Stepien E, Zmudka K, Tracz W. Hyperglycemia is associated with enhanced thrombin formation, platelet activation, and fibrin clot resistance to lysis in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:1590-5 pubmed publisher
    ..0 mmol/l, and 20 subjects with glucose levels <7.0 mmol/l. We determined generation of thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TATs) and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), a platelet activation marker, at the site of ..
  40. Rios D, Fernandes A, Carvalho M, Figueiredo R, Guimarães D, Reis D, et al. Hemodialysis vascular access thrombosis: The role of factor V Leiden, prothrombin gene mutation and ABO blood groups. Clin Chim Acta. 2011;412:425-9 pubmed publisher
    ..aim of this study was to investigate the association between HD vascular access thrombosis and mutations in the prothrombin and factor V Leiden (FV) genes and ABO blood system...
  41. Skeppholm M, Kallner A, Malmqvist K, Blomback M, Wallen H. Is fibrin formation and thrombin generation increased during and after an acute coronary syndrome?. Thromb Res. 2011;128:483-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We also investigated thrombin generation using the calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT), and assessed thrombin generation in vivo by ..
  42. Oldgren J, Siegbahn A, Grip L, Linder R, Thygesen K, Wallentin L. Myocardial damage, coagulation activity and the response to thrombin inhibition in unstable coronary artery disease. Thromb Haemost. 2004;91:381-7 pubmed
    ..e. prothrombin fragment 1+2, thrombin-antithrombin complex, soluble fibrin and D-dimer, and ischemic events, i.e...
  43. Rao H, Thirumangalakudi L, Grammas P. Cyclin C and cyclin dependent kinases 1, 2 and 3 in thrombin-induced neuronal cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Neurosci Lett. 2009;450:347-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously showed upregulation of early G1 regulators in thrombin-treated neurons yet neurons did not proceed to S phase but to apoptosis...
  44. Celikel R, McClintock R, Roberts J, Mendolicchio G, Ware J, Varughese K, et al. Modulation of alpha-thrombin function by distinct interactions with platelet glycoprotein Ibalpha. Science. 2003;301:218-21 pubmed
    b>Thrombin bound to platelets contributes to stop bleeding and, in pathological conditions, may cause vascular thrombosis. We have determined the structure of platelet glycoprotein Ibalpha (GpIbalpha) bound to thrombin at 2...
  45. Vera P, Wolfe T, Braley A, Meyer Siegler K. Thrombin induces macrophage migration inhibitory factor release and upregulation in urothelium: a possible contribution to bladder inflammation. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15904 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effect of stimulation with thrombin, a Protease Activated Receptor-1 (PAR1) agonist, on MIF release and MIF mRNA upregulation in urothelial cells...
  46. Cruciani F, Moramarco A, Curto T, Labate A, Recupero V, Conti L, et al. MTHFR C677T mutation, factor II G20210A mutation and factor V Leiden as risks factor for youth retinal vein occlusion. Clin Ter. 2003;154:299-303 pubmed
    ..One control was heterozygous for the factor V Leiden. This study fails to demonstrate that these mutations are risk factors for RVO in patients under fifty years of age. ..
  47. Shim K, Zhu H, Westfield L, Sadler J. A recombinant murine meizothrombin precursor, prothrombin R157A/R268A, inhibits thrombosis in a model of acute carotid artery injury. Blood. 2004;104:415-9 pubmed
    Mutations in human prothrombin that generate a stable form of meizothrombin or meizothrombin(desF1) cause dysprothrombinemia in both the homozygous and heterozygous state, suggesting that meizothrombin has dominant anticoagulant effects ..
  48. Marcucci R, Sofi F, Fedi S, Lari B, Sestini I, Cellai A, et al. Thrombophilic risk factors in patients with severe carotid atherosclerosis. J Thromb Haemost. 2005;3:502-7 pubmed
    ..The results of the present study demonstrate that the prevalence of the thrombophilic risk factors is increased in patients with severe carotid atherosclerosis. ..
  49. Papareddy P, Rydengård V, Pasupuleti M, Walse B, Morgelin M, Chalupka A, et al. Proteolysis of human thrombin generates novel host defense peptides. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000857 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that C-terminal peptides of thrombin, a key enzyme in the coagulation cascade, constitute a novel class of host defense peptides, released upon ..
