Gene Symbol: Egf
Description: epidermal growth factor
Alias: pro-epidermal growth factor
Species: rat
Products:     Egf

Top Publications

  1. Martinez R, Gomes F. Neuritogenesis induced by thyroid hormone-treated astrocytes is mediated by epidermal growth factor/mitogen-activated protein kinase-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways and involves modulation of extracellular matrix proteins. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:49311-8 pubmed
    ..Treatment of astrocytes with epidermal growth factor (EGF) yielded similar results, suggesting that this growth factor might mediate T3-induced neuritogenesis...
  2. Sasagawa S, Ozaki Y, Fujita K, Kuroda S. Prediction and validation of the distinct dynamics of transient and sustained ERK activation. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:365-73 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the Ras and Rap1 systems capture the temporal rate and concentration of growth factors, and encode these distinct physical properties into transient and sustained ERK activation, respectively. ..
  3. Chen L, Hodges R, Funaki C, Zoukhri D, Gaivin R, Perez D, et al. Effects of alpha1D-adrenergic receptors on shedding of biologically active EGF in freshly isolated lacrimal gland epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;291:C946-56 pubmed
    Transactivation of EGF receptors by G protein-coupled receptors is a well-known phenomenon. This process involves the ectodomain shedding of growth factors in the EGF family by matrix metalloproteinases...
  4. Kao S, Jaiswal R, Kolch W, Landreth G. Identification of the mechanisms regulating the differential activation of the mapk cascade by epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor in PC12 cells. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:18169-77 pubmed
    In PC12 cells, epidermal growth factor (EGF) transiently stimulates the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, ERK1 and ERK2, and provokes cellular proliferation...
  5. Yukawa M, Fujimori T, Hirayama D, Idei Y, Ajiki T, Kawai K, et al. Expression of oncogene products and growth factors in early gallbladder cancer, advanced gallbladder cancer, and chronic cholecystitis. Hum Pathol. 1993;24:37-40 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that various oncogenes may have significant roles in gallbladder cancer and that collagen synthesis is reduced by epidermal growth factor and enhanced by transforming growth factor-beta. ..
  6. Santa Maria P, Redmond S, Atlas M, Ghassemifar R. The role of epidermal growth factor in the healing tympanic membrane following perforation in rats. J Mol Histol. 2010;41:309-14 pubmed publisher
    Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) has been identified as playing a critical role in the wound healing process...
  7. Lee C, Hung H, Hung P, Shieh Y. Epidermal growth factor receptor regulates beta-catenin location, stability, and transcriptional activity in oral cancer. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:64 pubmed publisher
    ..b>EGF treatment increased phosphorylation of beta-catenin (tyrosine) and GSK-3beta(Ser-(9), resulting in a loss of beta-..
  8. Yang S, Nugent M, Panchenko M. EGF antagonizes TGF-beta-induced tropoelastin expression in lung fibroblasts via stabilization of Smad corepressor TGIF. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008;295:L143-51 pubmed publisher
    ..tropoelastin mRNA levels in lung fibroblasts through transactivation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR)/Mek/Erk pathway, which is dependent on the NE-initiated release of soluble EGFR ligands...
  9. Yun C, Boggon T, Li Y, Woo M, Greulich H, Meyerson M, et al. Structures of lung cancer-derived EGFR mutants and inhibitor complexes: mechanism of activation and insights into differential inhibitor sensitivity. Cancer Cell. 2007;11:217-27 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, direct binding measurements show that gefitinib binds 20-fold more tightly to the L858R mutant than to the wild-type enzyme. ..

More Information


  1. Arda Pirincci P, Bolkent S. The role of epidermal growth factor in prevention of oxidative injury and apoptosis induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Acta Histochem. 2014;116:167-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on apoptosis, cell proliferation, oxidative stress and the antioxidant system in intestinal injury induced by ..
