Gene Symbol: Egr1
Description: early growth response 1
Alias: Krox-24, NGFI-A, Ngf1, Ngfi, zif-268, early growth response protein 1, EGR-1, nerve growth factor-induced protein A, transcription factor Zif268, zinc finger protein Krox-24
Species: rat
Products:     Egr1

Top Publications

  1. Man P, Wells T, Carter D. Egr-1-d2EGFP transgenic rats identify transient populations of neurons and glial cells during postnatal brain development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:872-83 pubmed
  2. Morita K. High salt culture conditions inhibit serum- and NGF- but not PMA-induced Egr-1 gene transcription in rat C6 glioma cells. J Mol Neurosci. 2007;33:216-23 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the suppression of serum action on egr-1 gene transcription may be the primary and essential event leading to the down-regulation of egr-1 gene expression under the high salt culture conditions. ..
  3. Goleva E, Hauk P, Hall C, Liu A, Riches D, Martin R, et al. Corticosteroid-resistant asthma is associated with classical antimicrobial activation of airway macrophages. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122:550-9.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..Classical macrophage activation and induction of LPS signaling pathways along with high endotoxin levels detected in BAL fluid from subjects with CR asthma suggest that LPS exposure might contribute to CR asthma. ..
  4. Man P, Carter D. Pineal gland expression of the transcription factor Egr-1 is restricted to a population of glia that are distinct from nestin-immunoreactive cells. J Mol Histol. 2008;39:69-75 pubmed
    ..Cellular localization of Egr-1 has revealed that this factor does not appear to be directly involved in pinealocyte production of melatonin but is required in a sub-set of pineal glia. ..
  5. Rybnikova E, Glushchenko T, Tyulkova E, Baranova K, Samoilov M. Mild hypobaric hypoxia preconditioning up-regulates expression of transcription factors c-Fos and NGFI-A in rat neocortex and hippocampus. Neurosci Res. 2009;65:360-6 pubmed publisher
    Transcription factors c-Fos and NGFI-A encoded by immediate early genes largely participate in the biochemical cascade leading to genomically driven lasting adaptation by neurons to injurious exposures including hypoxia/ischemia...
  6. Svaren J, Sevetson B, Apel E, Zimonjic D, Popescu N, Milbrandt J. NAB2, a corepressor of NGFI-A (Egr-1) and Krox20, is induced by proliferative and differentiative stimuli. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:3545-53 pubmed
    Previous work had identified a corepressor, NAB1, which represses transcriptional activation mediated by NGFI-A (also known as Egr-1, zif268, and Krox24) and Krox20...
  7. Han W, Liu G. EGR-1 decoy ODNs inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia of balloon-injured arteries in rat. Life Sci. 2010;86:234-43 pubmed publisher
  8. Malkani S, Wallace K, Donley M, Rosen J. An egr-1 (zif268) antisense oligodeoxynucleotide infused into the amygdala disrupts fear conditioning. Learn Mem. 2004;11:617-24 pubmed
  9. Dickinson M, Bartelds B, Molema G, Borgdorff M, Boersma B, Takens J, et al. Egr-1 expression during neointimal development in flow-associated pulmonary hypertension. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:2199-209 pubmed publisher
    ..Using microarray analysis, we recently found that the early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) transcription factor is increased in experimental flow-associated end-stage PAH...

More Information


  1. Huang R, Liu C, Fan Y, Mercola D, Adamson E. Egr-1 negatively regulates human tumor cell growth via the DNA-binding domain. Cancer Res. 1995;55:5054-62 pubmed
    Human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, subclone H4, express little or no Egr-1 (Zif/268, Krox 24), an early growth response gene encoding a transcription factor...
  2. Kang J, Kim M, Jang H, Koh K, Yum K, Rhie D, et al. Proximal cyclic AMP response element is essential for exendin-4 induction of rat EGR-1 gene. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;292:E215-22 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it appears that the proximal CRE site is critical and the binding with CREB phosphorylated on Ser(133) is necessary for induction of the EGR-1 transcription by exendin-4. ..
  3. Yu H, Liu Q, Liu G. Positive regulation of the Egr-1/osteopontin positive feedback loop in rat vascular smooth muscle cells by TGF-beta, ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;396:451-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results of the current study show that Egr-1 binding to the OPN promoter is positively regulated by TGF-beta, and that the p38 MAPK, JNK, and ERK pathways are involved in OPN-mediated Egr-1 upregulation. ..