  50. Niessen F, Schaffner F, Furlan Freguia C, Pawlinski R, Bhattacharjee G, Chun J, et al. Dendritic cell PAR1-S1P3 signalling couples coagulation and inflammation. Nature. 2008;452:654-8 pubmed publisher
    ..1 (PAR1) signalling sustains a lethal inflammatory response that can be interrupted by inhibition of either thrombin or PAR1 signalling...
  51. Sibireva O. [Association of hemostatic disorders in diabetic patients with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T) and coagulation factors II (G20210A) and V (G1691A) gene polymorphism]. Klin Lab Diagn. 2011;:36-9 pubmed
    ..The mutations are associated with increased blood coagulation potential and platelet hyperactivation. ..
  52. Seven G, Karatayli S, Kose S, Yakut M, Kabacam G, Toruner M, et al. Serum connective tissue markers as predictors of advanced fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and D. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2011;22:305-14 pubmed
    ..Markers useful for fibrosis prediction also predicted marked inflammation. Using the gold standard, age, prothrombin time, gamma glutamyl transferase and albumin were independent predictors of fibrosis with odds ratio's of 3...
  53. Fritze D, Zhang W, Li J, Chai B, Mulholland M. Thrombin mediates vagal apoptosis and dysfunction in inflammatory bowel disease. J Gastrointest Surg. 2014;18:1495-506 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Prothrombin production was evaluated via quantitative RT-PCR from DMV tissue, as well as by double immunofluorescence in ..
  54. Foley J, Conway E. Cross Talk Pathways Between Coagulation and Inflammation. Circ Res. 2016;118:1392-408 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we highlight some of the key molecular interactions, some of which are already showing promise as therapeutic targets for inflammatory and thrombotic disorders. ..
  55. Vu T, Hung D, Wheaton V, Coughlin S. Molecular cloning of a functional thrombin receptor reveals a novel proteolytic mechanism of receptor activation. Cell. 1991;64:1057-68 pubmed
    We isolated a cDNA encoding a functional human thrombin receptor by direct expression cloning in Xenopus oocytes. mRNA encoding this receptor was detected in human platelets and vascular endothelial cells...
  56. Citron B, Smirnova I, Arnold P, Festoff B. Upregulation of neurotoxic serine proteases, prothrombin, and protease-activated receptor 1 early after spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma. 2000;17:1191-203 pubmed
    ..One specific serine protease gene we found that was upregulated after injury was prothrombin. Qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR techniques indicated that this increase occurred early, already evident at ..
  57. Kitamoto Y, Imamura T, Fukui H, Koga S, Tomita K. [Evaluation of thrombin in urine as a real-time indicator of clotting activation in glomerulonephritis]. Rinsho Byori. 2004;52:350-4 pubmed
    ..tissues are injured and bleeding occurs, blood clotting is immediately activated and fibrin clots are formed by thrombin. Afterwards, antithrombin III promptly inactivates thrombin, which restricts the clotting to the bleeding site...
  58. Norris L. Blood coagulation. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;17:369-83 pubmed
    ..initial triggering, a series of serine proteases are sequentially activated, culminating in the formation of thrombin, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of soluble fibrinogen to the insoluble fibrin clot...
  59. Tsai Y, Cheng P, Kung C, Peng Y, Ke T, Wang J, et al. Beneficial effects of magnolol in a rodent model of endotoxin shock. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;641:67-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the plasma level of the thrombin-antithrombin complex following administration of LPS was also reduced by post-treatment with magnolol...
  60. Harr J, Moore E, Wohlauer M, Droz N, Fragoso M, Banerjee A, et al. The acute coagulopathy of trauma is due to impaired initial thrombin generation but not clot formation or clot strength. J Surg Res. 2011;170:319-24 pubmed publisher
    ..of ACOT, but thrombelastography (TEG) may provide insight by assessing hemostatic function from initial thrombin activation to fibrinolysis...
  61. Tsai H, Ding C, Tsao C, Liao M, Ka S, Liaw W, et al. Effects of gabexate mesilate on coagulopathy and organ dysfunction in rats with endotoxemia: a potential use of thrombelastography in endotoxin-induced sepsis. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2015;26:175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..dysfunction, consumptive coagulopathy, the increases in serum tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, plasma thrombin-antithrombin complex and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and neutrophils infiltration score in lung, liver and ..
  62. Dubois C, Panicot Dubois L, Gainor J, Furie B, Furie B. Thrombin-initiated platelet activation in vivo is vWF independent during thrombus formation in a laser injury model. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:953-60 pubmed
    ..Of the agonists involved in platelet activation, thrombin, collagen, and vWF are known to induce in vitro calcium mobilization in platelets...