  2. Miyazaki T, Liu Z, Kawahara A, Minami Y, Yamada K, Tsujimoto Y, et al. Three distinct IL-2 signaling pathways mediated by bcl-2, c-myc, and lck cooperate in hematopoietic cell proliferation. Cell. 1995;81:223-31 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate a novel approach to dissecting signaling pathways regulating cellular proliferation. ..
  3. Soler García A, Rakhmanina N, Mattison P, Ray P. A urinary biomarker profile for children with HIV-associated renal diseases. Kidney Int. 2009;76:207-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that this urinary growth factor profile may be useful in facilitating the diagnosis of HIV-infected children at risk of developing HIVAN when interpreted in the appropriate clinical setting. ..
  4. Zhao H, Patra A, Yeh C, Tanaka Y, Oh B, Dahiya R. Effects of aging on growth factors gene and protein expression in the dorsal and ventral lobes of rat prostate. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;292:482-91 pubmed
    ..To test this hypothesis, TGFbeta1, TGFbeta2 TGFbeta3, TGFbetaR-I, TGFbetaR-II, TGFalpha, EGF, EGFR, KGF and KGFR gene and protein expression were analyzed in dorsal and ventral lobes of aging rat prostates (1,..
  5. Dvorak B, Khailova L, Clark J, Hosseini D, Arganbright K, Reynolds C, et al. Comparison of epidermal growth factor and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor for prevention of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008;47:11-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) have protective effects against intestinal injury...
  6. Schaudies R, Grimes J, Wray H, Koldovsky O. Identification and partial characterization of multiple forms of biologically active EGF in rat milk. Am J Physiol. 1990;259:G1056-61 pubmed
    Milk from lactating Sprague-Dawley rats was assayed for epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like activities...
  7. Reich H, Landolt Marticorena C, Boutros P, John R, Wither J, Fortin P, et al. Molecular markers of injury in kidney biopsy specimens of patients with lupus nephritis. J Mol Diagn. 2011;13:143-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified that the mRNA levels of three transcripts (MMP7, EGF, COL1A1) relate to pathological indices of kidney injury and kidney function at the time of biopsy; these were ..
  8. Shen W, Brown N, Finn P, Dice J, Franch H. Akt and Mammalian target of rapamycin regulate separate systems of proteolysis in renal tubular cells. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17:2414-23 pubmed
    b>EGF suppresses proteolysis via class 1 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in renal tubular cells. EGF also increases the abundance of glycolytic enzymes (e.g...
  9. Kawamata T, Yamaguchi T, Shin ya K, Hori T. Divergence in signaling pathways involved in promotion of cell viability mediated by bFGF, NGF, and EGF in PC12 cells. Neurochem Res. 2003;28:1221-5 pubmed
    ..bFGF) promotes viability of PC12 cells and compared with nerve growth factor (NGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF)...
  10. Lakshmanan J, Fisher D. An inborn error in epidermal growth factor prohormone metabolism in a mouse model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;196:892-901 pubmed
    The C57BL/6J CPK heterozygous breeders secrete in urine a variant EGF-prohormone with a molecular mass of 154 kDa in addition to the normal 165 kDa EGF-prohormone...
  11. Hise M, Salmanullah M, Liu L, Drachenberg C, Papadimitriou J, Rohan R. Control of the epidermal growth factor receptor and its ligands during renal injury. Nephron. 2001;88:71-9 pubmed
    We studied control of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and its ligands during kidney injury, since they may be importantly involved in repair. The folic acid model of renal injury was used in these studies...
  12. Pryczynicz A, Guzinska Ustymowicz K, Kemona A, Czyzewska J. Expression of EGF and EGFR strongly correlates with metastasis of pancreatic ductal carcinoma. Anticancer Res. 2008;28:1399-404 pubmed
    The epidermal growth factor family members: EGF, EGFR and the c-erbB-2(HER-2/neu) gene product have been found to play a role in carcinomas of the stomach, liver, breast, ovary and lungs...
