elongation factor 2


Gene Symbol: elongation factor 2
Description: eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2
Alias: Ef-2, elongation factor 2
Species: rat
Products:     elongation factor 2

Top Publications

  1. Horman S, Beauloye C, Vertommen D, Vanoverschelde J, Hue L, Rider M. Myocardial ischemia and increased heart work modulate the phosphorylation state of eukaryotic elongation factor-2. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:41970-6 pubmed
    ..eEF2K activity was unchanged by increasing the workload, suggesting that the decrease in eEF2 phosphorylation could result from the activation of an eEF2 phosphatase. ..
  2. Lomonosova Y, Belova S, Mirzoev T, Kozlovskaya I, Shenkman B. Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase activation in M. soleus under 14-day hindlimb unloading of rats. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2017;474:165-167 pubmed publisher
    ..The level of phosphorylation of the translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) and the eEF2 kinase (eEF2k) activity in m. soleus after 14 days of unloading were assessed...
  3. Garcia Rodriguez S, Arguelles S, Llopis R, Murillo M, Machado A, Carreras O, et al. Effect of prenatal exposure to ethanol on hepatic elongation factor-2 and proteome in 21 d old rats: protective effect of folic acid. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003;35:428-37 pubmed
    ..This protective effect of folic acid may be related to its antioxidant properties and suggests that this vitamin may be useful in minimizing the effect of ethanol in the uterus and lactation exposure of the progeny. ..
  4. Dagestad G, Kuipers S, Messaoudi E, Bramham C. Chronic fluoxetine induces region-specific changes in translation factor eIF4E and eEF2 activity in the rat brain. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:2814-8 pubmed
    ..of two major determinants of mRNA translation, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2)...
  5. Arguelles S, Muñoz M, Cano M, Machado A, Ayala A. In vitro and in vivo protection by melatonin against the decline of elongation factor-2 caused by lipid peroxidation: preservation of protein synthesis. J Pineal Res. 2012;53:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The results also show that serum levels of several hormones were affected by CH-induced oxidative stress, which was partially or totally prevented by melatonin. ..
  6. Sagnol S, Yang Y, Bessin Y, Allemand F, Hapkova I, Notarnicola C, et al. Homodimerization of RBPMS2 through a new RRM-interaction motif is necessary to control smooth muscle plasticity. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:10173-84 pubmed publisher
  7. Hizli A, Chi Y, Swanger J, Carter J, Liao Y, Welcker M, et al. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) by cyclin A-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 regulates its inhibition by eEF2 kinase. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:596-604 pubmed publisher
    ..One mechanism that inhibits elongation is phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) on threonine 56 (T56) by eEF2 kinase (eEF2K)...
  8. Bagaglio D, Hait W. Role of calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of elongation factor 2 in the proliferation of rat glial cells. Cell Growth Differ. 1994;5:1403-8 pubmed
    ..Previously, we have shown that CaM-dependent protein kinase III phosphorylates elongation factor 2 (EF-2) in proliferating, C6 glioma cells but not in normal white matter, a tissue rich in nonproliferating ..
  9. Kohno K, Uchida T, Ohkubo H, Nakanishi S, Nakanishi T, Fukui T, et al. Amino acid sequence of mammalian elongation factor 2 deduced from the cDNA sequence: homology with GTP-binding proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:4978-82 pubmed
    Complementary DNA clones, pHEW1 and pRE2, coding for hamster and rat polypeptide chain elongation factor 2 (EF-2), respectively, were isolated and sequenced...

More Information


  1. Ergen K, Bektaş M, Gokce S, Nurten R. Endogenous ADP-ribosylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 and its 32 kDa tryptic fragment. Biocell. 2007;31:61-6 pubmed
    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) can undergo ADP-ribosylation in the absence of diphtheria toxin...
  2. Oleinikov A, Jokhadze G, Alakhov YuB -. Primary structure of rat liver elongation factor 2 deduced from the cDNA sequence. FEBS Lett. 1989;248:131-6 pubmed
    A number of cDNA clones in summary encoding 700 amino acid residues from the N-end of rat liver elongation factor 2 (EF-2) and including 49 nucleotides of the 5'-untranslated mRNA region have been obtained...