  63. Negrev N, Radev R, Velikova M, Anogeianaki A. Effects of the hormones of the thyroid axis on the vitamin K-dependent plasma factors of blood coagulation (II, VII, IX, and X). Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2008;21:221-6 pubmed
  64. Shimizu S, Gabazza E, Ogawa T, Tojima I, Hoshi E, Kouzaki H, et al. Role of thrombin in chronic rhinosinusitis-associated tissue remodeling. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2011;25:7-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Thrombin, the effector enzyme of the coagulation system, has been reported to promote inflammatory responses in nasal diseases through its protease-activated receptors (PARs)...
  65. Iwahana H, Yoshimoto K, Shigekiyo T, Shirakami A, Saito S, Itakura M. Detection of a single base substitution of the gene for prothrombin Tokushima. The application of PCR-SSCP for the genetic and molecular analysis of dysprothrombinemia. Int J Hematol. 1992;55:93-100 pubmed
    The genetic and molecular basis of a mutant prothrombin of 'prothrombin Tokushima' was studied by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) ..
  66. Kaneko K, Kobayashi R, Yasuda M, Izumi Y, Yamanobe T, Shimizu T. Comparison of matrix proteins in different types of urinary stone by proteomic analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Int J Urol. 2012;19:765-72 pubmed publisher
    ..calcium oxalate monohydrate or calcium oxalate dihydrate stones, osteopontin, uromodulin, albumin, protein Z, prothrombin, protein S, hemoglobin and histone H4 were identified...
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    ..05). Our study provides new data on genetic risk factors for VTE in the very elderly people. Whether identification of hereditary thrombophilia in elderly patients may influence patient's management in this age group remains unanswered. ..
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    ..rs1799963 (G20210A) and rs3136516 (A19911G), are known to be associated with elevated levels/activity of prothrombin (encoded by F2) and risk of thrombosis...
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    ..and we and others have reported that, in addition to its central role in blood coagulation and haemostasis, thrombin is a powerful regulator of inflammatory responses...
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    ..Of the coagulation activation markers, the mean plasma level of prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2), but not of thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT), was higher in SSc patients than in ..
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    ..factor (EGF) receptor ligands and activation of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinases Pyk2 and Src contributed to the thrombin-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation...
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    ..b>Prothrombin, apolipoprotein A-IV (Apo A-IV) and haptoglobin were elevated in CSF of the HD patients in comparison with the ..
  74. Alkim H, Ayaz S, Alkim C, Ulker A, Sahin B. Continuous active state of coagulation system in patients with nonthrombotic inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2011;17:600-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Platelets; prothrombin time (PT); partial thromboplastin time (PTT); fibrinogen; D-dimer; fibrinogen degradation products; protein C; ..
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    ..Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the level of thrombin antithrombin (TAT), tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA), urokinase type plasminogen activator (u-PA), ..
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    ..study was to evaluate coagulation and fibrinolytic alterations by two global tests in RVO patients: Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) and Clot Lysis Time (CLT), respectively...
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    Seizures are a common outcome of cerebrovascular events as well as of traumatic brain injuries. Thrombin, a protease-activated receptor (PAR) agonist, has been implicated in the onset of seizures in these settings, yet its mode of action ..
  78. Darlington D, Craig T, Gonzales M, Schwacha M, Cap A, Dubick M. Acute coagulopathy of trauma in the rat. Shock. 2013;39:440-6 pubmed publisher
    ..soon after severe injury and blood loss and has been defined in the clinical literature as an elevation in prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)...
  79. Arumugam P, Mullins E, Shanmukhappa S, Monia B, Loberg A, Shaw M, et al. Genetic diminution of circulating prothrombin ameliorates multiorgan pathologies in sickle cell disease mice. Blood. 2015;126:1844-55 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore the hypothesis that reduced prothrombin (factor II [FII]) levels in SCD will limit vaso-occlusion, vasculopathy, and inflammation, we used 2 strategies ..
  80. Molino M, Bainton D, Hoxie J, Coughlin S, Brass L. Thrombin receptors on human platelets. Initial localization and subsequent redistribution during platelet activation. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:6011-7 pubmed
    Platelet responses to thrombin are at least partly mediated by a G-protein-coupled receptor whose NH2 terminus is a substrate for thrombin...
