Gene Symbol: Esr1
Description: estrogen receptor 1
Alias: ER-alpha, Esr, RNESTROR, estrogen receptor, C-terminally-truncated estrogen receptor alpha product-1, Er alpha, estradiol receptor, estrogen receptor 1 (alpha), estrogen receptor alpha c-terminus splice variant 1-2, estrogen receptor alpha i45aL, estrogen receptor alpha i45aS, estrogen receptor alpha i45c, estrogen receptor alpha i56a, estrogen receptor alpha i56b, estrogen receptor alpha i56c, estrogen receptor alpha i56dL, estrogen receptor alpha i56dS, estrogen receptor alpha i56e, estrogen receptor alpha variant delta 4, estrogen receptor protein, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group A member 1, truncated estrogen receptor product-2, trunctaed estrogen receptor product-1
Species: rat
Products:     Esr1

Top Publications

  1. Zhang Q, Raz L, Wang R, Han D, De Sevilla L, Yang F, et al. Estrogen attenuates ischemic oxidative damage via an estrogen receptor alpha-mediated inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation. J Neurosci. 2009;29:13823-36 pubmed publisher
    ..superoxide production in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons after stroke, an effect mediated by extranuclear estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)-mediated nongenomic signaling, involving Akt activation and subsequent phosphorylation/..
  2. Jeanes H, Tabor C, Black D, Ederveen A, Gray G. Oestrogen-mediated cardioprotection following ischaemia and reperfusion is mimicked by an oestrogen receptor (ER)alpha agonist and unaffected by an ER beta antagonist. J Endocrinol. 2008;197:493-501 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study aims to characterise two novel oestrogen receptor (ER) ligands, an ER alpha agonist ERA-45 and an ER beta antagonist ERB-88, and then use them to investigate the roles of ER alpha and ER ..
  3. Alyea R, Laurence S, Kim S, Katzenellenbogen B, Katzenellenbogen J, Watson C. The roles of membrane estrogen receptor subtypes in modulating dopamine transporters in PC-12 cells. J Neurochem. 2008;106:1525-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, ERalpha is largely responsible for non-genomic estrogenic effects on DAT activity. ..
  4. Lalmansingh A, Uht R. Estradiol regulates corticotropin-releasing hormone gene (crh) expression in a rapid and phasic manner that parallels estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta recruitment to a 3',5'-cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate regulatory region of the proximal crh pro. Endocrinology. 2008;149:346-57 pubmed
    ..The tight temporal correlation between E2-induced CRH mRNA levels and promoter occupancy by ERs strongly suggest that E2 regulates crh expression through an ERalpha- and/or ERbeta-CRE alternate pathway. ..
  5. Lian K, Lui L, Zmuda J, Nevitt M, Hochberg M, Lee J, et al. Estrogen receptor alpha genotype is associated with a reduced prevalence of radiographic hip osteoarthritis in elderly Caucasian women. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007;15:972-8 pubmed
    This study evaluated the association between polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha gene (ESR1) and prevalent and incident radiographic hip osteoarthritis (RHOA) in a large, well-defined prospective cohort of elderly Caucasian ..
  6. Zaman G, Jessop H, Muzylak M, de Souza R, Pitsillides A, Price J, et al. Osteocytes use estrogen receptor alpha to respond to strain but their ERalpha content is regulated by estrogen. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:1297-306 pubmed
    ..This association could result from the estrogen receptor (ER) involvement in bone cells' adaptive response to loading...
  7. Revankar C, Cimino D, Sklar L, Arterburn J, Prossnitz E. A transmembrane intracellular estrogen receptor mediates rapid cell signaling. Science. 2005;307:1625-30 pubmed
    ..Thus, GPR30 represents an intracellular transmembrane estrogen receptor that may contribute to normal estrogen physiology as well as pathophysiology.
  8. Jankowski M, Rachelska G, Donghao W, McCann S, Gutkowska J. Estrogen receptors activate atrial natriuretic peptide in the rat heart. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:11765-70 pubmed
    In this study, semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) mRNAs are developmentally regulated in the rat heart...