  3. Garcia L, O Loghlen A, Martin M, Burda J, Salinas M. Does phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor eEF2 regulate protein synthesis in ischemic preconditioning?. J Neurosci Res. 2004;77:292-8 pubmed
    ..Res. 28:1237-1243). To address potential regulation of the elongation step by changes in eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) phosphorylation with and without acquired ischemic tolerance (IT), Wistar rats were preconditioned ..
  4. Voorhees R, Ramakrishnan V. Structural basis of the translational elongation cycle. Annu Rev Biochem. 2013;82:203-36 pubmed publisher
  5. Robinson E, Henriksen O, Maxwell E. Elongation factor 2. Amino acid sequence at the site of adenosine diphosphate ribosylation. J Biol Chem. 1974;249:5088-93 pubmed
  6. Bektas M, Nurten R, Gurel Z, Sayers Z, Bermek E. Interactions of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 with actin: a possible link between protein synthetic machinery and cytoskeleton. FEBS Lett. 1994;356:89-93 pubmed
    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (EF-2) was shown to bind to F-actin as assayed by co-sedimentation. In the presence of guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S) binding was increased fourfold...
  7. Jager D, Seliger C, Redpath N, Friedrich I, Silber R, Pönicke K, et al. Heterogeneity of cardiac rat and human elongation factor 2. Electrophoresis. 2000;21:2729-36 pubmed
    b>Elongation factor 2 (EF-2) catalyses the last step of the elongation cycle, translocation, in the course of protein biosynthesis...
  8. Grønli J, Dagestad G, Milde A, Murison R, Bramham C. Post-transcriptional effects and interactions between chronic mild stress and acute sleep deprivation: regulation of translation factor and cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein phosphorylation. Behav Brain Res. 2012;235:251-62 pubmed publisher
    ..weeks of CMS, phosphorylation of two key translation factors, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and elongation factor 2 (eEF2), was enhanced in the prefrontal cortex, but unchanged in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus...
  9. Blake C, Brown L, Duncan M, Hunsucker S, Helmke S. Estrogen regulation of the rat anterior pituitary gland proteome. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2005;230:800-7 pubmed
    ..g., eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2, ERp57, ERp29, Hsc70-ps1, calreticulin, coatomer delta subunit, and secretogranin II) and of some metabolic ..
  10. Yan L, Nairn A, Palfrey H, Brady M. Glucose regulates EF-2 phosphorylation and protein translation by a protein phosphatase-2A-dependent mechanism in INS-1-derived 832/13 cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:18177-83 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that modulation of extracellular glucose impacts protein translation rate in beta cells at least in part through regulation of the elongation step, via phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of EF-2. ..
  11. Nairn A, Palfrey H. Identification of the major Mr 100,000 substrate for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III in mammalian cells as elongation factor-2. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:17299-303 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that intracellular Ca2+ inhibits protein synthesis in mammalian cells via CaM-dependent protein kinase III-catalyzed phosphorylation of EF-2. ..
  12. Tang S, He W, Xu H, Liu W, Ruan K. Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 can bind to the synthetic oligoribonucleotide that mimics sarcin/ricin domain of rat 28S ribosomal RNA. Mol Cell Biochem. 2001;223:117-21 pubmed
    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to P site by binding to the ribosome...
  13. Jäger D, Werdan K, Muller Werdan U. Endogenous ADP-ribosylation of elongation factor-2 by interleukin-1?. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;348:125-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we report the first known activator of endogenous ADP-ribosylation of eEF-2, interleukin-1? (IL-1?). Thereby, systemic inflammatory processes may link to protein synthesis regulation. ..
  14. Boyce M, Py B, Ryazanov A, Minden J, Long K, Ma D, et al. A pharmacoproteomic approach implicates eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase in ER stress-induced cell death. Cell Death Differ. 2008;15:589-99 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that sal induces phosphorylation of the translation elongation factor eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (eEF-2), an event that depends on eEF-2 kinase (eEF-2K)...
  15. He W, Tang S, Liu W. In vitro interaction of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 with synthetic oligoribonucleotide that mimics GTPase domain of rat 28S ribosomal RNA. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2002;34:263-8 pubmed
    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) catalyzed the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the ribosomal A site to the P site...