  81. Cohen Z, Gonzales R, Davis Gorman G, Copeland J, McDonagh P. Thrombin activity and platelet microparticle formation are increased in type 2 diabetic platelets: a potential correlation with caspase activation. Thromb Res. 2002;107:217-21 pubmed
    ..provides an anchor, phosphatidylserine, for the attachment of the prothrombinase complex, which allows increased thrombin formation...
  82. Weiser P, Qian Y, Pan J, Zhou X, Lu H, Studelska D, et al. Activated contact system and abnormal glycosaminoglycans in lupus and other auto- and non-autoimmune diseases. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2010;93:443-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The activated contact system generates thrombin. Thrombin is responsible for thrombosis, a common cause of death and disabilities for both HIT and SLE...
  83. Cornet A, Hofstra J, Vlaar A, van den Boogaard F, Roelofs J, van der Poll T, et al. Nebulized anticoagulants limit coagulopathy but not inflammation in pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced pneumonia in rats. Shock. 2011;36:417-23 pubmed publisher
    ..of pulmonary coagulation and inhibition of pulmonary fibrinolysis, as reflected by increased pulmonary levels of thrombin-AT complexes and fibrin degradation products and decreased pulmonary levels plasminogen activator activity...
  84. Takahashi H, Wada K, Niwano H, Shibata A. Comparison of prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 with thrombin-antithrombin III complex in plasma of patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1992;3:813-8 pubmed
    Plasma levels of prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) and thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT) are thought to be specific indicators of thrombin generation...
  85. Cugno M, Cicardi M, Bottasso B, Coppola R, Paonessa R, Mannucci P, et al. Activation of the coagulation cascade in C1-inhibitor deficiencies. Blood. 1997;89:3213-8 pubmed
    ..Generation of thrombin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as plasma levels of the prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2); the initiators of the tissue factor and contact coagulation pathways were investigated ..
  86. Akhavan S, Mannucci P, Lak M, Mancuso G, Mazzucconi M, Rocino A, et al. Identification and three-dimensional structural analysis of nine novel mutations in patients with prothrombin deficiency. Thromb Haemost. 2000;84:989-97 pubmed
    b>Prothrombin deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with a moderately severe bleeding tendency...
  87. Elmas E, Kaelsch T, Wolpert C, Sueselbeck T, Bertsch T, Dempfle C, et al. Assessment of markers of thrombin generation in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by ventricular fibrillation. Clin Cardiol. 2006;29:165-9 pubmed
    ..Levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT), prothrombin fragment F1 + 2 (F1 + 2), fibrinopeptide A (FPA), plasmin-antiplasmin complexes (PAP), protein C, antithrombin, ..
  88. Troyanovsky B, Alvarez D, King J, Schaphorst K. Thrombin enhances the barrier function of rat microvascular endothelium in a PAR-1-dependent manner. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008;294:L266-75 pubmed
    b>Thrombin is a multifunctional coagulation protease with pro- and anti-inflammatory vascular effects. We questioned whether thrombin may have segmentally differentiated effects on pulmonary endothelium...
  89. Scavarda D, Gabaudan C, Ughetto F, Lamy F, Imada V, Lena G, et al. Initial predictive factors of outcome in severe non-accidental head trauma in children. Childs Nerv Syst. 2010;26:1555-61 pubmed publisher
    ..variables were tested with univariate procedure too (age, weight, PRISM II, GCS, Platelet count, fibrin, prothrombin time (PT)...). Potential association between variables and death was tested using univariate procedure...
  90. Riek Burchardt M, Striggow F, Henrich Noack P, Reiser G, Reymann K. Increase of prothrombin-mRNA after global cerebral ischemia in rats, with constant expression of protease nexin-1 and protease-activated receptors. Neurosci Lett. 2002;329:181-4 pubmed
    b>Prothrombin, protease-activated receptors (PARs) and the specific thrombin inhibitor protease nexin-1 (PN-1) are expressed in the brain...
  91. Marzano A, Tedeschi A, Berti E, Fanoni D, Crosti C, Cugno M. Activation of coagulation in bullous pemphigoid and other eosinophil-related inflammatory skin diseases. Clin Exp Immunol. 2011;165:44-50 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Prothrombin fragment F1+2 and d-dimer (coagulation markers) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in ..
  92. Ozcan A, Ware K, Calomeni E, Nadasdy T, Forbes R, Satoskar A, et al. 5/6 nephrectomy as a validated rat model mimicking human warfarin-related nephropathy. Am J Nephrol. 2012;35:356-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The SC increase was correlated with the prothrombin time increase...