  9. Kim K, Toomre D, Bender J. Splice isoform estrogen receptors as integral transmembrane proteins. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:4415-23 pubmed publisher
    ..On ligand engagement, an N-terminus-truncated splice isoform of estrogen receptor (ER) ?, ER46, triggers membrane-initiated signals, resulting in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) ..

More Information


  1. Riancho J, García Ibarbia C, Gravani A, Raine E, Rodriguez Fontenla C, Soto Hermida A, et al. Common variations in estrogen-related genes are associated with severe large-joint osteoarthritis: a multicenter genetic and functional study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2010;18:927-33 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to explore the association of two common polymorphisms within the aromatase (CYP19A1) and estrogen receptor (ER) alpha (ESR1) genes with severe OA of the lower limbs...
  2. Engdahl C, Jochems C, Windahl S, Börjesson A, Ohlsson C, Carlsten H, et al. Amelioration of collagen-induced arthritis and immune-associated bone loss through signaling via estrogen receptor alpha, and not estrogen receptor beta or G protein-coupled receptor 30. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:524-33 pubmed publisher
    ..via the nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs) ERalpha or ERbeta or via the recently proposed transmembrane estrogen receptor G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR-30)...
  3. Ishii H, Kobayashi M, Sakuma Y. Alternative promoter usage and alternative splicing of the rat estrogen receptor alpha gene generate numerous mRNA variants with distinct 5'-ends. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;118:59-69 pubmed publisher
    The 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) gene plays an important role in determining tissue-specific expression...
  4. Roa J, Vigo E, Castellano J, Gaytan F, Garcia Galiano D, Navarro V, et al. Follicle-stimulating hormone responses to kisspeptin in the female rat at the preovulatory period: modulation by estrogen and progesterone receptors. Endocrinology. 2008;149:5783-90 pubmed publisher
  5. Gorosito S, Lorenzo A, Cambiasso M. Estrogen receptor alpha is expressed on the cell-surface of embryonic hypothalamic neurons. Neuroscience. 2008;154:1173-7 pubmed publisher
    ..cascades; however, no agreement has been reached on the nature and precise location of the putative estrogen receptor (ER) responsible for these rapid effects...
  6. Gonzalez M, Reyes R, Damas C, Alonso R, Bello A. Oestrogen receptor alpha and beta in female rat pituitary cells: an immunochemical study. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008;155:857-68 pubmed
    ..However, the localization of ERalpha and ERbeta in the RER and SV suggest a different translational and/or post-translational pathway, which could be involved in non-genomic mechanisms. ..
  7. Mehra R, Sharma K, Nyakas C, Vij U. Estrogen receptor alpha and beta immunoreactive neurons in normal adult and aged female rat hippocampus: a qualitative and quantitative study. Brain Res. 2005;1056:22-35 pubmed
    We have studied the distribution pattern and levels of expression of two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERalpha and ERbeta, in the normal adult (n = 10) and the aged (n = 10) female rat hippocampus with the objective to establish ..
  8. Stirone C, Duckles S, Krause D, Procaccio V. Estrogen increases mitochondrial efficiency and reduces oxidative stress in cerebral blood vessels. Mol Pharmacol. 2005;68:959-65 pubmed
    ..b>Estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) was detected in mitochondria by immunoblot and confocal imaging of intact vessels...
  9. Longo M, Brama M, Marino M, Bernardini S, Korach K, Wetsel W, et al. Interaction of estrogen receptor alpha with protein kinase C alpha and c-Src in osteoblasts during differentiation. Bone. 2004;34:100-11 pubmed
    In cultured osteoblasts, protein kinase C (PKC) activity increases and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) binding capacity decreases upon confluence...
  10. Topalli I, Etgen A. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor and estrogen receptor crosstalk mediates hormone-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Brain Res. 2004;1030:116-24 pubmed
    ..This study examined the role of crosstalk between estrogen receptor (ER)alpha and the IGF-I receptor as a critical mediator of hormone- and growth factor-dependent neurite ..