  4. Xie B, Wang C, Zheng Z, Song B, Ma C, Thiel G, et al. Egr-1 transactivates Bim gene expression to promote neuronal apoptosis. J Neurosci. 2011;31:5032-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish Bim as an Egr-1 target gene in neurons, uncovering a novel Egr-1/Bim pathway by which activity deprivation induces neuronal apoptosis. ..
  5. Ning W, Li C, Kaminski N, Feghali Bostwick C, Alber S, Di Y, et al. Comprehensive gene expression profiles reveal pathways related to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14895-900 pubmed
    ..These genes encode for transcription factors (EGR1 and FOS), growth factors or related proteins (CTGF, CYR61, CX3CL1, TGFB1, and PDGFRA), and extracellular matrix ..
  6. McCaffrey T, Fu C, Du B, Eksinar S, Kent K, Bush H, et al. High-level expression of Egr-1 and Egr-1-inducible genes in mouse and human atherosclerosis. J Clin Invest. 2000;105:653-62 pubmed
    ..588 known genes indicated that lesions express unexpectedly high levels of the early growth response gene, Egr-1 (NGFI-A), a zinc-finger transcription factor that modulates a cluster of stress-responsive genes including PDGF and TGF-..
  7. Yu J, Zhang S, Saito K, Williams S, Arimura Y, Ma Y, et al. PTEN regulation by Akt-EGR1-ARF-PTEN axis. EMBO J. 2009;28:21-33 pubmed publisher
    The PTEN tumour suppressor gene is induced by the early growth response 1 (EGR1) transcription factor, which also transactivates p53, p73, and p300/CBP as well as other proapoptotic and anti-cancer genes...
  8. Davis S, Bozon B, Laroche S. How necessary is the activation of the immediate early gene zif268 in synaptic plasticity and learning?. Behav Brain Res. 2003;142:17-30 pubmed
  9. Fritz M, El Rawas R, Salti A, Klement S, Bardo M, Kemmler G, et al. Reversal of cocaine-conditioned place preference and mesocorticolimbic Zif268 expression by social interaction in rats. Addict Biol. 2011;16:273-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel experimental design facilitates the neurobiological investigation of this phenomenon which may be beneficial for human drug users in treatment. ..
  10. Wang B, Chen J, Santiago F, Janes M, Kavurma M, Chong B, et al. Phosphorylation and acetylation of histone H3 and autoregulation by early growth response 1 mediate interleukin 1beta induction of early growth response 1 transcription. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:536-45 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-1beta induction of EGR-1 transcription involves histone H3 phosphorylation, acetylation, and autoregulation by EGR-1. ..
  11. Lowe H, Chesterman C, Khachigian L. Catalytic antisense DNA molecules targeting Egr-1 inhibit neointima formation following permanent ligation of rat common carotid arteries. Thromb Haemost. 2002;87:134-40 pubmed
    ..In contrast, a scrambled version of this ODN had no inhibitory effect. These studies demonstrate for the first time that arterial intimal thickening following artery ligation is critically-dependent on the activation of Egr-1. ..
  12. Lee S, Sadovsky Y, Swirnoff A, Polish J, Goda P, Gavrilina G, et al. Luteinizing hormone deficiency and female infertility in mice lacking the transcription factor NGFI-A (Egr-1). Science. 1996;273:1219-21 pubmed
    The immediate-early transcription factor NGFI-A (also called Egr-1, zif/268, or Krox-24) is thought to couple extracellular signals to changes in gene expression...
  13. Bakalash S, Pham M, Koronyo Y, Salumbides B, Kramerov A, Seidenberg H, et al. Egr1 expression is induced following glatiramer acetate immunotherapy in rodent models of glaucoma and Alzheimer's disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:9033-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In AD-Tg mice, a significant increase in hippocampal EGR1 protein levels was also found in response to GA immunization...
  14. Gashler A, Swaminathan S, Sukhatme V. A novel repression module, an extensive activation domain, and a bipartite nuclear localization signal defined in the immediate-early transcription factor Egr-1. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:4556-71 pubmed
    ..Our work shows that Egr-1 is a functionally complex protein and suggests that it may play different roles in the diverse settings in which it is induced. ..
  15. Huang R, Fan Y, de Belle I, Niemeyer C, Gottardis M, Mercola D, et al. Decreased Egr-1 expression in human, mouse and rat mammary cells and tissues correlates with tumor formation. Int J Cancer. 1997;72:102-9 pubmed
    ..We concluded, therefore, that loss of Egr-1 expression may play a role in the deregulation of normal growth in the tumorigenic process and that Egr-1 acts as a tumor suppressor gene. ..