  13. Pyl nik T, Redina O, Smolehskaia S, Ivanova L, Markel A. [Expression of the genes Egf and Egfr in renal tissue of the hypertensive rats of the ISIAH strain]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2012;98:373-80 pubmed
    ..The mRNA content of the epidermal growth factor (Egf) and its receptor (Egfr) genes were studied in the cortical and medullar parts of the kidney of rats with stress ..
  14. Thulesen J, Bor M, Thulesen S, Nexø E, Poulsen S, Jørgensen P. Altered secretion and processing of epidermal growth factor in adrenergic-induced growth of the rat submandibular gland. Regul Pept. 2002;106:105-14 pubmed
    ..tubule (GCT) cells of the submandibular glands represent a major production site for epidermal growth factor (EGF). This study investigates EGF production in the submandibular glands in relation to beta-adrenergic stimulation...
  15. Dvorak B, Halpern M, Holubec H, Williams C, McWilliam D, Dominguez J, et al. Epidermal growth factor reduces the development of necrotizing enterocolitis in a neonatal rat model. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002;282:G156-64 pubmed
    ..milk plays an important protective role against NEC development and is the major source of epidermal growth factor (EGF) for neonates...
  16. Pavlov T, Levchenko V, O Connor P, Ilatovskaya D, Palygin O, Mori T, et al. Deficiency of renal cortical EGF increases ENaC activity and contributes to salt-sensitive hypertension. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24:1053-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Members of the EGF family are important for maintaining transepithelial Na(+) transport, but whether EGF influences ENaC, perhaps ..
  17. Chen Plotkin A, Hu W, Siderowf A, Weintraub D, Goldmann Gross R, Hurtig H, et al. Plasma epidermal growth factor levels predict cognitive decline in Parkinson disease. Ann Neurol. 2011;69:655-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The best candidate was epidermal growth factor (EGF, p < 0.001); many of the other 10 analytes covaried with EGF across samples...
  18. Hudgins W, Orth D, Stromberg K. Variant forms of rat epidermal growth factor present in the urine of nude rats bearing human tumors. Cancer Res. 1988;48:1428-34 pubmed
    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-binding peptides from the urine of tumor patients have been reported to differ in molecular weight and relative hydrophobicity from those of normal individuals...
  19. Fombonne J, Reix S, Rasolonjanahary R, Danty E, Thirion S, Laforge Anglade G, et al. Epidermal growth factor triggers an original, caspase-independent pituitary cell death with heterogeneous phenotype. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:4938-48 pubmed
    ..Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been shown to inhibit division of pituitary somato-lactotrope cells occurring in parallel with EGF-mediated ..
  20. Stork P. Directing NGF's actions: it's a Rap. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:338-9 pubmed
  21. Rafiq K, Hanscom M, Valerie K, Steinberg S, Sabri A. Novel mode for neutrophil protease cathepsin G-mediated signaling: membrane shedding of epidermal growth factor is required for cardiomyocyte anoikis. Circ Res. 2008;102:32-41 pubmed
    ..We also found that matrix metalloproteinase-dependent membrane shedding of heparin-binding EGF was involved in Cat...
  22. Hattermann K, Held Feindt J, Lucius R, Müerköster S, Penfold M, Schall T, et al. The chemokine receptor CXCR7 is highly expressed in human glioma cells and mediates antiapoptotic effects. Cancer Res. 2010;70:3299-308 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas CXCR7 is found on "differentiated" glioma cells, the alternate receptor CXCR4 is also localized on glioma stem-like cells. ..
  23. Khailova L, Dvorak K, Arganbright K, Williams C, Halpern M, Dvorak B. Changes in hepatic cell junctions structure during experimental necrotizing enterocolitis: effect of EGF treatment. Pediatr Res. 2009;66:140-4 pubmed publisher
    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease of premature babies. Previously, we have shown that EGF reduces NEC and that overproduction of hepatic TNF-alpha is associated with intestinal damage...