  11. Sandoval K, Witt K. Age and 17?-estradiol effects on blood-brain barrier tight junction and estrogen receptor proteins in ovariectomized rats. Microvasc Res. 2011;81:198-205 pubmed publisher
    ..This examination evaluated BBB TJ and estrogen receptor (ER) protein expression changes in young (8-10 week) and middle-aged (10-12 month) ovariectomized female ..
  12. Stirone C, Duckles S, Krause D. Multiple forms of estrogen receptor-alpha in cerebral blood vessels: regulation by estrogen. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003;284:E184-92 pubmed
    ..In this study, we identified the presence of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) in female rat cerebral blood vessels and localized this receptor to both smooth muscle and ..
  13. Champagne F, Weaver I, Diorio J, Sharma S, Meaney M. Natural variations in maternal care are associated with estrogen receptor alpha expression and estrogen sensitivity in the medial preoptic area. Endocrinology. 2003;144:4720-4 pubmed
    ..We compared levels of ER alpha and ER beta mRNA in the MPOA of lactating High or Low LG mothers as well as in their nonlactating, female ..
  14. Sosa L, Gutierrez S, Petiti J, Palmeri C, Mascanfroni I, Soaje M, et al. 17?-Estradiol modulates the prolactin secretion induced by TRH through membrane estrogen receptors via PI3K/Akt in female rat anterior pituitary cell culture. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;302:E1189-97 pubmed publisher
    ..modulator of prolactin (PRL) secretion, the aim of the present study was to analyze the role of membrane estradiol receptor-? (mER?) in the regulatory effect of this hormone on the PRL secretion induced by thyrotropin-releasing ..
  15. Hart S, Snyder M, Smejkalova T, Woolley C. Estrogen mobilizes a subset of estrogen receptor-alpha-immunoreactive vesicles in inhibitory presynaptic boutons in hippocampal CA1. J Neurosci. 2007;27:2102-11 pubmed
    ..electron microscopic immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting to show that estrogen receptor-alpha is associated with clusters of vesicles in perisomatic inhibitory boutons in hippocampal CA1 and that ..
  16. Mannella P, Brinton R. Estrogen receptor protein interaction with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase leads to activation of phosphorylated Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in the same population of cortical neurons: a unified mechanism of estrogen action. J Neurosci. 2006;26:9439-47 pubmed determine whether E2 neuroprotective mechanisms are mediated by a unified signaling cascade activated by estrogen receptor (ER)-PI3K interaction within the same population of neurons or whether E2 activation of extracellular signal-..
  17. Jin S, Hong S, Yang H, Park S, Yoo M, Lee H, et al. Estrogen receptor-alpha gene haplotype is associated with primary knee osteoarthritis in Korean population. Arthritis Res Ther. 2004;6:R415-21 pubmed
    ..48; P = 0.003). Although the number OA patients studied is small, the present study shows that ER-alpha gene haplotype may be associated with primary knee OA, and genetic variations in the ER-alpha gene may be involved in OA. ..
  18. Kazi A, Koos R. Estrogen-induced activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor expression, and edema in the uterus are mediated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Endocrinology. 2007;148:2363-74 pubmed
    ..we showed that estrogen regulation of VEGF expression in the rat uterus involves rapid recruitment of both estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha to the VEGF promoter...
  19. Kalita K, Szymczak S, Kaczmarek L. Non-nuclear estrogen receptor beta and alpha in the hippocampus of male and female rats. Hippocampus. 2005;15:404-12 pubmed
    ..ERalpha was localized to the nucleus more so than ERbeta, yet not without an extranuclear component. Our results suggest that cytoplasmic estrogen receptors may play an important role in hippocampal physiology. ..
  20. Heberden C, Reine F, Grosse B, Henry C, Zagar Y, Chaumaz G, et al. Detection of a raft-located estrogen receptor-like protein distinct from ER alpha. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2006;38:376-91 pubmed
    ..of binding sites in the membranes, by incubating them with antibodies directed against different domains of ER alpha, and by flow cytometry analysis...
  21. Zhang Q, Han D, Wang R, Dong Y, Yang F, Vadlamudi R, et al. C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP)-mediated degradation of hippocampal estrogen receptor-alpha and the critical period hypothesis of estrogen neuroprotection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E617-24 pubmed publisher
    ..following long-term E2 deprivation (LTED), and this effect was associated with a significant decrease of estrogen receptor-? (ER?) in the hippocampus but not the uterus...