  16. Adams L, Lemire J, Schwartz S. A systematic analysis of 40 random genes in cultured vascular smooth muscle subtypes reveals a heterogeneity of gene expression and identifies the tight junction gene zonula occludens 2 as a marker of epithelioid "pup" smooth muscle cells a. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1999;19:2600-8 pubmed
  17. Li X, Alafuzoff I, Soininen H, Winblad B, Pei J. Levels of mTOR and its downstream targets 4E-BP1, eEF2, and eEF2 kinase in relationships with tau in Alzheimer's disease brain. FEBS J. 2005;272:4211-20 pubmed
    ..target of rapamycin (mTOR), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), and eEF2 kinase were investigated in relationship with tau in homogenates of the medial temporal ..
  18. Verpelli C, Piccoli G, Zibetti C, Zanchi A, Gardoni F, Huang K, et al. Synaptic activity controls dendritic spine morphology by modulating eEF2-dependent BDNF synthesis. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5830-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the kinase for eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2K) regulates dendritic spine stability and synaptic structure by modulating activity-dependent ..
  19. Woo J, Kim H. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 can be regulated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase in the early stages of myoblast differentiation. Mol Cells. 2006;21:294-301 pubmed
    We have previously reported that phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) is related to the differentiation of chick embryonic muscle cells in culture...
  20. Yin X, Fontoura B, Morimoto T, Carroll R. Cytoplasmic complex of p53 and eEF2. J Cell Physiol. 2003;196:474-82 pubmed
    ..8S rRNA, and the effect of p53 on sensitivity to the translocation inhibitor, Cx, as well as the known molecular interactions of these components in the ribosome suggest involvement of p53 in elongation. ..
  21. Carlberg U, Nilsson A, Nygard O. Functional properties of phosphorylated elongation factor 2. Eur J Biochem. 1990;191:639-45 pubmed
    The effect of phosphorylation on the functional activity of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) was studied using a purified phosphorylated factor...
  22. Miura Y, Kano M, Yamada M, Nishine T, Urano S, Suzuki S, et al. Proteomic study on X-irradiation-responsive proteins and ageing: search for responsible proteins for radiation adaptive response. J Biochem. 2007;142:145-55 pubmed
    ..The relative abundance of elongation factor 2 (EF-2) fragment increased 3 h and reduced 24 h after 0.1 Gy irradiation...
  23. Schwer C, Stoll P, Rospert S, Fitzke E, Schallner N, Bürkle H, et al. Carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 CORM-2 represses global protein synthesis by inhibition of eukaryotic elongation factor eEF2. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013;45:201-12 pubmed publisher
    ..CORM-2 prevented the decrease in the phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) caused by serum...
  24. Achenbach J, Nierhaus K. The mechanics of ribosomal translocation. Biochimie. 2015;114:80-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This review inspects and surveys these achievements. ..
  25. Bottermann K, Reinartz M, Barsoum M, Kötter S, Gödecke A. Systematic Analysis Reveals Elongation Factor 2 and ?-Enolase as Novel Interaction Partners of AKT2. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66045 pubmed publisher
    ..heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70), 78 kDa glucose regulated protein (GRP78), tubulin, GAPDH, ?-enolase and elongation factor 2 (EF2) as AKT2-interacting proteins by a combination of tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry ..
  26. Johnson G, Gotlib J, Haroutunian V, Bierer L, Nairn A, Merril C, et al. Increased phosphorylation of elongation factor 2 in Alzheimer's disease. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1992;15:319-26 pubmed
    b>Elongation factor 2 (EF-2) is a phosphoprotein that mediates the translocation step of elongation during protein synthesis...
  27. Arguelles S, Cano M, Machado A, Ayala A. Effect of aging and oxidative stress on elongation factor-2 in hypothalamus and hypophysis. Mech Ageing Dev. 2011;132:55-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides eEF-2, proteomic analysis shows that several other proteins are affected. ..
  28. Thomson D, Fick C, Gordon S. AMPK activation attenuates S6K1, 4E-BP1, and eEF2 signaling responses to high-frequency electrically stimulated skeletal muscle contractions. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;104:625-32 pubmed publisher
    ..initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4E-BP1), 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1), and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) phosphorylations were assessed by Western blot. AICAR treatment increased (P < or = 0...