  24. Vishnoi M, Pandey S, Modi D, Kumar A, Mittal B. Genetic susceptibility of epidermal growth factor +61A>G and transforming growth factor beta1 -509C>T gene polymorphisms with gallbladder cancer. Hum Immunol. 2008;69:360-7 pubmed publisher
    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) play important roles in tumor biology...
  25. Fukamachi K, Matsuoka Y, Ohno H, Hamaguchi T, Tsuda H. Neuronal leucine-rich repeat protein-3 amplifies MAPK activation by epidermal growth factor through a carboxyl-terminal region containing endocytosis motifs. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:43549-52 pubmed
    ..01 ng/ml) of epidermal growth factor (EGF), but the amplification of MAPK phosphorylation by NLRR-3 was no longer observed when the carboxyl-terminal 30 ..
  26. Dznelashvili N, Kasradze D, Tavartkiladze A. [Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and concentrations of epidermal growth factor and melatonin in endometrial carcinoma]. Georgian Med News. 2014;:17-24 pubmed
    ..the research was to study the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) expression, measure Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and melatonin concentrations in patients with endometrial carcinomas...
  27. Guo H, Lee I, Kamar M, Pierce M. N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V expression levels regulate cadherin-associated homotypic cell-cell adhesion and intracellular signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:52412-24 pubmed
    ..Aberrant N-linked beta(1,6) branching that occurs during oncogenesis can, therefore, lessen cell-cell adhesion, contributing to increased cellular motility and invasiveness. ..
  28. Haendeler J, Yin G, Hojo Y, Saito Y, Melaragno M, Yan C, et al. GIT1 mediates Src-dependent activation of phospholipase Cgamma by angiotensin II and epidermal growth factor. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:49936-44 pubmed
    ..GIT1) is a substrate for c-Src that undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation in response to angiotensin II (AngII) and EGF in vascular smooth muscle and 293 cells...
  29. Blanco Prieto S, Vázquez Iglesias L, Rodríguez Girondo M, Barcia Castro L, Fernández Villar A, Botana Rial M, et al. Serum calprotectin, CD26 and EGF to establish a panel for the diagnosis of lung cancer. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0127318 pubmed publisher
    ..Six cancer-associated molecules (HB-EGF, EGF, EGFR, sCD26, VEGF, and Calprotectin) were investigated in this study...
  30. Dominguez J, Vithayathil P, Khailova L, Lawrance C, Samocha A, Jung E, et al. Epidermal growth factor improves survival and prevents intestinal injury in a murine model of pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Shock. 2011;36:381-9 pubmed publisher
    Mortality from pneumonia is mediated, in part, through extrapulmonary causes. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has broad cytoprotective effects, including potent restorative properties in the injured intestine...
  31. Tsujikawa T, Itoh A, Yasuoka T, Fukunaga T, Satoh J, Uda K, et al. Mucosal permeability regulates receptor binding of luminal epidermal growth factor in the adult rat intestine. Int J Mol Med. 2003;11:349-52 pubmed
    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates repair in the damaged intestine, but its role in the normal intestine is not clear...
  32. Lin J, Chen A. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma by curcumin blocks the signaling pathways for PDGF and EGF in hepatic stellate cells. Lab Invest. 2008;88:529-40 pubmed publisher activation of mitogenic signaling for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the major effector cells...
  33. O Keeffe G, Tyers P, Aarsland D, Dalley J, Barker R, Caldwell M. Dopamine-induced proliferation of adult neural precursor cells in the mammalian subventricular zone is mediated through EGF. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:8754-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that this effect involves EGF, but not FGF2...
  34. Hallak H, Moehren G, Tang J, Kaou M, Addas M, Hoek J, et al. Epidermal growth factor-induced activation of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor in rat hepatocytes. Hepatology. 2002;36:1509-18 pubmed
    ..In contrast with the inactivity of IGF-I, epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of the IGF-IR in parallel with EGF receptor phosphorylation...