  22. Chen Y, Lee M, Yao H, Hsiao P, Ke F, Hwang J. Crucial role of estrogen receptor-alpha interaction with transcription coregulators in follicle-stimulating hormone and transforming growth factor beta1 up-regulation of steroidogenesis in rat ovarian granulosa cells. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4658-68 pubmed publisher
    This study was to explore estrogen receptor (ER) involvement in FSH and TGFbeta1-stimulated steroidogenesis in rat ovarian granulosa cells...
  23. Stamatakis A, Kalpachidou T, Raftogianni A, Zografou E, Tzanou A, Pondiki S, et al. Rat dams exposed repeatedly to a daily brief separation from the pups exhibit increased maternal behavior, decreased anxiety and altered levels of receptors for estrogens (ERα, ERβ), oxytocin and serotonin (5-HT1A) in their brain. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015;52:212-28 pubmed publisher
  24. Han Y, Li X, Zhou S, Meng G, Xiao Y, Zhang W, et al. 17ß-estradiol antagonizes the down-regulation of ER?/NOS-3 signaling in vascular endothelial dysfunction of female diabetic rats. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50402 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, nitric oxide synthase-3 (NOS-3), Akt, PI3K and estrogen receptor ? (ER?) protein expression in aorta declined in the OVS group...
  25. Pooya S, Blaise S, Moreno Garcia M, Giudicelli J, Alberto J, Guéant Rodriguez R, et al. Methyl donor deficiency impairs fatty acid oxidation through PGC-1? hypomethylation and decreased ER-?, ERR-?, and HNF-4? in the rat liver. J Hepatol. 2012;57:344-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This link between methyl donor deficiency and epigenomic deregulations of energy metabolism opens new insights into the pathogenesis of fatty liver disease, in particular, in relation to the fetal programming hypothesis. ..
  26. Spiteri T, Ogawa S, Musatov S, Pfaff D, Agmo A. The role of the estrogen receptor ? in the medial preoptic area in sexual incentive motivation, proceptivity and receptivity, anxiety, and wheel running in female rats. Behav Brain Res. 2012;230:11-20 pubmed publisher
    ..infusion in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of a viral vector carrying either a shRNA directed against the estrogen receptor ? (ER?) or luciferase...
  27. Hogg M, Vavra A, Banerjee M, Martinez J, Jiang Q, Keefer L, et al. The role of estrogen receptor ? and ? in regulating vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation is based on sex. J Surg Res. 2012;173:e1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of estrogen receptor (ER) in mediating proliferation in male and female VSMC...
  28. Isgor C, Watson S. Estrogen receptor alpha and beta mRNA expressions by proliferating and differentiating cells in the adult rat dentate gyrus and subventricular zone. Neuroscience. 2005;134:847-56 pubmed
    ..We found an extensive colocalization of estrogen receptor alpha with both markers in the dentate gyrus and only with Ki-67 in the subventricular zone...
  29. Bai Z, Gust R. Breast cancer, estrogen receptor and ligands. Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 2009;342:133-49 pubmed publisher
    This review emphasizes the relationship of breast cancer, estrogen receptor and ligands, especially the centrality of the estrogen receptor, which mediates on one hand the hormone-induced gene transcription and on the other hand the anti-..
  30. Tabatadze N, Smejkalova T, Woolley C. Distribution and posttranslational modification of synaptic ER? in the adult female rat hippocampus. Endocrinology. 2013;154:819-30 pubmed publisher
    ..biochemical methods to investigate the distribution, posttranslational modification, and E2 regulation of estrogen receptor-? (ER?) in synaptosomal fractions isolated by differential centrifugation from the adult female rat ..
  31. Ray S, Xu F, Wang H, Das S. Cooperative control via lymphoid enhancer factor 1/T cell factor 3 and estrogen receptor-alpha for uterine gene regulation by estrogen. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:1125-40 pubmed publisher
    Accumulating evidence indicates that estrogen regulates diverse but interdependent signaling pathways via estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent and -independent mechanisms...