  29. Asaki C, Usuda N, Nakazawa A, Kametani K, Suzuki T. Localization of translational components at the ultramicroscopic level at postsynaptic sites of the rat brain. Brain Res. 2003;972:168-76 pubmed
    ..The results also suggest the presence of ER-associated type of translational machinery at the postsynaptic sites. ..
  30. Chen P, Huang Y. CPEB2-eEF2 interaction impedes HIF-1? RNA translation. EMBO J. 2012;31:959-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This study delineates the molecular mechanism of CPEB2-repressed translation and presents a unique model for controlling transcript-selective translation at elongation. ..
  31. McLeod L, Proud C. ATP depletion increases phosphorylation of elongation factor eEF2 in adult cardiomyocytes independently of inhibition of mTOR signalling. FEBS Lett. 2002;531:448-52 pubmed
    ..Only at later times is an effect on mTOR signalling observed. These data suggest that energy depletion leads to inhibition of protein synthesis through phosphorylation of eEF2 independently of inhibition of mTOR signalling. ..
  32. Rose A, Alsted T, Jensen T, Kobberø J, Maarbjerg S, Jensen J, et al. A Ca(2+)-calmodulin-eEF2K-eEF2 signalling cascade, but not AMPK, contributes to the suppression of skeletal muscle protein synthesis during contractions. J Physiol. 2009;587:1547-63 pubmed publisher
    ..It was hypothesized that there would be a coordinated regulation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) phosphorylation by signalling cascades ..
  33. Thomson D, Gordon S. Impaired overload-induced muscle growth is associated with diminished translational signalling in aged rat fast-twitch skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2006;574:291-305 pubmed
    ..signalling intermediates, 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6k), ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), in conjunction with impaired growth ..
  34. Sans M, Xie Q, Williams J. Regulation of translation elongation and phosphorylation of eEF2 in rat pancreatic acini. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;319:144-51 pubmed
    ..At the same time these secretagogues reduced elongation factor 2 (eEF2) phosphorylation, the main factor known to regulate elongation, and increased the phosphorylation of ..
  35. Too C. Differential expression of elongation factor-2, alpha4 phosphoprotein and Cdc5-like protein in prolactin-dependent/independent rat lymphoid cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1997;131:221-32 pubmed
    ..12 as probe, three unique genes were isolated and identified as elongation factor 2 (EF-2), alpha4 phosphoprotein and a Cdc5-like protein...
  36. Vary T, Nairn A, Lynch C. Role of elongation factor 2 in regulating peptide-chain elongation in the heart. Am J Physiol. 1994;266:E628-34 pubmed
    ..The decreased rate of peptide-chain elongation was associated with a 66% reduction in the amount of elongation factor 2 (EF-2)...
  37. Nygard O, Nilsson L. The ribosomal binding site for eukaryotic elongation factor EF-2 contains 5 S ribosomal RNA. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1987;908:46-53 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that the ribosomal binding domain for EF-2 contains the 5 S rRNA X protein L5 particle and that EF-2 is located in close proximity to 5 S rRNA within the EF-2 X GuoPP[CH2]P X ribosome complex. ..
  38. Dervan E, Chen H, Ho S, Brummel N, Schmid J, Toomey D, et al. Protein macroarray profiling of serum autoantibodies in pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:2968-75 pubmed publisher
    ..3; cleft lip and palate transmembrane protein 1; EH-domain-containing protein 1; and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2. All antigens were expressed in the RGC-5 cells and in cDNA from human brain and optic nerve, with the ..
  39. Takei N, Kawamura M, Ishizuka Y, Kakiya N, Inamura N, Namba H, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor enhances the basal rate of protein synthesis by increasing active eukaryotic elongation factor 2 levels and promoting translation elongation in cortical neurons. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26340-8 pubmed publisher
    ..BDNF specifically increased the level of the active, unphosphorylated form of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2)...
  40. Muñoz M, Argüelles S, Cano M, Marotta F, Ayala A. Aging and Oxidative Stress Decrease Pineal Elongation Factor 2: In Vivo Protective Effect of Melatonin in Young Rats Treated With Cumene Hydroperoxide. J Cell Biochem. 2017;118:182-190 pubmed publisher
    We studied the alterations of Elongation Factor 2 (eEF2) in the pineal gland of aged rats as well as the possible protective role of exogenous melatonin on these changes in young rats treated with cumene hydroperoxide (CH), a compound ..