  16. Iyoda T, Zhang F, Sun L, Hao F, Schmitz Peiffer C, Xu X, et al. Lysophosphatidic acid induces early growth response-1 (Egr-1) protein expression via protein kinase C?-regulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:22635-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides the first evidence that PKC? mediates ERK and JNK activation in the LPA signaling pathway and that this pathway is required for LPA-induced gene regulation as evidenced by Egr-1 expression. ..
  17. Lu Y, Li T, Qureshi H, Han D, Paudel H. Early growth response 1 (Egr-1) regulates phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau in mammalian brain. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:20569-81 pubmed publisher
  18. Milbrandt J. A nerve growth factor-induced gene encodes a possible transcriptional regulatory factor. Science. 1987;238:797-9 pubmed
    ..This clone, NGFI-A, contains three tandemly repeated copies of the 28- to 30-amino acid "zinc finger" domain present in ..
  19. Harja E, Bucciarelli L, Lu Y, Stern D, Zou Y, Schmidt A, et al. Early growth response-1 promotes atherogenesis: mice deficient in early growth response-1 and apolipoprotein E display decreased atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation. Circ Res. 2004;94:333-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Egr-1 broadly regulates expression of molecules critically linked to atherogenesis and lesion progression. ..
  20. Tse D, Takeuchi T, Kakeyama M, Kajii Y, Okuno H, Tohyama C, et al. Schema-dependent gene activation and memory encoding in neocortex. Science. 2011;333:891-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings challenge the concept of distinct fast (hippocampal) and slow (cortical) learning systems, and shed new light on the neural mechanisms of memory assimilation into schemas. ..
  21. Hara S, Arai M, Tomaru K, Doi H, Koitabashi N, Iso T, et al. Prostaglandin F2alpha inhibits SERCA2 gene transcription through an induction of Egr-1 in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Int Heart J. 2008;49:329-42 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Egr-1, as well as Ras, Rac, and p38 MAPK, plays a crucial role in the repression of SERCA2 gene expression during PGF(2alpha) -induced cardiac hypertrophy. ..
  22. Garnett K, Chapman P, Chambers J, Waddell I, Boam D. Differential gene expression between Zucker Fatty rats and Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats: a potential role for the immediate-early gene Egr-1 in regulation of beta cell proliferation. J Mol Endocrinol. 2005;35:13-25 pubmed
    ..Our studies have revealed a role for Egr-1 and suggest that reduced Egr-1 gene expression may contribute to decreased beta-cell proliferation and the consequent beta-cell failure observed in the later stages of type 2 diabetes. ..
  23. Zangenehpour S, Chaudhuri A. Differential induction and decay curves of c-fos and zif268 revealed through dual activity maps. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;109:221-5 pubmed
    ..The data presented here can be used in the design of future studies employing double-label mapping of neural activation following a compound stimulus. ..
  24. Spektor B, Miller D, Hollingsworth Z, Kaneko Y, Solano S, Johnson J, et al. Differential D1 and D2 receptor-mediated effects on immediate early gene induction in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;102:118-28 pubmed
    ..Understanding the functional bases for these effects may further elucidate the complex pathophysiology of Huntington's disease. ..
  25. Wang S, Teng W, Gao Y, Fan C, Zhang H, Shan Z. Early levothyroxine treatment on maternal subclinical hypothyroidism improves spatial learning of offspring in rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 2012;24:841-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein levels of early growth response protein 1 (Egr1), activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), Ras-proximate-1 (Rap1), p-..
  26. Ahmadiantehrani S, Ron D. Dopamine D2 receptor activation leads to an up-regulation of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor via G??-Erk1/2-dependent induction of Zif268. J Neurochem. 2013;125:193-204 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that D2R activation induces a G??- and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-dependent increase in the level of Zif268, which functions to directly up-regulate the expression of GDNF. ..
  27. Luo Y, Lathia J, Mughal M, Mattson M. SDF1alpha/CXCR4 signaling, via ERKs and the transcription factor Egr1, induces expression of a 67-kDa form of glutamic acid decarboxylase in embryonic hippocampal neurons. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:24789-800 pubmed publisher
    ..SDF1alpha rapidly induces the expression of the early growth response gene Egr1, a transcription factor involved in activity-dependent neuronal responses, in a concentration-dependent manner...
  28. Chen Z, Kim H, Sciurba F, Lee S, Feghali Bostwick C, Stolz D, et al. Egr-1 regulates autophagy in cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3316 pubmed publisher
    ..The induction of autophagy at early stages of COPD progression suggests novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of cigarette smoke induced lung injury. ..