  32. Goyal H, Braden T, Williams C, Dalvi P, Mansour M, Mansour M, et al. Abnormal morphology of the penis in male rats exposed neonatally to diethylstilbestrol is associated with altered profile of estrogen receptor-alpha protein, but not of androgen receptor protein: a developmental and immunocytochemical study. Biol Reprod. 2004;70:1504-17 pubmed
    ..the study were to determine developmental changes in morphology and expression of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER)alpha in the body of the rat penis exposed neonatally to diethylstilbestrol (DES)...
  33. Vasudevan N, Kia H, Inoue S, Muramatsu M, Pfaff D. Isoform specificity for oestrogen receptor and thyroid hormone receptor genes and their interactions on the NR2D gene promoter. J Neuroendocrinol. 2002;14:836-42 pubmed
    ..Such flexible regulation and crosstalk by nuclear receptor isoforms leads to different transcriptional outcomes and the combinatorial logic may aid neuroendocrine integration. ..
  34. Yu S, Xing X, Jiao K, Sun L, Liu L, Wang M. Changes in the expression of aromatase, estrogen receptor ? and ? in mandibular condylar cartilage of rats induced by disordered occlusion. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13:190 pubmed publisher
    ..The levels of locally synthesized estrogen, ER? and ER? may have limited attribution, if any, to the sex-specific cartilage response. ..
  35. McIntyre M, Kantoff P, Stampfer M, Mucci L, Parslow D, Li H, et al. Prostate cancer risk and ESR1 TA, ESR2 CA repeat polymorphisms. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16:2233-6 pubmed
    Experimental evidence has suggested that estrogen receptor alpha (coded by the gene ESR1) might increase prostate cancer risk, whereas estrogen receptor beta (coded by the gene ESR2) might reduce prostate cancer risk...
  36. Alvaro D, Alpini G, Onori P, Franchitto A, Glaser S, Le Sage G, et al. Alfa and beta estrogen receptors and the biliary tree. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2002;193:105-8 pubmed
    ..This indicates a major involvement of the ERK system in the estrogen modulation of cholangiocyte proliferation. ..
  37. Saberwal G, Sharma M, Balasinor N, Choudhary J, Juneja H. Estrogen receptor, calcium mobilization and rat sperm motility. Mol Cell Biochem. 2002;237:11-20 pubmed
    ..The present study demonstrated presence of estrogen receptor protein and mRNA in the rat sperm by immunofluorescence, western blotting and in situ hybridization respectively...
  38. Jazbutyte V, Kehl F, Neyses L, Pelzer T. Estrogen receptor alpha interacts with 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 in mitochondria. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;384:450-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) is present in the nucleus, the cytosol and in mitochondria...
  39. Childs E, Tharakan B, Hunter F, Smythe W. 17beta-estradiol mediated protection against vascular leak after hemorrhagic shock: role of estrogen receptors and apoptotic signaling. Shock. 2010;34:229-35 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Both alpha and beta estrogen receptor agonists inhibited HS-induced hyperpermeability (P < 0.05)...
  40. Puri J, Hutchins B, Bellinger L, Kramer P. Estrogen and inflammation modulate estrogen receptor alpha expression in specific tissues of the temporomandibular joint. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009;7:155 pubmed publisher known to play role in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders and estrogen effects can be mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) alpha present in the TMJ...
  41. Benecke A, Chambon P, Gronemeyer H. Synergy between estrogen receptor alpha activation functions AF1 and AF2 mediated by transcription intermediary factor TIF2. EMBO Rep. 2000;1:151-7 pubmed
    The activation function AF2 in the ligand-binding domain of estrogen receptors ER alpha and ER beta signals through the recruitment of nuclear receptor coactivators...
  42. Dominguez R, Hu E, Zhou M, Baudry M. 17beta-estradiol-mediated neuroprotection and ERK activation require a pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanism involving GRK2 and beta-arrestin-1. J Neurosci. 2009;29:4228-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that E2-mediated neuroprotection and ERK activation involve ERalpha activation of G-protein- and beta-arrestin-mediated mechanisms...