  35. Cohen Dvashi H, Ben Chetrit N, Russell R, Carvalho S, Lauriola M, Nisani S, et al. Navigator-3, a modulator of cell migration, may act as a suppressor of breast cancer progression. EMBO Mol Med. 2015;7:299-314 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that NAV3 inhibits breast cancer progression by regulating microtubule dynamics, biasing directionally persistent rather than random migration, and inhibiting locomotion of initiated cells. ..
  36. Luetteke N, Qiu T, Fenton S, Troyer K, Riedel R, Chang A, et al. Targeted inactivation of the EGF and amphiregulin genes reveals distinct roles for EGF receptor ligands in mouse mammary gland development. Development. 1999;126:2739-50 pubmed
    Targeted mice lacking functional EGF or amphiregulin (AR) were derived and bred to the TGFalpha-knockout to generate mice lacking various combinations of the three ligands...
  37. Saggi S, Safirstein R, Price P. Cloning and sequencing of the rat preproepidermal growth factor cDNA: comparison with mouse and human sequences. DNA Cell Biol. 1992;11:481-7 pubmed
    ..alternative splicing events do not create frameshift mutations but cause a deletion of one or more of the "EGF-like" repeat units from the ppEGF...
  38. Cao Y, He C, Lu J. [Effects of Wenshen Jianpi Recipe on chronic wound healing in rats]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2005;3:220-4 pubmed
    ..changes and cell cycle of the granulation tissue, and the protein expressions of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) and fibronectin (FN) in the granulation tissue were tested with ..
  39. Hochstrasser T, Ehrlich D, Marksteiner J, Sperner Unterweger B, Humpel C. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and epidermal growth factor are decreased in platelets of Alzheimer patients. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2012;9:982-9 pubmed
    ..Our data show a significant decrease in the levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and of MMP-2 in platelets of AD patients and decreased levels of MMP-2 in MCI...
  40. Saavedra D, Crombet T. CIMAvax-EGF: A New Therapeutic Vaccine for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients. Front Immunol. 2017;8:269 pubmed publisher
    ..CIMAvax-EGF vaccine consists of a chemical conjugate of the EGF with the P64 protein derived from the Meningitis B bacteria and ..
  41. Bruder E, Hoof J, Young J, Raff H. Epidermal growth factor and parathyroid hormone-related peptide mRNA in the mammary gland and their concentrations in milk: effects of postpartum hypoxia in lactating rats. Horm Metab Res. 2008;40:446-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic hypoxia decreased the concentration of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in expressed milk and pup stomach contents and decreased maternal mammary gland EGF mRNA...
  42. Ullian M, Webb J, Chen R, Paul R, Morinelli T. Mechanisms of vascular angiotensin II surface receptor regulation by epidermal growth factor. J Cell Physiol. 2004;200:451-7 pubmed
    We investigated mechanisms by which epidermal growth factor (EGF) reduces angiotensin II (AngII) surface receptor density and stimulated actions in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC)...
  43. Mahimainathan L, Ghosh Choudhury N, Venkatesan B, Danda R, Choudhury G. EGF stimulates mesangial cell mitogenesis via PI3-kinase-mediated MAPK-dependent and AKT kinase-independent manner: involvement of c-fos and p27Kip1. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005;289:F72-82 pubmed
    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent mitogen for mesangial cells. The mechanism by which EGF induces DNA synthesis is not precisely understood. We investigated the role of phosphatidylinositol (PI)3-kinase in regulating mitogenesis...
  44. Harthill J, Pozuelo Rubio M, Milne F, MacKintosh C. Regulation of the 14-3-3-binding protein p39 by growth factors and nutrients in rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. Biochem J. 2002;368:565-72 pubmed
    ..In addition, amino acid starvation induces a CHX- and MG132-sensitive pathway that targets p39 and appears to be distinct from the mechanism of regulation of 4E-BP1 and p70 S6 kinase. ..