  29. Farivar A, Delgado M, McCourtie A, Barnes A, Verrier E, Mulligan M. Crosstalk between thrombosis and inflammation in lung reperfusion injury. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81:1061-7 pubmed
  30. Birt J, Nabli H, Stilley J, Windham E, Frazier S, Sharpe Timms K. Elevated peritoneal fluid TNF-? incites ovarian early growth response factor 1 expression and downstream protease mediators: a correlation with ovulatory dysfunction in endometriosis. Reprod Sci. 2013;20:514-23 pubmed publisher
    ..identified 22 differentially expressed genes, including transiently expressed early growth response factor 1 (Egr1). The Egr1 regulates gene requisites for ovulation...
  31. Gheidi A, Azzopardi E, Adams A, Marrone D. Experience-dependent persistent expression of zif268 during rest is preserved in the aged dentate gyrus. BMC Neurosci. 2013;14:100 pubmed publisher
  32. Davis W, Chen Z, Ile K, Tew K. Reciprocal regulation of expression of the human adenosine 5'-triphosphate binding cassette, sub-family A, transporter 2 (ABCA2) promoter by the early growth response-1 (EGR-1) and Sp-family transcription factors. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:1097-107 pubmed
  33. Moreno J, Kurita M, Holloway T, Lopez J, Cadagan R, Martinez Sobrido L, et al. Maternal influenza viral infection causes schizophrenia-like alterations of 5-HT?A and mGlu? receptors in the adult offspring. J Neurosci. 2011;31:1863-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Identifying a biochemical alteration that parallels the behavioral changes observed in a mouse model of prenatal viral infection may facilitate targeting therapies for treatment and prevention of schizophrenia. ..
  34. Darbinian N, Darbinyan A, Czernik M, Peruzzi F, Khalili K, Reiss K, et al. HIV-1 Tat inhibits NGF-induced Egr-1 transcriptional activity and consequent p35 expression in neural cells. J Cell Physiol. 2008;216:128-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations ascribe a role for Tat in altering p35 expression and its activity that affects phosphorylation of proteins involved in neuronal cell survival. ..
  35. Vollmann H, Wölfel S, Ohneseit P, Stransky E, Vonthein R, Wick W, et al. Differential expression of egr1 and activation of microglia following irradiation in the rat brain. Strahlenther Onkol. 2007;183:248-55 pubmed
    Little is known about the immediate effects of whole-brain gamma-irradiation. The authors hypothesize that Egr1 as an immediate early gene and microglia both participate in early reactions...
  36. Yoshida O, Yamane M, Yamamoto S, Okazaki M, Toyooka S, Oto T, et al. Impact of prolonged cold preservation on the graft function and gene expression levels in an experimental lung transplantation model. Surg Today. 2013;43:81-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Early growth response-1 (EGR1) drives the expression of inflammatory mediators and has an important role in IRI...
  37. Bilban M, Bach F, Otterbein S, Ifedigbo E, d Avila J, Esterbauer H, et al. Carbon monoxide orchestrates a protective response through PPARgamma. Immunity. 2006;24:601-10 pubmed
  38. de Mestre A, Khachigian L, Santiago F, Staykova M, Hulett M. Regulation of inducible heparanase gene transcription in activated T cells by early growth response 1. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:50377-85 pubmed
    ..supershift experiments have identified a 4-bp motif that binds the transcription factor early growth response-1 (Egr1) and is critical in regulating inducible HPSE gene transcription...
  39. Adams K, Kletsov S, Lamm R, Elman J, Mullenbrock S, Cooper G. Role for Egr1 in the Transcriptional Program Associated with Neuronal Differentiation of PC12 Cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0170076 pubmed publisher
    ..induction of all Egr family member transcripts, but a corresponding induction of protein was detected for only Egr1 and 2...
  40. Matsunoshita Y, Ijiri K, Ishidou Y, Nagano S, Yamamoto T, Nagao H, et al. Suppression of osteosarcoma cell invasion by chemotherapy is mediated by urokinase plasminogen activator activity via up-regulation of EGR1. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16234 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that low dose anti-tumour agents up-regulate early growth response 1 (EGR1) expression...
  41. Chan I, Lee D, Ho O, Wong E, Lam Y, Tang N, et al. High-level expression of early growth response-1 and association of polymorphism with total IgE and atopy in allergic rhinitis adults. Clin Chim Acta. 2010;411:67-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed high levels of Egr-1 mRNA expression and demonstrated a significant association of polymorphism with increased plasma total IgE and atopy in AR patients. It may be useful to explore the pharmacogenetics of Egr-1 inhibitors. ..