  43. Rajbhandari P, Finn G, Solodin N, Singarapu K, Sahu S, Markley J, et al. Regulation of estrogen receptor ? N-terminus conformation and function by peptidyl prolyl isomerase Pin1. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:445-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Estrogen receptor alpha (ER?), a key driver of growth in the majority of breast cancers, contains an unstructured transactivation domain (AF1) in its N terminus that is a convergence point for growth factor and hormonal activation...
  44. Kudwa A, Harada N, Honda S, Rissman E. Effects of organisational oestradiol on adult immunoreactive oestrogen receptors (alpha and beta) in the male mouse brain. J Neuroendocrinol. 2007;19:767-72 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, although both ERalpha and beta-ir cell numbers are altered by the disruption of the aromatase gene, ERbeta is altered in a more robust and region-specific manner. ..
  45. Jedeon K, Loiodice S, Marciano C, Vinel A, Canivenc Lavier M, Berdal A, et al. Estrogen and bisphenol A affect male rat enamel formation and promote ameloblast proliferation. Endocrinology. 2014;155:3365-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are consistent with the steroid hormones having effect on ameloblasts, raising the issues of the hormonal influence on amelogenesis and possible differences in enamel quality between sexes. ..
  46. Roa J, Vigo E, Castellano J, Gaytan F, Navarro V, Aguilar E, et al. Opposite roles of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ERbeta in the modulation of luteinizing hormone responses to kisspeptin in the female rat: implications for the generation of the preovulatory surge. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1627-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide herein evidence for the specific roles of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ERbeta in the modulation of LH responses to kisspeptin and the generation of the preovulatory ..
  47. Dahlman I, Vaxillaire M, Nilsson M, Lecoeur C, Gu H, Cavalcanti Proença C, et al. Estrogen receptor alpha gene variants associate with type 2 diabetes and fasting plasma glucose. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2008;18:967-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) mediates effects of estrogens on glucose homeostasis...
  48. Chimento A, Sirianni R, Zolea F, Bois C, Delalande C, Ando S, et al. Gper and ESRs are expressed in rat round spermatids and mediate oestrogen-dependent rapid pathways modulating expression of cyclin B1 and Bax. Int J Androl. 2011;34:420-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrated that rat RS express ESR1, ESR2 and Gper...
  49. Ramos J, Varayoud J, Bosquiazzo V, Luque E, Muñoz de Toro M. Cellular turnover in the rat uterine cervix and its relationship to estrogen and progesterone receptor dynamics. Biol Reprod. 2002;67:735-42 pubmed
    ..Proliferation, apoptosis, and progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) expression were evaluated in cycling, pregnant, and postpartum rats...
  50. Thomas A, Bunyan K, Tiidus P. Oestrogen receptor-alpha activation augments post-exercise myoblast proliferation. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2010;198:81-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that oestrogen acts through an OR-mediated mechanism to stimulate myoblast proliferation following exercise, with OR-alpha playing a primary role. ..
  51. Cândido E, Fávaro W, Montico F, Hetzl A, Cagnon V. Senescence and steroid hormone receptor reactivities in accessory sex glands of elderly rats (Sprague-Dawley) following exogenous hormonal therapy. Tissue Cell. 2012;44:227-37 pubmed publisher
  52. Lim S, Orhant Prioux M, Toy W, Tan K, Lim Y. Tyrosine phosphorylation of transcriptional coactivator WW-domain binding protein 2 regulates estrogen receptor ? function in breast cancer via the Wnt pathway. FASEB J. 2011;25:3004-18 pubmed publisher
    ..protein 2 (WBP2) has been demonstrated in different studies to be a tyrosine kinase substrate, to activate estrogen receptor ? (ER?)/progesterone receptor (PR) transcription, and to play a role in breast cancer...
  53. Qi C, Chang J, Zhu Y, Yeldandi A, Rao S, Zhu Y. Identification of protein arginine methyltransferase 2 as a coactivator for estrogen receptor alpha. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:28624-30 pubmed
    In an attempt to isolate cofactors capable of influencing estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) transcriptional activity, we used yeast two-hybrid screening and identified protein arginine methyltransferase 2 (PRMT2) as a new ERalpha-binding ..