  45. LeBedis C, Chen K, Fallavollita L, Boutros T, Brodt P. Peripheral lymph node stromal cells can promote growth and tumorigenicity of breast carcinoma cells through the release of IGF-I and EGF. Int J Cancer. 2002;100:2-8 pubmed
    ..that both lymph node stromal cell lines expressed mRNA transcripts for multiple growth factors, including IGF-I, EGF, HGF and PDGF-alpha, and produced detectable levels of IGF-I, EGF and PDGF-alpha, as assessed by Western blotting...
  46. Leung Hagesteijn C, Hu M, Mahendra A, Hartwig S, Klamut H, Rosenblum N, et al. Integrin-linked kinase mediates bone morphogenetic protein 7-dependent renal epithelial cell morphogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:3648-57 pubmed
    ..We conclude that ILK functions in a BMP7/p38(MAPK)/ATF-2 signaling pathway and stimulates epithelial cell morphogenesis. ..
  47. Tagaya Y, Miura A, Okada S, Ohshima K, Mori M. Nucleobindin-2 is a positive modulator of EGF-dependent signals leading to enhancement of cell growth and suppression of adipocyte differentiation. Endocrinology. 2012;153:3308-19 pubmed publisher
    ..knocked down by short hairpin RNA in cultured CHO cells expressing the human insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors (CHO/IE) and in 3T3-L1 cells...
  48. Lu H, Li J, Pan L, Xue X. Dynamic change of epidermal growth factor in neonatal rat with intestine injury. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:3778-81 pubmed
    To determine whether diminished levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) were present in neo-natal rats with intestinal injury and related with the degree of intestinal injury, so we modeled a model in neo-natal rats of intestinal injury ..
  49. Graziani A, Poteser M, Heupel W, Schleifer H, Krenn M, Drenckhahn D, et al. Cell-cell contact formation governs Ca2+ signaling by TRPC4 in the vascular endothelium: evidence for a regulatory TRPC4-beta-catenin interaction. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4213-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, TRPC4 may adopt divergent, as yet unappreciated functions in endothelial Ca(2+) homeostasis and emerges as a potential key player in endothelial phenotype switching and tuning of cellular growth factor signaling. ..
  50. Makuszewska M, Sokołowska M, Hassmann Poznańska E, Bialuk I, Skotnicka B, Bonda T, et al. Enhanced expression of hepatocyte growth factor in the healing of experimental acute tympanic membrane perforation. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2015;79:987-92 pubmed publisher
    The present study was performed to investigate the expression of hepatocyte (HGF), epidermal (EGF) and vascular endothelial (VEGF) growth factors in the course of healing of experimental tympanic membrane (TM) perforations in rats...
  51. Wong H, Lemoine N. Pancreatic cancer: molecular pathogenesis and new therapeutic targets. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;6:412-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This Review describes some of the important developments and targeted agents for pancreatic cancer that have been tested in clinical trials. ..
  52. Trinh N, Privé A, Kheir L, Bourret J, Hijazi T, Amraei M, et al. Involvement of KATP and KvLQT1 K+ channels in EGF-stimulated alveolar epithelial cell repair processes. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007;293:L870-82 pubmed
    ..Wound healing was suppressed by one-half upon epidermal growth factor (EGF) titration with EGF-antibody (Ab) or erbB1/erbB2 tyrosine-kinase inhibition with AG-1478/AG-825...
  53. Kochupurakkal B, Harari D, Di Segni A, Maik Rachline G, Lyass L, Gur G, et al. Epigen, the last ligand of ErbB receptors, reveals intricate relationships between affinity and mitogenicity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:8503-12 pubmed
    Four ErbB receptors and multiple growth factors sharing an epidermal growth factor (EGF) motif underlie transmembrane signaling by the ErbB family in development and cancer...