  42. Boon K, Bailey N, Yang J, Steel M, Groshong S, Kervitsky D, et al. Molecular phenotypes distinguish patients with relatively stable from progressive idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5134 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that molecular signatures from lung parenchyma at the time of diagnosis could prove helpful in predicting the likelihood of disease progression or possibly understanding the biological activity of IPF. ..
  43. Royer A, van Veen T, Le Bouter S, Marionneau C, Griol Charhbili V, Leoni A, et al. Mouse model of SCN5A-linked hereditary Lenègre's disease: age-related conduction slowing and myocardial fibrosis. Circulation. 2005;111:1738-46 pubmed
    ..and real-time PCR, we identified in Scn5a+/- mice an age-related upregulation of genes encoding Atf3 and Egr1 transcription factors...
  44. Mueller L, Broering D, Meyer J, Vashist Y, Goettsche J, Wilms C, et al. The induction of the immediate-early-genes Egr-1, PAI-1 and PRL-1 during liver regeneration in surgical models is related to increased portal flow. J Hepatol. 2002;37:606-12 pubmed
    ..Increased portal flow after PBL and PH was associated with induction of Egr-1, PAI-1 and PRL-1. Thus, haemodynamic changes affect the molecular immediate-early response during liver regeneration. ..
  45. Lonergan M, Gafford G, Jarome T, Helmstetter F. Time-dependent expression of Arc and zif268 after acquisition of fear conditioning. Neural Plast. 2010;2010:139891 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that altered Arc and zif268 expression are related to neural plasticity during the formation of fear memory. ..
  46. Aydin Abidin S, Trippe J, Funke K, Eysel U, Benali A. High- and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation differentially activates c-Fos and zif268 protein expression in the rat brain. Exp Brain Res. 2008;188:249-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study demonstrating that cortical zif268 and c-Fos expression can be specifically modulated by acute rTMS depending on the pattern of stimulation applied. ..
  47. Chang J, Wendt T, Qu W, Kong L, Zou Y, Schmidt A, et al. Oxygen deprivation triggers upregulation of early growth response-1 by the receptor for advanced glycation end products. Circ Res. 2008;102:905-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify RAGE as a master regulator of tissue stress elicited by hypoxia and highlight this receptor as a central therapeutic target to suppress the tissue injury-provoking effects of oxygen deprivation. ..
  48. Wu H, Lei S, Yuan J, Liu X, Zhang D, Gu X, et al. Ischemic postconditioning downregulates Egr-1 expression and attenuates postischemic pulmonary inflammatory cytokine release and tissue injury in rats. J Surg Res. 2013;181:204-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, downregulation of Egr-1 expression might represent one of the major mechanisms whereby IPostC confers protection against pulmonary IR insult. ..
  49. Zhang Y, Shi G, Tang Z, Zheng J, Li W, Guo F, et al. Effects of N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and Egr-1 expression in rat. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2006;38:435-41 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these results suggest that the protective effect of F2 on ischemia/reperfusion- or hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced myocardial injury might be partly mediated by downregulating Egr-1 expression. ..
  50. Jouvert P, Revel M, Lazaris A, Aunis D, Langley K, Zwiller J. Activation of the cGMP pathway in dopaminergic structures reduces cocaine-induced EGR-1 expression and locomotor activity. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10716-25 pubmed
    ..e., locomotor activity). These effects were again reversed by previous injection of the selective PKG inhibitor. The current data suggest that NO and the neuropeptide CNP are potential regulators of cocaine-related effects on behavior. ..
  51. Midgley V, Khachigian L. Fibroblast growth factor-2 induction of platelet-derived growth factor-C chain transcription in vascular smooth muscle cells is ERK-dependent but not JNK-dependent and mediated by Egr-1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:40289-95 pubmed
    ..These findings thus demonstrate that PDGF-C transcription, activated by FGF-2, is mediated by Egr-1 and its upstream kinase ERK. ..
  52. Mayer S, Muller I, Mannebach S, Endo T, Thiel G. Signal transduction of pregnenolone sulfate in insulinoma cells: activation of Egr-1 expression involving TRPM3, voltage-gated calcium channels, ERK, and ternary complex factors. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:10084-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data show that pregnenolone sulfate induces a signaling cascade in insulinoma cells that is very similar to the signaling cascade induced by glucose in ?-cells. ..
  53. Aggeli I, Beis I, Gaitanaki C. ERKs and JNKs mediate hydrogen peroxide-induced Egr-1 expression and nuclear accumulation in H9c2 cells. Physiol Res. 2010;59:443-54 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, further studies are required to elucidate the specific physiological role of Egr-1 regarding the modulation of gene expression and determination of cell fate. ..